Difference between revisions of "Helminthic therapy support groups"

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(History of the helminthic therapy groups: Added the new Helminthic Therapy group on MeWe.)
 
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== General discussion groups==
 
== General discussion groups==
  
* [https://www.facebook.com/groups/htsupport// Helminthic Therapy Support Group] (Facebook) - 6,150 members. A vibrant and friendly community with many knowledgeable and experienced members.
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* [https://www.facebook.com/groups/htsupport// Helminthic Therapy Support Group] (Facebook) - 6,230 members. A vibrant and friendly community with many knowledgeable and experienced members.
* [https://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/helminthictherapy/info Helminthic Therapy Forum] (Yahoo) - 1,990 members. Discussion is via email, and the group is now only used by those who are not on Facebook.  
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* [https://mewe.com/join/helminthictherapy Helminthic Therapy] (MeWe) - a new group for anyone who doesn't use Facebook.
 
* [https://www.reddit.com/r/WormTherapy/ Worm Therapy] (Reddit) - 100 members. Rarely used.
 
* [https://www.reddit.com/r/WormTherapy/ Worm Therapy] (Reddit) - 100 members. Rarely used.
  
 
== Helminth incubation group ==
 
== Helminth incubation group ==
  
* [https://www.facebook.com/groups/678894952216125/ Helminth Incubation Group] (Facebook) - 780 members. A community of helminth growers who are cultivating '''NA''', '''HDC''' and '''TTO'''.  
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* [https://www.facebook.com/groups/678894952216125/ Helminth Incubation Group] (Facebook) - 800 members. A community of helminth growers who are cultivating '''NA''', '''HDC''' and '''TTO'''.  
  
 
<span style="margin-left:10px;">For detailed instructions on how to cultivate NA, HDC and TTO, see [[Helminth_incubation#Helminth incubation methods | '''Helminth incubation methods''']].</span >
 
<span style="margin-left:10px;">For detailed instructions on how to cultivate NA, HDC and TTO, see [[Helminth_incubation#Helminth incubation methods | '''Helminth incubation methods''']].</span >
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The relationship between Smith and Lawrence broke down when Lawrence discovered that Smith was not using his real name in his dealings with the people he approached, nor telling them that he stood to benefit financially from his relationship with them. But, when Lawrence pulled out of the deal, he failed to pay Smith what he was owed, whereupon Smith began a campaign of relentless disparagement of Lawrence and AIT.  
 
The relationship between Smith and Lawrence broke down when Lawrence discovered that Smith was not using his real name in his dealings with the people he approached, nor telling them that he stood to benefit financially from his relationship with them. But, when Lawrence pulled out of the deal, he failed to pay Smith what he was owed, whereupon Smith began a campaign of relentless disparagement of Lawrence and AIT.  
  
Thanks to Smith’s promotional efforts, his Users group had, by then, become the most active helminthic therapy group on Facebook and was increasingly used by clients of AIT as well as those of Worm Therapy, which Smith began to promote in preference to AIT. However, in addition to polarising the community, Smith’s strident partisan position left many members of his Users group feeling uncomfortable, with the result that several of them approached Scott with a request for a new “provider-agnostic” group on Facebook in which the conversation would focus on the therapy itself rather than on those providing helminths. In response, Scott created the [https://www.facebook.com/groups/htsupport/ '''Helminthic Therapy Support group'''] in March 2012 - the first truly independent group run by and for the entire helminthic therapy community.
+
Thanks to Smith’s promotional efforts, his Users group had, by then, become the most active helminthic therapy group on Facebook and was increasingly used by clients of AIT as well as those of Worm Therapy, which Smith began to promote in preference to AIT. However, Smith’s strident partisan position polarised the community and left many members of his Users group feeling uncomfortable, with the result that several of them approached Scott with a request for a new “provider-agnostic” group on Facebook in which the conversation would focus on the therapy itself rather than on those providing helminths. In response, Scott created the [https://www.facebook.com/groups/htsupport/ '''Helminthic Therapy Support group'''] in March 2012 - the first truly independent group run by and for the entire helminthic therapy community.
  
 
A fourth therapeutic helminth species was introduced in 2013 by Don Donahue, a medical doctor from the US who founded [https://biomerestoration.com Biome Restoration] to supply the cysticercoids of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta, known as HDC. Donahue brought in Dellerba - who, by this time, had left AIT - and Judy Chinitz, a nutritionist and long-standing advocate of helminthic therapy, to run the company’s laboratory and customer services department respectively.  
 
A fourth therapeutic helminth species was introduced in 2013 by Don Donahue, a medical doctor from the US who founded [https://biomerestoration.com Biome Restoration] to supply the cysticercoids of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta, known as HDC. Donahue brought in Dellerba - who, by this time, had left AIT - and Judy Chinitz, a nutritionist and long-standing advocate of helminthic therapy, to run the company’s laboratory and customer services department respectively.  
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In March 2014, an enthusiastic user of HDC created the '''Hymenolepis (HDC) User Discussion and Support group''' on Facebook to share experience with the new species but, like several other helminthic therapy groups that were created for specific purposes, this only ever gained a very limited membership and has since been deleted.
 
In March 2014, an enthusiastic user of HDC created the '''Hymenolepis (HDC) User Discussion and Support group''' on Facebook to share experience with the new species but, like several other helminthic therapy groups that were created for specific purposes, this only ever gained a very limited membership and has since been deleted.
  
Smith continued to cause discord within the helminthic therapy community until Facebook discovered that his identity was a fake and, in late 2016, deleted his account. This action removed every shred of evidence from the platform that “Herbert Smith” had ever existed, and the Users group he had created, and once so assiduously nurtured, began to fall into disuse as people turned instead to the [https://www.facebook.com/groups/htsupport/ '''Support group'''].  
+
Smith continued to cause discord within the helminthic therapy community until Facebook discovered that his identity was fake and, in late 2016, deleted his account. This action removed every shred of evidence from the platform that “Herbert Smith” had ever existed, and the Users group he had created, and once so assiduously nurtured, began to fall into disuse as people turned instead to the [https://www.facebook.com/groups/htsupport/ '''Support group'''].  
  
 
With the generous help of an IT technician, Scott created the [https://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminthic_Therapy_Wiki '''Helminthic Therapy wiki'''] at the beginning of 2017 to accommodate all the data he had mined over the previous 7 years from the available science and posts to the [https://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/helminthictherapy/info '''Yahoo forum'''], [https://www.facebook.com/groups/htsupport/ '''Support group'''] and elsewhere. Around the same time, several new [[Helminth providers | '''helminth providers''']] began selling ''individual'' doses of hookworm larvae, thus freeing customers from reliance on the long-term contacts by which AIT and Worm Therapy had previously sold this organism. The combination of easier access to NA with the free availability in the wiki of detailed information about its use, ushered in a new chapter in the story of the therapeutic use of hookworms.
 
With the generous help of an IT technician, Scott created the [https://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminthic_Therapy_Wiki '''Helminthic Therapy wiki'''] at the beginning of 2017 to accommodate all the data he had mined over the previous 7 years from the available science and posts to the [https://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/helminthictherapy/info '''Yahoo forum'''], [https://www.facebook.com/groups/htsupport/ '''Support group'''] and elsewhere. Around the same time, several new [[Helminth providers | '''helminth providers''']] began selling ''individual'' doses of hookworm larvae, thus freeing customers from reliance on the long-term contacts by which AIT and Worm Therapy had previously sold this organism. The combination of easier access to NA with the free availability in the wiki of detailed information about its use, ushered in a new chapter in the story of the therapeutic use of hookworms.
  
Easier access to NA at reasonable prices also greatly reduced activity in a small '''Hookworm Donors group''' that had been created on Yahoo in early 2013 by several Australians to facilitate the sharing of hookworm larvae. This group, which had already become dormant as a result of the disappearance of its owner, was effectively closed in Dec 2019, when Yahoo removed all user content from its groups and reduced them to restricted email lists. This action by Yahoo also stripped the archive of 11,000 posts from the [https://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/helminthictherapy/info '''Helminthic Therapy forum'''], but this group had already been largely abandoned as more people had embraced Facebook, which, unlike Yahoo, had continued to be actively developed.   
+
Easier access to NA at reasonable prices also greatly reduced activity in a small '''Hookworm Donors group''' that had been created on Yahoo in early 2013 by several Australians to facilitate the sharing of hookworm larvae. This group, which had already become dormant as a result of the disappearance of its owner and a loss of interest by its moderators, was effectively closed in Dec 2019, when Yahoo removed all user content from its groups and reduced them to email lists. This action by Yahoo also stripped the archive of 11,000 posts from the [https://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/helminthictherapy/info '''Helminthic Therapy forum'''], and a persistent technical malfunction then prevented group moderators from approving new messages, effectively rendering the group inoperative. It had, however, already been largely abandoned by self-treaters, the vast majority of whom had embraced the Facebook platform, which, unlike Yahoo, has continued to be actively developed.   
  
The groups that exist today are listed at the top of this page. The [https://www.facebook.com/groups/htsupport/ '''Support group'''] on Facebook meets the needs of users of all four helminth species in an atmosphere free from both commercial bias and manipulation by those with personal agendas, while the [https://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/helminthictherapy/info’s '''Yahoo forum's'''] email list, along with a small [https://www.reddit.com/r/WormTherapy/ '''Worm Therapy sub-group'''] on Reddit, provide alternatives for those who prefer not to use Facebook. The more specialised needs of those who are growing their own helminths at home are met by the [https://www.facebook.com/groups/678894952216125/ '''Helminth Incubation group'''] on Facebook. Groups not listed above have either been archived or deleted.  
+
The groups that exist today are listed at the top of this page. The [https://www.facebook.com/groups/htsupport/ '''Support group'''] on Facebook meets the needs of users of all four helminth species in an atmosphere free from both commercial bias and manipulation by those with personal agendas, while the small [https://mewe.com/join/helminthictherapy '''Helminthic Therapy group'''] on MeWe, and the [https://www.reddit.com/r/WormTherapy/ '''Worm Therapy group'''] on Reddit, provide alternatives for those who prefer not to use Facebook. The more specialised needs of those who are growing their own helminths at home are met by the [https://www.facebook.com/groups/678894952216125/ '''Helminth Incubation group'''] on Facebook. Groups not listed above have either been archived or deleted.  
  
There have been periodic calls for new groups to be created, mostly from IT developers. For example, one developer suggested a new group because he thought that the [https://www.facebook.com/groups/htsupport/ '''Support group'''] had become too large when it reached 4,000 members! However, if additional groups were to be created, these would inevitably fragment the community, as had happened previously as a result of Smith’s monetisation drive between 2008 and 2016.
+
There have been periodic calls for further groups to be created, mostly from IT developers. For example, one developer suggested a new Facebook group because he thought that the [https://www.facebook.com/groups/htsupport/ '''Support group'''] had become too large when it reached 4,000 members! However, the creation of additional groups could fragment the community, as happened between 2008 and 2016 as a result of Smith’s monetisation drive.

Latest revision as of 05:01, 4 July 2020

Home>Helminthic therapy support groups

Since 2003, when TSOthe ova (eggs) of the porcine (pig) whipworm, Trichuris suis became the first helminth to be made available for use by self-treaters, knowledge about this subject has evolved continuously. As a result, some of the information in the groups listed below has become obsolete, so details in older posts should not be relied upon, and details should always be checked against the information in this wiki, which is kept up to date.

General discussion groups

Helminth incubation group

  • Helminth Incubation Group (Facebook) - 800 members. A community of helminth growers who are cultivating NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus, HDCHymenolepis diminuta cysticercoids (Hi-men-o-lep'is dim-a-nu-ta sis-ti-sur-koid) - the larval cysts of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta and TTOthe ova (eggs) of the human whipworm, Trichuris trichiura.

For detailed instructions on how to cultivate NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus, HDCHymenolepis diminuta cysticercoids (Hi-men-o-lep'is dim-a-nu-ta sis-ti-sur-koid) - the larval cysts of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta and TTOthe ova (eggs) of the human whipworm, Trichuris trichiura, see Helminth incubation methods.

History of the helminthic therapyThe reintroduction to the digestive tract of a controlled number of specially domesticated, mutualistic helminths (intestinal worms) in the form of microscopic eggs or larvae to reconstitute a depleted biome to treat and prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy. groups

Helminthic therapyThe reintroduction to the digestive tract of a controlled number of specially domesticated, mutualistic helminths (intestinal worms) in the form of microscopic eggs or larvae to reconstitute a depleted biome to treat and prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy. became a reality in 2003 when the first helminth was made available commercially for therapeutic use. After a period of development commencing around 1998, the pig whipwormA helminth with a tapering whiplike body that lives in the colon. In helminthic therapy, the microscopic eggs of either the human Trichuris trichiura (TTO) or pig Trichuris suis (TSO) are taken in a drink., Trichuris suisThe porcine (pig) whipworm used in helminthic therapy and taken as microscopic eggs (TSO) in a drink every two weeks., which is sold as microscopic ova and referred to as TSOthe ova (eggs) of the porcine (pig) whipworm, Trichuris suis, was introduced for sale by entrepreneur Detlev Goj. Initially, TSOthe ova (eggs) of the porcine (pig) whipworm, Trichuris suis was sold through Goj’s first company, Ovamed, but is now supplied by Tanawisa.

The next helminth to be made available for therapy was introduced four years later, and this was the human hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin., Necator americanusThe species of human hookworm used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin., known as NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus. This enterprise brought together two men: Garin Aglietti, a former medical student, and Jasper Lawrence, who was looking for new opportunities following the collapse of his marketing agency.

Together with Marc Dellerba - a clinical scientist and Lawrence’s brother-in-law - Aglietti and Lawrence formed Autoimmune Therapies (AIT), which began selling NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus larvaeThe active immature form of an insect, or an animal such as a helminth, which develops from an egg and eventually transforms again into its adult state. from the clinic of a Mexican doctor, Jorges Llamas, in Tijuana. However, it wasn’t long before Aglietti and Lawrence found it impossible to work together, and Aglietti left in 2008 to form his own company, Worm Therapy while Lawrence continued to run AIT from his home in the US, supported by UK-based Dellerba.

Soon after the formation of AIT, Lawrence started a discussion group, the Helminthic Therapy forum on Yahoo, which was the first online meeting place for those interested in this therapy.

In 2009, AIT began offering the human whipwormA helminth with a tapering whiplike body that lives in the colon. In helminthic therapy, the microscopic eggs of either the human Trichuris trichiura (TTO) or pig Trichuris suis (TSO) are taken in a drink., Trichuris trichiuraThe human whipworm used in helminthic therapy and taken periodically as microscopic eggs (TTO) in a drink. (TTOthe ova (eggs) of the human whipworm, Trichuris trichiura) in addition to NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus, and, shortly after this, Lawrence persuaded a number of regular contributors to the Yahoo forum to accept blogs that he created under the AIT umbrella. One of these bloggers was John Scott, a retired head teacher from the UK who had successfully put his Crohn’s disease and severe food intolerance into remission using NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus purchased from AIT. Scott had also begun advocating for helminthic therapyThe reintroduction to the digestive tract of a controlled number of specially domesticated, mutualistic helminths (intestinal worms) in the form of microscopic eggs or larvae to reconstitute a depleted biome to treat and prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy. elsewhere online, and, after being asked to help moderate the Yahoo forum in June 2010, assumed ownership of the group a year later when Lawrence lost interest in social media and indicated that he was considering deleting the group.

Someone else who was to play a significant role in the online helminthic therapyThe reintroduction to the digestive tract of a controlled number of specially domesticated, mutualistic helminths (intestinal worms) in the form of microscopic eggs or larvae to reconstitute a depleted biome to treat and prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy. community for several years was a systems administrator from New York who created a Facebook account in the name of “Herbert Smith”. After joining the Yahoo forum in 2008, Smith told Scott that he believed helminthic therapyThe reintroduction to the digestive tract of a controlled number of specially domesticated, mutualistic helminths (intestinal worms) in the form of microscopic eggs or larvae to reconstitute a depleted biome to treat and prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy. was ripe for monetisation, and subsequently struck a deal with Lawrence whereby he would receive a commission whenever someone he had referred to AIT followed through with a purchase. Once this deal was in place, Smith began vigorously promoting helminthic therapyThe reintroduction to the digestive tract of a controlled number of specially domesticated, mutualistic helminths (intestinal worms) in the form of microscopic eggs or larvae to reconstitute a depleted biome to treat and prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy., and, in November 2010, created the (now archived) Helminthic Therapy Users Discussion on Facebook.

Smith went to considerable lengths to promote himself online, creating accounts for his alias on Yahoo, Facebook, LinkedIn, Pinterest and elsewhere, before “friending” hundreds of people on Facebook and adding them, sometimes even without their knowledge, to his group.

The relationship between Smith and Lawrence broke down when Lawrence discovered that Smith was not using his real name in his dealings with the people he approached, nor telling them that he stood to benefit financially from his relationship with them. But, when Lawrence pulled out of the deal, he failed to pay Smith what he was owed, whereupon Smith began a campaign of relentless disparagement of Lawrence and AIT.

Thanks to Smith’s promotional efforts, his Users group had, by then, become the most active helminthic therapyThe reintroduction to the digestive tract of a controlled number of specially domesticated, mutualistic helminths (intestinal worms) in the form of microscopic eggs or larvae to reconstitute a depleted biome to treat and prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy. group on Facebook and was increasingly used by clients of AIT as well as those of Worm Therapy, which Smith began to promote in preference to AIT. However, Smith’s strident partisan position polarised the community and left many members of his Users group feeling uncomfortable, with the result that several of them approached Scott with a request for a new “provider-agnostic” group on Facebook in which the conversation would focus on the therapy itself rather than on those providing helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths]. In response, Scott created the Helminthic Therapy Support group in March 2012 - the first truly independent group run by and for the entire helminthic therapyThe reintroduction to the digestive tract of a controlled number of specially domesticated, mutualistic helminths (intestinal worms) in the form of microscopic eggs or larvae to reconstitute a depleted biome to treat and prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy. community.

A fourth therapeutic helminth species was introduced in 2013 by Don Donahue, a medical doctor from the US who founded Biome Restoration to supply the cysticercoids of the rat tapewormA helminth with a flat, ribbon-like, segmented body. Only the murine (rat) tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta, is used in helminthic therapy and this generally does not reach adulthood in humans so requires regular dosing of HDC., Hymenolepis diminutaA murine (rat) tapeworm used in helminthic therapy that generally does not mature in humans and is taken as cysticerci (HDC) in a drink every 2 or 3 weeks., known as HDCHymenolepis diminuta cysticercoids (Hi-men-o-lep'is dim-a-nu-ta sis-ti-sur-koid) - the larval cysts of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta. Donahue brought in Dellerba - who, by this time, had left AIT - and Judy Chinitz, a nutritionist and long-standing advocate of helminthic therapyThe reintroduction to the digestive tract of a controlled number of specially domesticated, mutualistic helminths (intestinal worms) in the form of microscopic eggs or larvae to reconstitute a depleted biome to treat and prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy., to run the company’s laboratory and customer services department respectively.

In March 2014, an enthusiastic user of HDCHymenolepis diminuta cysticercoids (Hi-men-o-lep'is dim-a-nu-ta sis-ti-sur-koid) - the larval cysts of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta created the Hymenolepis (HDCHymenolepis diminuta cysticercoids (Hi-men-o-lep'is dim-a-nu-ta sis-ti-sur-koid) - the larval cysts of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta) User Discussion and Support group on Facebook to share experience with the new species but, like several other helminthic therapyThe reintroduction to the digestive tract of a controlled number of specially domesticated, mutualistic helminths (intestinal worms) in the form of microscopic eggs or larvae to reconstitute a depleted biome to treat and prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy. groups that were created for specific purposes, this only ever gained a very limited membership and has since been deleted.

Smith continued to cause discord within the helminthic therapyThe reintroduction to the digestive tract of a controlled number of specially domesticated, mutualistic helminths (intestinal worms) in the form of microscopic eggs or larvae to reconstitute a depleted biome to treat and prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy. community until Facebook discovered that his identity was fake and, in late 2016, deleted his account. This action removed every shred of evidence from the platform that “Herbert Smith” had ever existed, and the Users group he had created, and once so assiduously nurtured, began to fall into disuse as people turned instead to the Support group.

With the generous help of an IT technician, Scott created the Helminthic Therapy wiki at the beginning of 2017 to accommodate all the data he had mined over the previous 7 years from the available science and posts to the Yahoo forum, Support group and elsewhere. Around the same time, several new helminth providers began selling individual doses of hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. larvaeThe active immature form of an insect, or an animal such as a helminth, which develops from an egg and eventually transforms again into its adult state., thus freeing customers from reliance on the long-term contacts by which AIT and Worm Therapy had previously sold this organism. The combination of easier access to NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus with the free availability in the wiki of detailed information about its use, ushered in a new chapter in the story of the therapeutic use of hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin..

Easier access to NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus at reasonable prices also greatly reduced activity in a small HookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. Donors group that had been created on Yahoo in early 2013 by several Australians to facilitate the sharing of hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. larvaeThe active immature form of an insect, or an animal such as a helminth, which develops from an egg and eventually transforms again into its adult state.. This group, which had already become dormant as a result of the disappearance of its owner and a loss of interest by its moderators, was effectively closed in Dec 2019, when Yahoo removed all user content from its groups and reduced them to email lists. This action by Yahoo also stripped the archive of 11,000 posts from the Helminthic Therapy forum, and a persistent technical malfunction then prevented group moderators from approving new messages, effectively rendering the group inoperative. It had, however, already been largely abandoned by self-treaters, the vast majority of whom had embraced the Facebook platform, which, unlike Yahoo, has continued to be actively developed.

The groups that exist today are listed at the top of this page. The Support group on Facebook meets the needs of users of all four helminth species in an atmosphere free from both commercial bias and manipulation by those with personal agendas, while the small Helminthic Therapy group on MeWe, and the Worm Therapy group on Reddit, provide alternatives for those who prefer not to use Facebook. The more specialised needs of those who are growing their own helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] at home are met by the Helminth Incubation group on Facebook. Groups not listed above have either been archived or deleted.

There have been periodic calls for further groups to be created, mostly from IT developers. For example, one developer suggested a new Facebook group because he thought that the Support group had become too large when it reached 4,000 members! However, the creation of additional groups could fragment the community, as happened between 2008 and 2016 as a result of Smith’s monetisation drive.