Difference between revisions of "Helminthic therapy research"

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Some of the reports and papers listed below have focussed on the effects of other species of helminth, or molecules derived from them, but all are nevertheless valuable for the insights they provide about the therapeutic and prophylactic effects of helminths.
 
Some of the reports and papers listed below have focussed on the effects of other species of helminth, or molecules derived from them, but all are nevertheless valuable for the insights they provide about the therapeutic and prophylactic effects of helminths.
 
Unless otherwise stated, the main links are to [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed PubMed] abstracts, with additional inks to full text and PDF copies, if available. Where free full text copies are not accessible via PubMed, these can usually be obtained from other sources such as [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sci-Hub Sci-Hub], or the Facebook group, [https://www.facebook.com/groups/655550701282346/ Get Your Papers]. Further papers on helminthic therapy can be found by searching [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed PubMed], which carries almost all of the scientific papers written on this subject.
 
  
 
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{{Quote|indent}}The results strongly support previous indications that helminth therapy can effectively treat a wide range of allergies, autoimmune conditions and neuropsychiatric disorders. (Liu et al) [https://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/images/7/77/Practices_and_outcomes_of_self-treatment_with_helminths_based_on_physicians_observations.pdf]{{Quote|/indent}}
 
{{Quote|indent}}The results strongly support previous indications that helminth therapy can effectively treat a wide range of allergies, autoimmune conditions and neuropsychiatric disorders. (Liu et al) [https://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/images/7/77/Practices_and_outcomes_of_self-treatment_with_helminths_based_on_physicians_observations.pdf]{{Quote|/indent}}
  
{{Quote|indent}}What was a costly and sometimes risky venture into the unknown, undertaken by only a few 10 years ago, is rapidly becoming a readily available and well-established resource currently used by thousands of individuals. (Cheng et al, 2015) [http://www.yourwildlife.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/galley-proof-v2.pdf]{{Quote|/indent}}
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{{Quote|indent}}What was a costly and sometimes risky venture into the unknown, undertaken by only a few 10 years ago, is rapidly becoming a readily available and well-established resource currently used by thousands of individuals. (Cheng et al, 2015) [http://www.yourwildlife.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/galley-proof-v2.pdf]{{Quote|/indent}}
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{{Quote|indent}}Although self-treatment with helminths cannot be recommended by medical professionals due to a lack of blinded, placebo controlled trials, neither should it be discouraged since the available evidence suggests that it is beneficial in most cases when practiced by knowledgeable individuals. (Parker and Morey) [https://evmedreview.com/progress-on-reconstituting-the-depleted-biome-to-prevent-immune-disorders/]{{Quote|/indent}}  
  
 
{{Quote|indent}}In developed countries, where we are well nourished, worms are potentially good. If I had Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis or multiple sclerosis, I would infect myself without hesitation. (Prof Alex Loukas, Australian Institute of Tropical Health & Medicine) [http://lifeonus.vhx.tv]{{Quote|/indent}}  
 
{{Quote|indent}}In developed countries, where we are well nourished, worms are potentially good. If I had Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis or multiple sclerosis, I would infect myself without hesitation. (Prof Alex Loukas, Australian Institute of Tropical Health & Medicine) [http://lifeonus.vhx.tv]{{Quote|/indent}}  
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{{Quote|indent}}Some patients with milder disease or more inclined for natural treatments may consider this as an option. (Prof Constantinescu, Nottingham University, commenting about Multiple Sclerosis.) [https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/06/200618150223.htm]{{Quote|/indent}}
  
 
{{Quote|indent}}All immunocompetent humans need regular exposure to helminths in order to maintain optimal immune function and avoid risk for inflammation-associated disease… access to helminths is a basic human need. (Smyth et al) [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29064448]{{Quote|/indent}}
 
{{Quote|indent}}All immunocompetent humans need regular exposure to helminths in order to maintain optimal immune function and avoid risk for inflammation-associated disease… access to helminths is a basic human need. (Smyth et al) [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29064448]{{Quote|/indent}}
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<div style="border:1px solid #A3B0BF;background-color:#CEDFF2;padding-left:8px;"><h2 style = "margin-top:10px;border:0px solid #CEDFF2;">Reading packet</h2></div>
 
<div style="border:1px solid #A3B0BF;background-color:#CEDFF2;padding-left:8px;"><h2 style = "margin-top:10px;border:0px solid #CEDFF2;">Reading packet</h2></div>
These selected papers provide a good overview of the potential of helminthic therapy and would be suitable resources to include in a reading packet to be given to a doctor or someone who is unaware of the evidence and rationale for helminthic therapy. The first two papers provide validation for the practice of self-treatment with helminths.
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These selected papers provide a good overview of the potential of helminthic therapy and would be suitable resources to include in a reading packet to be given to a doctor or other medical professional, or to someone who is unaware of the evidence and rationale for helminthic therapy. The first two papers provide validation for the practice of self-treatment with helminths.
  
 
* [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27240605 Practices and outcomes of self-treatment with helminths based on physicians' observations] -- [[media:Practices_and_outcomes_of_self-treatment_with_helminths_based_on_physicians_observations.pdf | PDF]] (2016)<br>The first study to examine, through the eyes of their physicians, the practices and experiences of individuals who are self-treating with helminths.  
 
* [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27240605 Practices and outcomes of self-treatment with helminths based on physicians' observations] -- [[media:Practices_and_outcomes_of_self-treatment_with_helminths_based_on_physicians_observations.pdf | PDF]] (2016)<br>The first study to examine, through the eyes of their physicians, the practices and experiences of individuals who are self-treating with helminths.  
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== Research papers & articles ==
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<div style="border:1px solid #BFA3AF;background-color:#F2CEDD;padding-left:8px;"><h2 style = "margin-top:10px;border:0px solid #CEDFF2;">Tips for searching the list</h2></div>
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<div style="border:1px solid #BFA3AF;background-color:#F2CEDD;padding-left:8px;">'''Tips for searching the list'''</div>
 
  
 
Symbols used in the list of documents:  
 
Symbols used in the list of documents:  
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<div style="border:1px solid #A3B0BF;background-color:#CEDFF2;padding-left:8px;"><h2 style = "margin-top:10px;border:0px solid #CEDFF2;">Obtaining copies of scientific papers</h2></div>
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Unless otherwise stated, the main links presented below are to PubMed abstracts, with additional links being provided to any full text and PDF copies that were available at the time we added the links to our list. (Some full text copies are embargoed for a period of time by their publishers.)
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Where full text copies are not available from PubMed, these can usually be obtained instantly, free of charge, from [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sci-Hub Sci-Hub], although this pirate domain periodically becomes unavailable due to legal attacks by publishers, it invariably resurfaces once its founder, Alexandra Elbakyan, has erected yet another workaround. [https://www.vice.com/en/article/gy7d7j/sci-hub-and-lib-gen-continue-to-get-attacked-around-the-world]
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To get a paper from Sci-Hub, go to one of the following links and copy/paste the title, or DOI number, of the paper you want into Sci-Hub’s search box. Then hit Return.
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https://sci-hub.do<br>
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https://sci-hub.st<br>
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https://sci-hub.se<br>
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In the rare event that the paper you want is not available from Sci-Hub, you will be able to get it free of charge from the Facebook group, [https://www.facebook.com/groups/655550701282346/ Get Your Papers], although this process takes a little longer than using Sci-Hub.
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== Research papers & articles ==
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===2021===
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* 2021 Feb 5 [https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33613446/ Gastrointestinal Helminth Infection Improves Insulin Sensitivity, Decreases Systemic Inflammation, and Alters the Composition of Gut Microbiota in Distinct Mouse Models of Type 2 Diabetes] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7892786/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7892786/pdf/fendo-11-606530.pdf PDF]
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* 2021 Feb 2 [https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.02.02.21250995v1 Effect of co-infection with parasites on severity of COVID-19] -- [https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.02.02.21250995v1.full.pdf PDF] (medRxiv preprints) (Also reported by NewsMedical. [https://www.news-medical.net/news/20210204/Research-shows-intestinal-parasite-infestations-reduce-COVID-19-severity.aspx])
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* 2021 Feb 2 [https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33526169/ Gross ways to live long: Parasitic worms as an anti-inflammaging therapy] -- [https://elifesciences.org/articles/65180 Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7853715/pdf/elife-65180.pdf PDF] (Also reported by EurekAlert. [https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2021-02/e-cph020221.php])
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* 2021 Jan 29 [https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33572978/ The Worm-Specific Immune Response in Multiple Sclerosis Patients Receiving Controlled Trichuris suis Ova Immunotherapy] -- [https://www.mdpi.com/2075-1729/11/2/101/htm Full text] (MS)
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* 2021 Jan 22 [https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33499240/ Helminth Interactions with Bacteria in the Host Gut Are Essential for Its Immunomodulatory Effect] -- [https://www.mdpi.com/2076-2607/9/2/226/htm Full text]
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* 2021 Jan 11 [https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33552447/ Evolution of bacteria in the human gut in response to changing environments: An invisible player in the game of health] — [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7829112/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7829112/pdf/main.pdf PDF]
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===2020===
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* 2020 Oct 22 [https://sci-hub.se/10.3390/ijms21217845 Gastrointestinal Nematode-Derived Antigens Alter Colorectal Cancer Cell Proliferation and Migration through Regulation of Cell Cycle and Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Proteins]
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* 2020 Oct 20 [https://academic.oup.com/emph/advance-article/doi/10.1093/emph/eoaa037/5930904 Old Friends Meet a New Foe -- A potential role for immune-priming parasites in mitigating COVID-19 morbidity and mortality] Includes link to PDF.
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*2020 Oct 7 [https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33116652/ Helminth Induced Immunoregulation and Novel Therapeutic Avenue of Allergy] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7548329/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7548329/pdf/jaa-13-439.pdf PDF]
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* 2020 Oct 4 [https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33012113/ Immunopathology and modulation induced by hookworms: from understanding to intervention]
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* 2020 Oct 2 [https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33117347/ Excretory/Secretory Products From Trichinella spiralis Adult Worms Attenuated DSS-Induced Colitis in Mice by Driving PD-1-Mediated M2 Macrophage Polarization] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7575908/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7575908/pdf/fimmu-11-563784.pdf PDF]
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* 2020 Oct [https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32653475/ Does the hygiene hypothesis apply to COVID-19 susceptibility?] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7347347/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7347347/pdf/main.pdf PDF]
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* 2020 Sept 29 [https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33117327/ The Helminth Parasite Heligmosomoides polygyrus Attenuates EAE in an IL-4Rα-Dependent Manner] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7552805/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7552805/pdf/fimmu-11-01830.pdf PDF] (MS)
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* 2020 Sept 21 [https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32951619/ Trichinella spiralis: inflammation modulator]
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* 2020 Sept 11 [https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33013887/ What Can Parasites Tell Us About the Pathogenesis and Treatment of Asthma and Allergic Diseases] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7516051/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7516051/pdf/fimmu-11-02106.pdf PDF]
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* 2020 Sept 8 [https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32901341/ Immunomodulatory action of excretory-secretory products of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in a mouse tumour model] (Cancer)
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* 2020 Sept 2 [https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32983184/ Fasciola hepatica-Derived Molecules as Regulators of the Host Immune Response] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7492538/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7492538/pdf/fimmu-11-02182.pdf PDF]
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* 2020 Aug 31 [https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32984066/ Helminth Mediated Attenuation of Systemic Inflammation and Microbial Translocation in Helminth-Diabetes Comorbidity] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7488178/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7488178/pdf/fcimb-10-00431.pdf PDF]
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* 2020 Aug 28 [https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32872342/ An Absence of Epstein-Barr Virus Reactivation and Associations with Disease Activity in People with Multiple Sclerosis Undergoing Therapeutic Hookworm Vaccination] -- [https://www.mdpi.com/2076-393X/8/3/487/htm Full text]
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* 2020 Aug 20 [https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32828819/ Succinate Produced by Intestinal Microbes Promotes Specification of Tuft Cells to Suppress Ileal Inflammation] (IBD)
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* 2020 Aug 17 [https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32804930/ Helminth coinfection and COVID-19: An alternate hypothesis] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7430705/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7430705/pdf/pntd.0008628.pdf PDF]
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* 2020 Aug 13 [https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32903582/ Clinical Use of Schistosoma mansoni Antigens as Novel Immunotherapies for Autoimmune Disorders] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7438586/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7438586/pdf/fimmu-11-01821.pdf PDF]
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* 2020 Aug 7 [https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32849543/ Effectiveness of Helminth Therapy in the Prevention of Allograft Rejection: A Systematic Review of Allogeneic Transplantation] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7426368/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7426368/pdf/fimmu-11-01604.pdf PDF]
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* 2020 Aug [https://sci-hub.se/10.1016/j.ijpara.2020.07.002 Helminth extracellular vesicles: great balls of wonder]
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* 2020 Jul 3 [https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32629118/ Helminth-induced and Th2-dependent Alterations of the Gut Microbiota Attenuate Obesity Caused by High Fat Diet] -- [https://www.cmghjournal.org/article/S2352-345X(20)30105-3/pdf PDF]
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* 2020 Jul 2 [https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32614822/ Schistosoma haematobium infection is associated with lower serum cholesterol levels and improved lipid profile in overweight/obese individuals]
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* 2020 Jun 19 [https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32570037/ Effect of Recombinant Serine Protease From Adult Stage of Trichinella Spiralis on TNBS-induced Experimental Colitis in Mice]
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* ✅ 2020 Jun 15 [https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32539079/ Hookworm Treatment for Relapsing Multiple Sclerosis: A Randomized Double-Blinded Placebo-Controlled Trial] -- [https://sci-hub.se/10.1001/jamaneurol.2020.1118# Full text] (While the primary statistical endpoint of this trial - the cumulative number of new/enlarging T2 and new enhancing T1 lesions at month 9 - was not significantly different between the hookworm group (154) and the placebo group (164), a closer examination of the data reveals that '''more than half the patients given hookworms did not have any new lesions'''. “The findings of the research… show that infecting MS patients with a safe dose of… Necator americanus induces immunoregulatory responses and boosts the number of cells which help keep the immune system under control.” [https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/06/200618150223.htm] The trial’s lead researcher concluded, “I think there would be a niche for this approach - for individuals with mild disease who don't want to take immunomodulating drugs for life and would prefer a more natural approach.” [https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/932593])
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* 2020 Jun 11 [https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32595641/ Extracellular Vesicles Derived From Trichinella spiralis Muscle Larvae Ameliorate TNBS-Induced Colitis in Mice] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7300183/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7300183/pdf/fimmu-11-01174.pdf PDF]
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* 2020 May 29 [https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32480001/ Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, the Hygiene Hypothesis and the Other Side of the Microbiota: Parasites and Fungi]
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* 2020 May 28 [https://www.qeios.com/read/IWKQH9.2 The global helminth belt and Covid-19: the new eosinophilic link]
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* 2020 May 26 [https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32453752/ Comprehensive analysis of the secreted proteome of adult Necator americanus hookworms] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7274458/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7274458/pdf/pntd.0008237.pdf PDF]
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* 2020 May 20 [https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32436176/ Changes in the Severity of Gastric Mucosal Inflammation Associated With Helicobacter Pylori in Humans Coinfected With Intestinal Helminths]
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* 2020 May 19 [https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32508831/ The Gastrointestinal Helminth Heligmosomoides bakeri Suppresses Inflammation in a Model of Contact Hypersensitivity] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7249854/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7249854/pdf/fimmu-11-00950.pdf PDF]
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* 2020 May 18 [https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.05.11.20098053v1.full.pdf Parasites and their protection against COVID-19 - Ecology or Immunology?] (PDF)
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* 2020 May 14 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32407385 Harnessing helminth-driven immunoregulation in the search for novel therapeutic modalities] -- [https://journals.plos.org/plospathogens/article?id=10.1371/journal.ppat.1008508 Full text] | [https://journals.plos.org/plospathogens/article/file?id=10.1371/journal.ppat.1008508&type=printable PDF]
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* 2020 May 7 [https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32448639/ Microbes, Helminths, and Rheumatic Diseases]
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* 2020 May 5 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32372471 Systematic review: gastrointestinal infection and incident inflammatory bowel disease] -- [https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/apt.15770 Full text] (IBD)
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* 2020 May 4 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32367051 Heterogeneity in the initiation, development and function of type 2 immunity]
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* 2020 May 1 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32358579 Will helminth co-infection modulate COVID-19 severity in endemic regions?] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7193760/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7193760/pdf/41577_2020_Article_330.pdf PDF]
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* 2020 Apr 27 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32341115 The Potential Role of Schistosome-Associated Factors as Therapeutic Modulators of the Immune System]
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* 2020 Apr 27 [https://www.qeios.com/read/5IY4IF Asthma and COVID-19: The Eosinophilic Link]
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* 2020 Apr 22 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32321922 CD8+ regulatory T cells are critical in prevention of autoimmune-mediated diabetes]
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* 2020 Apr 22 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32321863 An anti-inflammatory eicosanoid switch mediates the suppression of type-2 inflammation by helminth larval products]
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* 2020 Mar 18 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32200170 Effects of the dietary fibre inulin and Trichuris suis products on inflammatory responses in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages] (TSO)
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* 2020 Mar 10 [https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32153025/ Regulatory T-cells in helminth infection: induction, function and therapeutic potential] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7341546/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7341546/pdf/IMM-160-248.pdf PDF]
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* 2020 Mar 4 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32194529 Dietary Inulin and Trichuris suis Infection Promote Beneficial Bacteria Throughout the Porcine Gut] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7064446/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7064446/pdf/fmicb-11-00312.pdf PDF] (TSO)
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* 2020 Mar 3 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32126084 Helminth infection modulates systemic pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines implicated in type 2 diabetes mellitus pathogenesis] -- [https://journals.plos.org/plosntds/article?id=10.1371/journal.pntd.0008101 Full text]
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* 2020 Mar 2 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32135180 Helminths, polyparasitism, and the gut microbiome in the Philippines]
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* 2020 Feb 6 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32027755 IL-33 is essential to prevent high fat diet-induced obesity in mice infected with an intestinal helminth]
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* 2020 Jan-Feb [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32123528 Perspectives of People with Multiple Sclerosis About Helminth Immunotherapy] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7041615 Full text]
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* 2020 Jan 31 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32005978 The gut microbiota response to helminth infection depends on host sex and genotype]
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* 2020 Jan 24 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31976564 Wuchereria bancrofti macrophage migration inhibitory factor-2 (rWbaMIF-2) ameliorates experimental colitis]
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* 2020 Jan 23 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31971074 A critical analysis of helminth immunotherapy in multiple sclerosis]
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* 2020 Jan 16 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31954872 Suppression of systemic lupus erythematosus in NZBWF1 mice infected with Hymenolepis microstoma]
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* 2020 Jan 1 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31894102 Helminth infections drive heterogeneity in human type 2 and regulatory cells]
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* 2020 Jan [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31914677 Fasciola helminth defense molecule-1 protects against experimental arthritis by inhibiting osteoclast formation and function without modulating the systemic immune response]
  
 
===2019===  
 
===2019===  
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* 2019 Dec 26 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31888063 Immunomodulation of Murine Chronic DSS-Induced Colitis by Tuftsin-Phosphorylcholine] -- [https://www.mdpi.com/2077-0383/9/1/65/htm  Full text]
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* 2019 Dec 24 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31878146 Safety of P28GST, a Protein Derived from a Schistosome Helminth Parasite, in Patients with Crohn's Disease: A Pilot Study (ACROHNEM)] -- [https://www.mdpi.com/2077-0383/9/1/41/htm Full text]
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* 2019 Dec 19 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31885223 Toxicity of parasites and their unconventional use in medicine]
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* 2019 Dec 16 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31845020 Amelioration of type 1 diabetes by recombinant fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase and cystatin derived from Schistosoma japonicum in a murine model]
 +
 +
* 2019 Dec 13 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31836772 Immunomodulatory effect of Syphacia obvelata in treatment of experimental DSS-induced colitis in mouse model]
 +
 +
* 2019 Dec 13 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31834940 Chronic infection with a tissue invasive helminth attenuates sublethal anaphylaxis and reduces granularity and number of mast cells]
 +
 +
* 2019 Dec 11 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31829172 Safety and tolerability of experimental hookworm infection in humans with metabolic disease: study protocol for a phase 1b randomised controlled clinical trial]
 +
 +
* 2019 Nov 6 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31781154 The Effect of Gut Microbiome Composition on Human Immune Responses: An Exploration of Interference by Helminth Infections] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6856646/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6856646/pdf/fgene-10-01028.pdf PDF]
 +
 +
* 2019 Nov 7 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31719981 The interplay of type 2 immunity, helminth infection and the microbiota in regulating metabolism] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6837856/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6837856/pdf/CTI2-8-e01089.pdf PDF]
 +
 +
* 2019 Oct 31 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31673002 Intestinal helminth infection enhances bacteria-induced recruitment of neutrophils to the airspace]
 +
 +
* 2019 Oct 24 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31683117 Tuftsin-phosphorylcholine attenuate experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis] (MS)
  
 
* 2019 Oct 12 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31605645 Th2 signals are not essential for the anti-arthritic effects of Trichinella spiralis in mice]
 
* 2019 Oct 12 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31605645 Th2 signals are not essential for the anti-arthritic effects of Trichinella spiralis in mice]
  
* 2019 Sept 27 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31611876 Ascaris lumbricoides Cystatin Prevents Development of Allergic Airway Inflammation in a Mouse Model] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6777510/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6777510/pdf/fimmu-10-02280.pdf PDF] (But also see the details [[Ascaris lumbricoides | '''here''']] regarding the potential adverse effects of infection with ascaris lumbricoides.)
+
* 2019 Sept 27 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31649786 Therapeutic applicability of helminths in autoimmune diseases - literature overview] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6807663/  Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6807663/pdf/PG-14-37798.pdf PDF]
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* 2019 Sept 27 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31611876 Ascaris lumbricoides Cystatin Prevents Development of Allergic Airway Inflammation in a Mouse Model] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6777510/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6777510/pdf/fimmu-10-02280.pdf PDF] (But also see the details [[Ascaris lumbricoides | '''here''']] regarding the potentially adverse effects of infection with ascaris lumbricoides.)
  
 
* 2019 Sept 18 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31541662 Helminth-microbiota cross-talk - a journey through the vertebrate digestive system]
 
* 2019 Sept 18 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31541662 Helminth-microbiota cross-talk - a journey through the vertebrate digestive system]
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* 2019 Sept 9 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31496071 Schistosoma japonicum peptide SJMHE1 suppresses airway inflammation of allergic asthma in mice] -- [https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/jcmm.14661 Full text] | [https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1111/jcmm.14661 PDF]
 
* 2019 Sept 9 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31496071 Schistosoma japonicum peptide SJMHE1 suppresses airway inflammation of allergic asthma in mice] -- [https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/jcmm.14661 Full text] | [https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1111/jcmm.14661 PDF]
  
* 2019 Sept 5 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31487324 Schistosoma mansoni soluble egg antigen (SEA) and recombinant Omega-1 modulate induced CD4+ T-lymphocyte responses and HIV-1 infection in vitro] -- [https://journals.plos.org/plospathogens/article?id=10.1371/journal.ppat.1007924 Full text] | [https://journals.plos.org/plospathogens/article/file?id=10.1371/journal.ppat.1007924&type=printable PDF] (Also reported by Healio: [https://www.healio.com/infectious-disease/hiv-aids/news/online/%7Bafe40491-17f2-456b-b151-8cf73288c38b%7D/helminth-infection-may-reduce-hiv-transmission-disease Helminth infection may reduce HIV transmission, disease])
+
* 2019 Sept 5 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31487324 Schistosoma mansoni soluble egg antigen (SEA) and recombinant Omega-1 modulate induced CD4+ T-lymphocyte responses and HIV-1 infection in vitro] -- [https://journals.plos.org/plospathogens/article?id=10.1371/journal.ppat.1007924 Full text] | [https://journals.plos.org/plospathogens/article/file?id=10.1371/journal.ppat.1007924&type=printable PDF] (Also reported by Healio. [https://www.healio.com/infectious-disease/hiv-aids/news/online/%7Bafe40491-17f2-456b-b151-8cf73288c38b%7D/helminth-infection-may-reduce-hiv-transmission-disease])
  
 
* 2019 Sept 3 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31492623 Immune Regulation of Metabolic Homeostasis by Helminths and Their Molecules]
 
* 2019 Sept 3 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31492623 Immune Regulation of Metabolic Homeostasis by Helminths and Their Molecules]
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* 2019 Apr 10 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30980897 Genetic diversity of the potentially therapeutic tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea)] -- [https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1383576918302800?fbclid=IwAR37HAgKvovhcjr5FkSQAK3NVpoW_7_n79WOyeqKBgCbJHtHaByAC6tRzlc Full text]  
 
* 2019 Apr 10 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30980897 Genetic diversity of the potentially therapeutic tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea)] -- [https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1383576918302800?fbclid=IwAR37HAgKvovhcjr5FkSQAK3NVpoW_7_n79WOyeqKBgCbJHtHaByAC6tRzlc Full text]  
  
* 2019 Apr 8 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30962398 Suppression of obesity by an intestinal helminth through interactions with intestinal microbiota] --  [https://iai.asm.org/content/iai/early/2019/03/19/IAI.00042-19.full.pdf PDF] (Also reported by EurekAlert: [https://eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2019-04/asfm-ihb040819.php Intestinal helminths boost fat burning: Japanese investigators show how])
+
* 2019 Apr 8 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30962398 Suppression of obesity by an intestinal helminth through interactions with intestinal microbiota] --  [https://iai.asm.org/content/iai/early/2019/03/19/IAI.00042-19.full.pdf PDF] (Also reported by EurekAlert. [https://eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2019-04/asfm-ihb040819.php])
  
* 2019 Apr 5 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30952846 The parasitic worm product ES-62 normalises the gut microbiota bone marrow axis in inflammatory arthritis]
+
* 2019 Apr 5 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30952846 The parasitic worm product ES-62 normalises the gut microbiota bone marrow axis in inflammatory arthritis] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6451002/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6451002/pdf/41467_2019_Article_9361.pdf PDF]
  
 
* 2019 Apr [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30902137 Helminth therapy for autism under gut-brain axis- hypothesis]
 
* 2019 Apr [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30902137 Helminth therapy for autism under gut-brain axis- hypothesis]
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* 2019 Jan 4 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30640950 Exclusive dependence of IL-10Rα signalling on intestinal microbiota homeostasis and control of whipworm infection] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6347331/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6347331/pdf/ppat.1007265.pdf PDF] (This study contributes to understanding of the actions of TSO and TTO on diseases such as IBD. There's a more readable summary of the research [https://www.cambridgenetwork.co.uk/news/immune-master-regulator-responses-to-parasite/?fbclid=IwAR1MMJPuhc1SmoHUF7oGDWL3VELh8cOe-f46nnbeHjPDyKTb2eBDFUmFyFM here].)
 
* 2019 Jan 4 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30640950 Exclusive dependence of IL-10Rα signalling on intestinal microbiota homeostasis and control of whipworm infection] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6347331/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6347331/pdf/ppat.1007265.pdf PDF] (This study contributes to understanding of the actions of TSO and TTO on diseases such as IBD. There's a more readable summary of the research [https://www.cambridgenetwork.co.uk/news/immune-master-regulator-responses-to-parasite/?fbclid=IwAR1MMJPuhc1SmoHUF7oGDWL3VELh8cOe-f46nnbeHjPDyKTb2eBDFUmFyFM here].)
 +
 +
* 2019 Jan [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30413272 Effect of Trichinella spiralis intervention on TNBS-induced experimental colitis in mice]
  
 
* 2019 [http://www.jneuropsychiatry.org/peer-review/parasitic-worms-for-the-treatment-of-neurodegeneration-12989.html Parasitic Worms for the Treatment of Neurodegeneration] -- [http://www.jneuropsychiatry.org/peer-review/parasitic-worms-for-the-treatment-of-neurodegeneration.pdf PDF]
 
* 2019 [http://www.jneuropsychiatry.org/peer-review/parasitic-worms-for-the-treatment-of-neurodegeneration-12989.html Parasitic Worms for the Treatment of Neurodegeneration] -- [http://www.jneuropsychiatry.org/peer-review/parasitic-worms-for-the-treatment-of-neurodegeneration.pdf PDF]
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* 2018 Aug 14 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30118915 Acute infection with Strongyloides venezuelensis increases intestine production IL-10, reduces Th1/Th2/Th17 induction in colon and attenuates Dextran Sulfate Sodium-induced colitis in BALB/c mice]
 
* 2018 Aug 14 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30118915 Acute infection with Strongyloides venezuelensis increases intestine production IL-10, reduces Th1/Th2/Th17 induction in colon and attenuates Dextran Sulfate Sodium-induced colitis in BALB/c mice]
 
* 2018 Aug 14 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30107039 Isolated Schistosoma mansoni eggs prevent allergic airway inflammation] (Allergic asthma)
 
* 2018 Aug 14 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30107039 Isolated Schistosoma mansoni eggs prevent allergic airway inflammation] (Allergic asthma)
* 2018 Aug 13 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30104215 Host and helminth-derived endocannabinoids are generated during infection with effects on host immunity] (Also reported by EurekAlert: [https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2018-08/uoc--gho082218.php Getting high on worms.])
+
* 2018 Aug 13 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30104215 Host and helminth-derived endocannabinoids are generated during infection with effects on host immunity] (Also reported by EurekAlert. [https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2018-08/uoc--gho082218.php])
 
* 2018 Aug 8 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30089122 Helminths-based bi-functional molecule, tuftsin-phosphorylcholine (TPC), ameliorates an established murine arthritis] -- [http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0200615 Full text] | [http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article/file?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0200615&type=printable PDF]  
 
* 2018 Aug 8 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30089122 Helminths-based bi-functional molecule, tuftsin-phosphorylcholine (TPC), ameliorates an established murine arthritis] -- [http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0200615 Full text] | [http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article/file?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0200615&type=printable PDF]  
 
* 2018 Aug 7 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30131945 The Intestinal Roundworm Ascaris suum Releases Antimicrobial Factors Which Interfere With Bacterial Growth and Biofilm Formation] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6090379/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6090379/pdf/fcimb-08-00271.pdf PDF]
 
* 2018 Aug 7 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30131945 The Intestinal Roundworm Ascaris suum Releases Antimicrobial Factors Which Interfere With Bacterial Growth and Biofilm Formation] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6090379/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6090379/pdf/fcimb-08-00271.pdf PDF]
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* 2018 Feb 16 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29453411 The impact of a helminth-modified microbiome on host immunity]
 
* 2018 Feb 16 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29453411 The impact of a helminth-modified microbiome on host immunity]
 
* 2018 Feb 2 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29402395 Intestinal worms eating neuropsychiatric disorders? Apparently so]
 
* 2018 Feb 2 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29402395 Intestinal worms eating neuropsychiatric disorders? Apparently so]
 +
* 2018 Jan 27 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31662622 Helminth Therapy: Advances in the use of Parasitic Worms Against Inflammatory Bowel Diseases and its Challenges] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6799527/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6799527/pdf/helm-55-001.pdf PDF]
 
* 2018 Jan 18 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29355617 Serine protease inhibitors containing a Kunitz domain: their role in modulation of host inflammatory responses and parasite survival]
 
* 2018 Jan 18 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29355617 Serine protease inhibitors containing a Kunitz domain: their role in modulation of host inflammatory responses and parasite survival]
 
* 2018 Jan 13 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29346656 Host responses to intestinal nematodes]   
 
* 2018 Jan 13 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29346656 Host responses to intestinal nematodes]   
 
* 2018 Jan 12 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29339033 Helminth Modulation of Lung Inflammation] (Asthma)
 
* 2018 Jan 12 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29339033 Helminth Modulation of Lung Inflammation] (Asthma)
* 2018 Jan 4 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29351392 Young mice expel the tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta and are protected from colitis by triggering a memory response with worm antigen] -- [http://www.physiology.org/doi/pdf/10.1152/ajpgi.00295.2017 PDF] (HDC)
+
* 2018 Jan 4 [https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29351392/ Young mice expel the tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta and are protected from colitis by triggering a memory response with worm antigen] -- [http://www.physiology.org/doi/pdf/10.1152/ajpgi.00295.2017 PDF] (HDC)
 
* 2018 Jan 4 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29300114 The tropics, helminth infections and hygiene hypotheses]
 
* 2018 Jan 4 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29300114 The tropics, helminth infections and hygiene hypotheses]
 
* 2018 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29956141 Production of Hymenolepis diminuta in the Laboratory: An Old Research Tool with New Clinical Applications] -- [[media:Production_of_Hymenolepis_diminuta_in_the_Laboratory-_An_Old_Research_Tool_with_New_Clinical_Applications.pdf | PDF]] (HDC)
 
* 2018 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29956141 Production of Hymenolepis diminuta in the Laboratory: An Old Research Tool with New Clinical Applications] -- [[media:Production_of_Hymenolepis_diminuta_in_the_Laboratory-_An_Old_Research_Tool_with_New_Clinical_Applications.pdf | PDF]] (HDC)
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* 2017 Dec 7 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29224909  Hygiene Hypothesis in Asthma Development: Is Hygiene to Blame?]
 
* 2017 Dec 7 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29224909  Hygiene Hypothesis in Asthma Development: Is Hygiene to Blame?]
 
* 2017 Nov 29 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29238348 The Mannose Receptor in Regulation of Helminth-Mediated Host Immunity] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5712593/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5712593/pdf/fimmu-08-01677.pdf PDF]
 
* 2017 Nov 29 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29238348 The Mannose Receptor in Regulation of Helminth-Mediated Host Immunity] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5712593/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5712593/pdf/fimmu-08-01677.pdf PDF]
 +
* 2017 Nov 28 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29184071 Preventive Trichuris suis ova (TSO) treatment protects immunocompetent rabbits from DSS colitis but may be detrimental under conditions of immunosuppression] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5705695/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5705695/pdf/41598_2017_Article_16287.pdf PDF]
 
* 2017 Nov 24 [https://medicalxpress.com/news/2017-11-discovery-potent-parasite-protein-therapeutic.html Discovery of potent parasite protein may lead to new therapeutic options for inflammatory bowel conditions] Medical News Today (IBD)
 
* 2017 Nov 24 [https://medicalxpress.com/news/2017-11-discovery-potent-parasite-protein-therapeutic.html Discovery of potent parasite protein may lead to new therapeutic options for inflammatory bowel conditions] Medical News Today (IBD)
 
* 2017 Nov 24 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29171863 Schistosoma mansoni-specific immune responses and allergy in Uganda]
 
* 2017 Nov 24 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29171863 Schistosoma mansoni-specific immune responses and allergy in Uganda]
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* 2017 Aug [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28877578 Syphacia obvelata: A New Hope to Induction of Intestinal Immunological Tolerance in C57BL/6 Mice] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5594727/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5594727/pdf/kjp-55-4-439.pdf PDF]
 
* 2017 Aug [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28877578 Syphacia obvelata: A New Hope to Induction of Intestinal Immunological Tolerance in C57BL/6 Mice] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5594727/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5594727/pdf/kjp-55-4-439.pdf PDF]
 
* 2017 Jul 24 [http://trjfas.org/uploads/pdf_1183.pdf Role of Parasitic Helminths in Bioremediating Some Heavy Metal Accumulation in the Tissues of Lethrinus mahsena]
 
* 2017 Jul 24 [http://trjfas.org/uploads/pdf_1183.pdf Role of Parasitic Helminths in Bioremediating Some Heavy Metal Accumulation in the Tissues of Lethrinus mahsena]
* 2017 Jul 15 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28720335 Not infection with parasitic worms, but rather colonization with therapeutic helminths]
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* 2017 Jul 15 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28720335 Not infection with parasitic worms, but rather colonization with therapeutic helminths] | [https://projects.ncsu.edu/project/evoresources/evolution/coevolution%20and%20hygiene/hygiene%20hypothesis%202019/Reprint%20IL%202017-1.pdf PDF]
 
* 2017 Jul 13 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28703913 A. suum infection modulates inflammation: implication of CD4+CD25hi Foxp3+ T cells and IL-10]
 
* 2017 Jul 13 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28703913 A. suum infection modulates inflammation: implication of CD4+CD25hi Foxp3+ T cells and IL-10]
 
* 2017 Jul 8 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28689246 Parasites and asthma]
 
* 2017 Jul 8 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28689246 Parasites and asthma]
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* 2015 Nov [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25698173 Trichuris suis ova therapy in relapsing multiple sclerosis is safe but without signals of beneficial effect] This study used a treatment period of only 12 weeks, which is inadequate when assessing the efficacy of helminths, and it also used a novel TSO formulation with a pH of 5, when it is known that storage of TSO at a pH above 4 may impede its therapeutic effect in humans. [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28720335] The conclusions drawn by the authors of this study about the efficacy of TSO are therefore not reliable.  
 
* 2015 Nov [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25698173 Trichuris suis ova therapy in relapsing multiple sclerosis is safe but without signals of beneficial effect] This study used a treatment period of only 12 weeks, which is inadequate when assessing the efficacy of helminths, and it also used a novel TSO formulation with a pH of 5, when it is known that storage of TSO at a pH above 4 may impede its therapeutic effect in humans. [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28720335] The conclusions drawn by the authors of this study about the efficacy of TSO are therefore not reliable.  
 
* 2015 Nov [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26586763 Helminth infection, fecundity, and age of first pregnancy in women] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5953513/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5953513/pdf/nihms961168.pdf PDF] (Also see [[Helminthic therapy and fertility | '''Helminthic therapy and fertility''']].)
 
* 2015 Nov [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26586763 Helminth infection, fecundity, and age of first pregnancy in women] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5953513/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5953513/pdf/nihms961168.pdf PDF] (Also see [[Helminthic therapy and fertility | '''Helminthic therapy and fertility''']].)
 +
* 2015 Nov [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26332354 Adoptive transfer of helminth antigen-pulsed dendritic cells protects against the development of experimental colitis in mice] -- [https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/eji.201545579 Full text] | [https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1002/eji.201545579 PDF] (HDC)
 
* 2015 Oct 27 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26522986 The Intestinal Microbiota Contributes to the Ability of Helminths to Modulate Allergic Inflammation] -- [http://www.cell.com/immunity/fulltext/S1074-7613(15)00397-0 Full text] | [http://www.cell.com/immunity/pdf/S1074-7613(15)00397-0.pdf PDF]
 
* 2015 Oct 27 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26522986 The Intestinal Microbiota Contributes to the Ability of Helminths to Modulate Allergic Inflammation] -- [http://www.cell.com/immunity/fulltext/S1074-7613(15)00397-0 Full text] | [http://www.cell.com/immunity/pdf/S1074-7613(15)00397-0.pdf PDF]
 
* 2015 Oct 8 [http://onlinelibrary.ectrims-congress.eu/ectrims/2015/31st/115556/jorge.correale.il-35.is.a.critical.regulator.of.immunity.during.helminth.html?f=p6m3e891o11465 IL-35 is a critical regulator of immunity during helminth infections associated with multiple sclerosis]
 
* 2015 Oct 8 [http://onlinelibrary.ectrims-congress.eu/ectrims/2015/31st/115556/jorge.correale.il-35.is.a.critical.regulator.of.immunity.during.helminth.html?f=p6m3e891o11465 IL-35 is a critical regulator of immunity during helminth infections associated with multiple sclerosis]
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* 2015 Feb 1 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25527786 Intestinal helminths regulate lethal acute graft-versus-host disease and preserve the graft-versustumor effect in mice] (Helminths improve the outcome of bone marrow transplantation in mice)
 
* 2015 Feb 1 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25527786 Intestinal helminths regulate lethal acute graft-versus-host disease and preserve the graft-versustumor effect in mice] (Helminths improve the outcome of bone marrow transplantation in mice)
 
* 2015 Feb [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25547076 Helminthes and insects: maladies or therapies]
 
* 2015 Feb [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25547076 Helminthes and insects: maladies or therapies]
* 2015 Feb [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25248819 Experimental hookworm infection and gluten microchallenge promote tolerance in celiac disease] -- [http://www.jacionline.org/article/S0091-6749(14)01010-0/fulltext Full text] | [http://www.jacionline.org/article/S0091-6749(14)01010-0/pdf PDF] (Also reported by EurekAlert and ABC Austrailia. [https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2014-09/jcu-aws092414.php] [http://www.abc.net.au/news/2014-09-25/hookworms-coeliac-disease-research/5768732])
+
* 2015 Feb [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25248819 Experimental hookworm infection and gluten microchallenge promote tolerance in celiac disease] -- [http://www.jacionline.org/article/S0091-6749(14)01010-0/fulltext Full text] | [http://www.jacionline.org/article/S0091-6749(14)01010-0/pdf PDF] (Also reported by EurekAlert [https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2014-09/jcu-aws092414.php] and ABC Austrailia. [http://www.abc.net.au/news/2014-09-25/hookworms-coeliac-disease-research/5768732])
 +
* 2015 Feb [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25174866 Worms as therapeutic agents for allergy and asthma: understanding why benefits in animal studies have not translated into clinical success] -- [https://www.jacionline.org/article/S0091-6749%2814%2900960-9/fulltext Full text] | [https://www.jacionline.org/article/S0091-6749(14)00960-9/pdf PDF] 
 
* 2015 Feb [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25459578 Potential Treatments for Food Allergy]
 
* 2015 Feb [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25459578 Potential Treatments for Food Allergy]
 
* 2015 Feb [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25449677 The mechanisms behind helminth's immunomodulation in autoimmunity]
 
* 2015 Feb [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25449677 The mechanisms behind helminth's immunomodulation in autoimmunity]
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* 2014 Feb [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24355423 A multimodal Darwinian strategy for alleviating the atherosclerosis pandemic]
 
* 2014 Feb [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24355423 A multimodal Darwinian strategy for alleviating the atherosclerosis pandemic]
 
* 2014 Jan 21 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24466007 Secreted proteins from the helminth Fasciola hepatica inhibit the initiation of autoreactive T cell responses and prevent diabetes in the NOD mouse] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3897667/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3897667/pdf/pone.0086289.pdf PDF]
 
* 2014 Jan 21 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24466007 Secreted proteins from the helminth Fasciola hepatica inhibit the initiation of autoreactive T cell responses and prevent diabetes in the NOD mouse] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3897667/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3897667/pdf/pone.0086289.pdf PDF]
* 2014 Jan 20 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24442917 Helminth therapy (worms) for induction of remission in inflammatory bowel disease] (IBD)
+
* 2014 Jan 20 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24442917 Helminth therapy (worms) for induction of remission in inflammatory bowel disease] -- [https://www.cochranelibrary.com/cdsr/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD009400.pub2/full Full text] | [https://www.cochranelibrary.com/cdsr/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD009400.pub2/epdf/full PDF] (IBD)
 
* 2014 Jan [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24043262 Reprogramming macrophages to an anti-inflammatory phenotype by helminth antigens reduces murine atherosclerosis] -- [http://www.fasebj.org/content/28/1/288.long Full text] | [http://www.fasebj.org/content/28/1/288.full.pdf PDF]
 
* 2014 Jan [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24043262 Reprogramming macrophages to an anti-inflammatory phenotype by helminth antigens reduces murine atherosclerosis] -- [http://www.fasebj.org/content/28/1/288.long Full text] | [http://www.fasebj.org/content/28/1/288.full.pdf PDF]
 
* 2014 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24997041 Microbiota, immunoregulatory old friends and psychiatric disorders]
 
* 2014 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24997041 Microbiota, immunoregulatory old friends and psychiatric disorders]
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=== 2013 ===
 
=== 2013 ===
 +
* 2013 Dec 19 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24351232 Serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BNDF) in multiple sclerosis patients with Trichuris suis ova therapy] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3866952/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3866952/pdf/parasite-20-55.pdf PDF] (TSO)
 
* 2013 Dec 12 [http://globenewswire.com/news-release/2013/12/12/596603/10061345/en/Coronado-Biosciences-Announces-Presentation-of-Interim-Data-From-Autism-Study-at-Neuropsychopharmacology-Meeting.html Presentation of Interim Data From Autism Study at Neuropsychopharmacology Meeting]
 
* 2013 Dec 12 [http://globenewswire.com/news-release/2013/12/12/596603/10061345/en/Coronado-Biosciences-Announces-Presentation-of-Interim-Data-From-Autism-Study-at-Neuropsychopharmacology-Meeting.html Presentation of Interim Data From Autism Study at Neuropsychopharmacology Meeting]
 
* 2013 Nov 12 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24154724 Regulation of the immune system by biodiversity from the natural environment: an ecosystem service essential to health] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3831972/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3831972/pdf/pnas.201313731.pdf PDF]
 
* 2013 Nov 12 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24154724 Regulation of the immune system by biodiversity from the natural environment: an ecosystem service essential to health] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3831972/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3831972/pdf/pnas.201313731.pdf PDF]
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* 2013 April 25 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23782752 Trichuris suis ova in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis and clinically isolated syndrome (TRIOMS): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3680966/ Full text] [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3680966/pdf/1745-6215-14-112.pdf PDF] (TSO)
 
* 2013 April 25 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23782752 Trichuris suis ova in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis and clinically isolated syndrome (TRIOMS): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3680966/ Full text] [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3680966/pdf/1745-6215-14-112.pdf PDF] (TSO)
 
* 2013 Apr 8 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23566643 The development of TH2 responses from infancy to 4 years of age and atopic sensitization in areas endemic for helminth infections] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3635885/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3635885/pdf/1710-1492-9-13.pdf PDF]
 
* 2013 Apr 8 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23566643 The development of TH2 responses from infancy to 4 years of age and atopic sensitization in areas endemic for helminth infections] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3635885/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3635885/pdf/1710-1492-9-13.pdf PDF]
 +
* 2013 Mar [https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23220043/ Trichuris suis-induced modulation of human dendritic cell function is glycan-mediated] -- [https://tanawisa.com/downloads/Trichuris_suis-induced_modulation_of_human_dendritic_cell_function_is_glycan-mediated.pdf Full text]
 
* 2013 Mar [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23178750 A role for IL-22 in the relationship between intestinal helminths, gut microbiota and mucosal immunity] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3955947/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3955947/pdf/nihms423088.pdf PDF]
 
* 2013 Mar [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23178750 A role for IL-22 in the relationship between intestinal helminths, gut microbiota and mucosal immunity] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3955947/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3955947/pdf/nihms423088.pdf PDF]
 
* 2013 Mar [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23291460 Changed gluten immunity in celiac disease by Necator americanus provides new insights into autoimmunity] (NA)
 
* 2013 Mar [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23291460 Changed gluten immunity in celiac disease by Necator americanus provides new insights into autoimmunity] (NA)
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* 2012 Jul [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22742834 Trichuris suis ova: testing a helminth-based therapy as an extension of the hygiene hypothesis] -- [https://parasitology.cvm.ncsu.edu/vmp930/supplement/trichuris_treatment_allergies.pdf PDF] (TSO)
 
* 2012 Jul [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22742834 Trichuris suis ova: testing a helminth-based therapy as an extension of the hygiene hypothesis] -- [https://parasitology.cvm.ncsu.edu/vmp930/supplement/trichuris_treatment_allergies.pdf PDF] (TSO)
 
* 2012 Jul [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22608572 Helminth infection is associated with decreased basophil responsiveness in human beings] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3387338/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3387338/pdf/nihms372243.pdf PDF]
 
* 2012 Jul [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22608572 Helminth infection is associated with decreased basophil responsiveness in human beings] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3387338/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3387338/pdf/nihms372243.pdf PDF]
* 2012 Jul [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22612580 A prescription for clinical immunology: the pills are available and ready for testing. A review]
+
* 2012 Jul [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22612580 A prescription for clinical immunology: the pills are available and ready for testing. A review]
 
* 2012 Jun 26 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22928103 Is autism a member of a family of diseases resulting from genetic/cultural mismatches? Implications for treatment and prevention] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3420574/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3420574/pdf/AURT2012-910946.pdf PDF]
 
* 2012 Jun 26 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22928103 Is autism a member of a family of diseases resulting from genetic/cultural mismatches? Implications for treatment and prevention] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3420574/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3420574/pdf/AURT2012-910946.pdf PDF]
 
* 2012 Jun [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22482518 Soluble helminth products suppress clinical signs in murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and differentially modulate human dendritic cell activation]
 
* 2012 Jun [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22482518 Soluble helminth products suppress clinical signs in murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and differentially modulate human dendritic cell activation]
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* 2012 Feb [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22245779 An essential role for the Th2-type response in limiting tissue damage during helminth infection] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3274634/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3274634/pdf/nihms341991.pdf PDF] (Wound healing)
 
* 2012 Feb [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22245779 An essential role for the Th2-type response in limiting tissue damage during helminth infection] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3274634/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3274634/pdf/nihms341991.pdf PDF] (Wound healing)
 
* ⚡ 2012 Jan [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22239614 Helminth-host immunological interactions: prevention and control of immune-mediated diseases] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3744090/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3744090/pdf/nihms492922.pdf PDF] Summarises the science underpinning helminthic therapy.
 
* ⚡ 2012 Jan [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22239614 Helminth-host immunological interactions: prevention and control of immune-mediated diseases] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3744090/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3744090/pdf/nihms492922.pdf PDF] Summarises the science underpinning helminthic therapy.
 +
* 2012 Jan [https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21983081/ Helminth infection does not reduce risk for chronic inflammatory disease in a population-based cohort study] (There are several critical weaknesses in this study, the data from which do not support the authors' broad conclusion that helminthic colonization does not reduce the risk for various immune-mediated diseases. See a rebuttal of this research by Joel Weinstock [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4129650/ here].)
 
* 2012 Jan [http://www.asmscience.org/content/journal/microbe/10.1128/microbe.7.173.1 A Darwinian View of the Hygiene or “Old Friends” Hypothesis] Graham A. W. Rook, Microbe Magazine
 
* 2012 Jan [http://www.asmscience.org/content/journal/microbe/10.1128/microbe.7.173.1 A Darwinian View of the Hygiene or “Old Friends” Hypothesis] Graham A. W. Rook, Microbe Magazine
 
* 2012 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22848374 Helminth antigens enable CpG-activated dendritic cells to inhibit the symptoms of collagen-induced arthritis through Foxp3+ regulatory T cells] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3405066/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3405066/pdf/pone.0040356.pdf PDF]
 
* 2012 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22848374 Helminth antigens enable CpG-activated dendritic cells to inhibit the symptoms of collagen-induced arthritis through Foxp3+ regulatory T cells] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3405066/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3405066/pdf/pone.0040356.pdf PDF]
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* 2011 Jul 25 The neuroimmunoendocrine network during worm helminth infections -- [http://www.isj.unimo.it/articoli/ISJ242.pdf PDF]
 
* 2011 Jul 25 The neuroimmunoendocrine network during worm helminth infections -- [http://www.isj.unimo.it/articoli/ISJ242.pdf PDF]
 
* 2011 Jul 18 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21785696 Parasites or cohabitants: cruel omnipresent usurpers or creative "éminences grises"?] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3140032/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3140032/pdf/JPR2011-214174.pdf PDF]
 
* 2011 Jul 18 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21785696 Parasites or cohabitants: cruel omnipresent usurpers or creative "éminences grises"?] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3140032/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3140032/pdf/JPR2011-214174.pdf PDF]
* 2011 Jun 9 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21772981 Excretory-Secretory Products from Hookworm L3 and Adult Worms Suppress Proinflammatory Cytokines in Infected Individuals] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3135091/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3135091/pdf/JPR2011-512154.pdf PDF]
+
* 2011 Jun 9 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21772981 Excretory-secretory products from hookworm l(3) and adult worms suppress proinflammatory cytokines in infected individuals] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3135091/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3135091/pdf/JPR2011-512154.pdf PDF]
 
* 2011 Jun [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21610741 Diversity and dialogue in immunity to helminths]
 
* 2011 Jun [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21610741 Diversity and dialogue in immunity to helminths]
 
* 2011 May 12 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21576944 Atopic dermatitis and the hygiene hypothesis revisited]
 
* 2011 May 12 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21576944 Atopic dermatitis and the hygiene hypothesis revisited]
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* 2011 Apr [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21295861 Helminths and multiple sclerosis: will old friends give us new treatments for MS?] (No abstract)
 
* 2011 Apr [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21295861 Helminths and multiple sclerosis: will old friends give us new treatments for MS?] (No abstract)
 
* 2011 Mar 8 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21408161 Effect of hookworm infection on wheat challenge in celiac disease - a randomised double-blinded placebo controlled trial] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3050888/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3050888/pdf/pone.0017366.pdf PDF]
 
* 2011 Mar 8 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21408161 Effect of hookworm infection on wheat challenge in celiac disease - a randomised double-blinded placebo controlled trial] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3050888/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3050888/pdf/pone.0017366.pdf PDF]
* 2011 Mar 3 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21372112 Probiotic helminth administration in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: a phase 1 study] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3894910/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3894910/pdf/nihms536054.pdf PDF] (TSO)
+
* 2011 Mar 3 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21372112 Probiotic helminth administration in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: a phase 1 study] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3894910/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3894910/pdf/nihms536054.pdf PDF] (TSO)
 
* 2011 Apr 22 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21440530 Clonorchis sinensis-derived total protein attenuates airway inflammation in murine asthma model by inducing regulatory T cells and modulating dendritic cell functions]
 
* 2011 Apr 22 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21440530 Clonorchis sinensis-derived total protein attenuates airway inflammation in murine asthma model by inducing regulatory T cells and modulating dendritic cell functions]
 
* 2011 Apr 18 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21584243 Helminth parasites and the modulation of joint inflammation] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3092582/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3092582/pdf/JPR2011-942616.pdf PDF]
 
* 2011 Apr 18 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21584243 Helminth parasites and the modulation of joint inflammation] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3092582/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3092582/pdf/JPR2011-942616.pdf PDF]
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* 2009 Apr [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19291704 Schistosoma mansoni egg antigens induce Treg that participate in diabetes prevention in NOD mice] -- [http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/eji.200838871/full Full text] | [http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/eji.200838871/epdf PDF]
 
* 2009 Apr [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19291704 Schistosoma mansoni egg antigens induce Treg that participate in diabetes prevention in NOD mice] -- [http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/eji.200838871/full Full text] | [http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/eji.200838871/epdf PDF]
 
* 2009 Mar 24 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19308259 Necator americanus infection: a possible cause of altered dendritic cell differentiation and eosinophil profile in chronically infected individuals] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2654967/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2654967/pdf/pntd.0000399.pdf PDF] (NA)
 
* 2009 Mar 24 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19308259 Necator americanus infection: a possible cause of altered dendritic cell differentiation and eosinophil profile in chronically infected individuals] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2654967/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2654967/pdf/pntd.0000399.pdf PDF] (NA)
* ✅ 2009 Mar 5 [https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01470521?term=WIRMS&rank=1 Worms for Immune Regulation of Multiple Sclerosis (WIRMS)] Proposal for the first Phase 2 trial using a controlled number of Necator americanus in the treatment of Multiple Sclerosis. (Also reported by Science Daily and the Mail Online. [https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/03/090304091818.htm] [http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-2108228/Parasitic-worms-offer-hope-cure-multiple-sclerosis.html?ito=feeds-newsxml]) (NA)
+
* ✅ 2009 Mar 5 [https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01470521?term=WIRMS&rank=1 Worms for Immune Regulation of Multiple Sclerosis (WIRMS)] Proposal for the first Phase 2 trial using a controlled number of Necator americanus in the treatment of Multiple Sclerosis. (Also reported by Science Daily [https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/03/090304091818.htm] and the Mail Online. [http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-2108228/Parasitic-worms-offer-hope-cure-multiple-sclerosis.html?ito=feeds-newsxml]) (NA)
 
* 2009 Mar [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19167926 The therapeutic helminth?]
 
* 2009 Mar [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19167926 The therapeutic helminth?]
 
* 2009 Mar [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18835272 Schistosoma mansoni infection reduces severity of collagen-induced arthritis via down-regulation of pro-inflammatory mediators]
 
* 2009 Mar [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18835272 Schistosoma mansoni infection reduces severity of collagen-induced arthritis via down-regulation of pro-inflammatory mediators]
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* 2007 Mar [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17360880 Helicobacter pylori and intestinal parasites are not detrimental to the nutritional status of Amerindians] -- [https://www.researchgate.net/publication/6446118_Helicobacter_pylori_and_intestinal_parasites_are_not_detrimental_to_the_nutritional_status_of_Amerindians Full text (PDF)]
 
* 2007 Mar [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17360880 Helicobacter pylori and intestinal parasites are not detrimental to the nutritional status of Amerindians] -- [https://www.researchgate.net/publication/6446118_Helicobacter_pylori_and_intestinal_parasites_are_not_detrimental_to_the_nutritional_status_of_Amerindians Full text (PDF)]
 
* 2007 Feb 15 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17122383 Helminth-derived products inhibit the development of allergic responses in mice]
 
* 2007 Feb 15 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17122383 Helminth-derived products inhibit the development of allergic responses in mice]
* ✅⚡2007 Feb [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17230481 Association between parasite infection and immune responses in multiple sclerosis] -- [https://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/images/e/ec/Association_Between_Parasite_Infection_and_Immune_Responses_in_Multiple_Sclerosis_.pdf PDF] (Also reported by Science Daily and the BBC. [https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/01/070117091058.htm] [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/health/6268585.stm]) This was the first study to explore the effect of helminth infection on immune response and the natural course of Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis. It showed that MS progressed much more slowly in patients who hosted intestinal worms.
+
* ✅⚡2007 Feb [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17230481 Association between parasite infection and immune responses in multiple sclerosis] -- [https://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/images/e/ec/Association_Between_Parasite_Infection_and_Immune_Responses_in_Multiple_Sclerosis_.pdf PDF] (Also reported by Science Daily [https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/01/070117091058.htm] and the BBC. [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/health/6268585.stm]) This was the first study to explore the effect of helminth infection on immune response and the natural course of Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis. It showed that MS progressed much more slowly in patients who hosted intestinal worms.
 
* 2007 Feb [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17284099 Iatrogenic Trichuris suis infection] (TSO)
 
* 2007 Feb [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17284099 Iatrogenic Trichuris suis infection] (TSO)
 
* 2007 Jan [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17043101 Inhibition of autoimmune type 1 diabetes by gastrointestinal helminth infection] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1828378/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1828378/pdf/0664-06.pdf PDF]
 
* 2007 Jan [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17043101 Inhibition of autoimmune type 1 diabetes by gastrointestinal helminth infection] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1828378/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1828378/pdf/0664-06.pdf PDF]
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* ✅ 2005 Jul [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16008666 Old friends for breakfast] Suggested that a symbiotic relationship exists between humans and the fauna that have co-evolved in the human GI tract.
 
* ✅ 2005 Jul [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16008666 Old friends for breakfast] Suggested that a symbiotic relationship exists between humans and the fauna that have co-evolved in the human GI tract.
 
* 2005 Jun 1 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15905584 Neutralizing anti-IL-10 antibody blocks the protective effect of tapeworm infection in a murine model of chemically induced colitis] -- [http://www.jimmunol.org/content/174/11/7368.long Full text] | [http://www.jimmunol.org/content/174/11/7368.full.pdf PDF] (HDC)
 
* 2005 Jun 1 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15905584 Neutralizing anti-IL-10 antibody blocks the protective effect of tapeworm infection in a murine model of chemically induced colitis] -- [http://www.jimmunol.org/content/174/11/7368.long Full text] | [http://www.jimmunol.org/content/174/11/7368.full.pdf PDF] (HDC)
* 2005 Apr [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15825065 Trichuris suis therapy for active ulcerative colitis: a randomized controlled trial] -- [http://tropicalhealthsolutions.com/documents/worms/Summers-2005.pdf PDF] (TSO)
+
* 2005 Apr [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15825065 Trichuris suis therapy for active ulcerative colitis: a randomized controlled trial] -- [http://www.gastrojournal.org/article/S0016-5085(05)00025-9/pdf PDF] (TSO)
 
* 2005 Apr [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15780835 Parasite role reversal: worms on trial]
 
* 2005 Apr [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15780835 Parasite role reversal: worms on trial]
 
* 2005 Mar [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15730384 Low dose chronic Schistosoma mansoni infection increases susceptibility to Mycobacterium bovis BCG infection in mice] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1809318/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1809318/pdf/cei0139-0398.pdf PDF]
 
* 2005 Mar [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15730384 Low dose chronic Schistosoma mansoni infection increases susceptibility to Mycobacterium bovis BCG infection in mice] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1809318/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1809318/pdf/cei0139-0398.pdf PDF]
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* 2004 Oct 13 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15486631 Schistosoma mansoni infection modulates the immune response against allergic and auto-immune diseases] -- [http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0074-02762004000900005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Full text] | [http://www.scielo.br/pdf/mioc/v99s1/v99s1a05.pdf PDF]
 
* 2004 Oct 13 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15486631 Schistosoma mansoni infection modulates the immune response against allergic and auto-immune diseases] -- [http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0074-02762004000900005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Full text] | [http://www.scielo.br/pdf/mioc/v99s1/v99s1a05.pdf PDF]
 
* 2004 Oct [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15361235 Helminth parasites--masters of regulation]
 
* 2004 Oct [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15361235 Helminth parasites--masters of regulation]
* 2004 Aug 15 [http://www.jimmunol.org/content/173/4/2699.full A Secreted Protein from the Human Hookworm Necator americanus Binds Selectively to NK Cells and Induces IFN-γ Production] -- [http://www.jimmunol.org/content/173/4/2699.full.pdf PDF] (NA)
+
* 2004 Aug 15 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15294988 A Secreted Protein from the Human Hookworm Necator americanus Binds Selectively to NK Cells and Induces IFN-{gamma} Production] -- [https://www.jimmunol.org/content/173/4/2699.long Full text] |  [https://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/images/8/8a/A_Secreted_Protein.pdf PDF]
 
* 2004 Aug 1 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15265954 Schistosoma mansoni and alpha-galactosylceramide: prophylactic effect of Th1 Immune suppression in a mouse model of Graves' hyperthyroidism] -- [https://www.jimmunol.org/content/173/3/2167.long Full text] | [https://www.jimmunol.org/content/jimmunol/173/3/2167.full.pdf PDF]
 
* 2004 Aug 1 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15265954 Schistosoma mansoni and alpha-galactosylceramide: prophylactic effect of Th1 Immune suppression in a mouse model of Graves' hyperthyroidism] -- [https://www.jimmunol.org/content/173/3/2167.long Full text] | [https://www.jimmunol.org/content/jimmunol/173/3/2167.full.pdf PDF]
 
* 2004 Jul 9 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15247451 Immunotherapy. Can worms tame the immune system?]
 
* 2004 Jul 9 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15247451 Immunotherapy. Can worms tame the immune system?]
 
* 2004 Jul [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15196202 The increased prevalence of allergy and the hygiene hypothesis: missing immune deviation, reduced immune suppression, or both?] --  [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1782506/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1782506/pdf/imm0112-0352.pdf PDF]
 
* 2004 Jul [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15196202 The increased prevalence of allergy and the hygiene hypothesis: missing immune deviation, reduced immune suppression, or both?] --  [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1782506/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1782506/pdf/imm0112-0352.pdf PDF]
* 2004 Jun [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15330453 A review of autism and the immune response] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2270714/pdf/CDI-11-165.pdf PDF]
+
* 2004 Jun [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15330453 A review of autism and the immune response] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2270714/pdf/CDI-11-165.pdf PDF]
 
* 2004 Apr [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15039389 Helminth infection modulates the development of allergen-induced airway inflammation] -- [http://intimm.oxfordjournals.org/content/16/4/585.long Full text] | [http://intimm.oxfordjournals.org/content/16/4/585.full.pdf PDF]
 
* 2004 Apr [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15039389 Helminth infection modulates the development of allergen-induced airway inflammation] -- [http://intimm.oxfordjournals.org/content/16/4/585.long Full text] | [http://intimm.oxfordjournals.org/content/16/4/585.full.pdf PDF]
 
* 2004 Mar [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15279624 Inhibition of neutrophil recruitment by ES of Nippostrongylus brasiliensis] -- [http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.0141-9838.2004.00692.x/full Full text] | [http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.0141-9838.2004.00692.x/epdf PDF]
 
* 2004 Mar [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15279624 Inhibition of neutrophil recruitment by ES of Nippostrongylus brasiliensis] -- [http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.0141-9838.2004.00692.x/full Full text] | [http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.0141-9838.2004.00692.x/epdf PDF]
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=== 1999 ===
 
=== 1999 ===
 
* 1999 Apr [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10320614 Infection with Schistosoma mansoni prevents insulin dependent diabetes mellitus in non-obese diabetic mice] -- [http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1046/j.1365-3024.1999.00213.x/epdf PDF]
 
* 1999 Apr [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10320614 Infection with Schistosoma mansoni prevents insulin dependent diabetes mellitus in non-obese diabetic mice] -- [http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1046/j.1365-3024.1999.00213.x/epdf PDF]
 +
 +
=== 1997 ===
 +
 +
* 1997 [https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/193176053.pdf The Pro-allergic Influences of Helminth Parasites] (PDF)
 +
 
=== 1996 ===
 
=== 1996 ===
 
* 1996 Aug [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8872184 IgE, allergies and helminth parasites: a new perspective on an old conundrum] -- [http://www.nature.com/icb/journal/v74/n4/full/icb199660a.html Full text] | [http://www.nature.com/icb/journal/v74/n4/pdf/icb199660a.pdf PDF]
 
* 1996 Aug [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8872184 IgE, allergies and helminth parasites: a new perspective on an old conundrum] -- [http://www.nature.com/icb/journal/v74/n4/full/icb199660a.html Full text] | [http://www.nature.com/icb/journal/v74/n4/pdf/icb199660a.pdf PDF]
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=== 1976 ===
 
=== 1976 ===
* ✅ 1976 Sept 25 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/60540 Letter: IgE, parasites, and allergy] This paper reported the first known case of successful helminthic therapy in which colonisation with Necator americanus was shown to resolve hay fever. (NA)
+
* ✅ 1976 Sept 25 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/60540 Letter: IgE, parasites, and allergy] This letter reported the first known case of successful helminthic therapy in which colonisation with Necator americanus was shown to resolve hay fever. (NA)
* ✅ 1976 Aug [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/987744 Serum IgE levels in white and metis communities in Saskatchewan] This paper's author suggested that atopic disease is the price paid by some members of the white community of northern Saskatchewan for their relative freedom from helminth infestation and viral and bacterial infection.
+
* ✅ 1976 Aug [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/987744 Serum IgE levels in white and metis communities in Saskatchewan] This paper's author suggested that atopic disease is the price paid by some members of the white community of northern Saskatchewan for their relative freedom from helminth infestation and viral and bacterial infection.
  
 
=== 1968 ===
 
=== 1968 ===
 
* ✅ 1968 Aug 17 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4174413 Autoimmune disease and parasitic infections in Nigerians] The author of this paper suggested a possible relationship between parasitic infections and the reduced incidence of autoimmune disease in parts of tropical Africa.
 
* ✅ 1968 Aug 17 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4174413 Autoimmune disease and parasitic infections in Nigerians] The author of this paper suggested a possible relationship between parasitic infections and the reduced incidence of autoimmune disease in parts of tropical Africa.
 
=== 1932 ===
 
=== 1932 ===
* ✅ 1932 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10828911 Regional ileitis: a pathologic and clinical entity] Disease charcterised by inflammation of the terminal ileum was first described in this paper. This condition was later to become known as Crohn’s disease.
+
* ✅ 1932 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10828911 Regional ileitis: a pathologic and clinical entity] Disease characterised by inflammation of the terminal ileum was first described in this paper. This condition was later to become known as Crohn’s disease.
  
 
== Take part in the research ==
 
== Take part in the research ==
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The vast majority of research into the effects of helminths is being carried out by researchers aiming to discover worm-derived molecules that can potentially be used to create drugs, and this work is already well funded by agencies hoping to benefit from the patents and sales which it is anticipated will follow in the wake of successful drug discovery.  
 
The vast majority of research into the effects of helminths is being carried out by researchers aiming to discover worm-derived molecules that can potentially be used to create drugs, and this work is already well funded by agencies hoping to benefit from the patents and sales which it is anticipated will follow in the wake of successful drug discovery.  
  
Far less well funded is the research into the use and effects of live helminths, and their development for mass application in both the treatment and prevention of autoimmune, inflammatory and allergic diseases, including neuropsychiatric conditions.  
+
Far less well funded is the research into the use and effects of live helminths, and their development for mass application in both the treatment and prevention of autoimmune, inflammatory, metabolic and allergic diseases, including neuropsychiatric conditions.  
  
 
This latter work is being spearheaded by Prof William Parker and his team at Duke University, the progress of which is dependent on finance being found for each step they take - finance which is hard to secure from the usual sources due to the perceived lack of potential profits.   
 
This latter work is being spearheaded by Prof William Parker and his team at Duke University, the progress of which is dependent on finance being found for each step they take - finance which is hard to secure from the usual sources due to the perceived lack of potential profits.   
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Donations are needed to support this work at Duke, and even small amounts will make a difference. For example, $50 will go a long way towards covering the cost of publishing a scientific paper. $500 will help towards supporting a summer intern working on the HDC project. $5,000 would cover the supply costs of the HDC project for five months. $10,000 could pay for a study in an animal model, for example testing the idea that helminths may help with wound healing. (This is something the team at Duke believe, based on available information, that helminths probably do, but which has not yet been tested. If the hypothesis were shown to be correct, this would provide a huge push forward for the field of wound care.)
 
Donations are needed to support this work at Duke, and even small amounts will make a difference. For example, $50 will go a long way towards covering the cost of publishing a scientific paper. $500 will help towards supporting a summer intern working on the HDC project. $5,000 would cover the supply costs of the HDC project for five months. $10,000 could pay for a study in an animal model, for example testing the idea that helminths may help with wound healing. (This is something the team at Duke believe, based on available information, that helminths probably do, but which has not yet been tested. If the hypothesis were shown to be correct, this would provide a huge push forward for the field of wound care.)
  
Anyone wishing to donate by cheque should make this out either to "Duke University Medical Center", with "for William Parker's HT research" in the memo, or to "William Parker", with "Immunity's Forge" in the memo. The [http://www.immunitysforge.org/about/ Immunity’s Forge art studio] website is also set up to take donations by credit card via a [https://secure.squarespace.com/commerce/donate?donatePageId=545d2c86e4b081b329698faf donation page]. Either of these approaches will ensure that the money donated will be spent on helminthic therapy research and not on one of the other projects being pursued by Parker’s lab, such as the autism/acetaminophen project. Both the medical centre and the art studio are registered non-profit organisations, so donations to either are tax deductible for US citizens.  
+
Anyone wishing to donate by cheque should make this out either to "Duke University Medical Center", with "for William Parker's HT research" in the memo, or to "William Parker", with "Immunity's Forge" in the memo. The [http://www.immunitysforge.org/about/ Immunity’s Forge art studio] website is also set up to take donations by credit card via a [https://secure.squarespace.com/commerce/donate?donatePageId=545d2c86e4b081b329698faf donation page]. Either of these approaches will ensure that the money donated will be spent on helminthic therapy research and not on one of the other projects being pursued by Parker’s lab, such as the autism/paracetamol (acetaminophen) project. Both the medical centre and the art studio are registered non-profit organisations, so donations to either are tax deductible for US citizens.
  
 
== Further reading ==
 
== Further reading ==

Latest revision as of 23:10, 1 March 2021

Home>Helminthic therapy research

This page lists over 700 papers and reports of scientific studies relating to helminthic therapyThe reintroduction to the digestive tract of a controlled number of specially domesticated, mutualistic helminths (intestinal worms) in the form of microscopic eggs or larvae to reconstitute a depleted biome to treat or prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immune-related disorders, including allergy. and closely associated topics such as the Hygiene Hypothesis, the Old Friends' Hypothesis, Evolutionary Mismatch Theory and Biome Depletion Theory / Biota Alteration Theory.

There are four organisms being used currently in helminthic therapyThe reintroduction to the digestive tract of a controlled number of specially domesticated, mutualistic helminths (intestinal worms) in the form of microscopic eggs or larvae to reconstitute a depleted biome to treat or prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immune-related disorders, including allergy..

  • Human hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin., Necator americanus (NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus)
  • Human whipwormA helminth with a tapering whiplike body that lives in the colon. In helminthic therapy, the microscopic eggs of either the human Trichuris trichiura (TTO) or pig Trichuris suis (TSO) are taken in a drink., Trichuris trichiura (TTOthe ova (eggs) of the human whipworm, Trichuris trichiura)
  • Pig whipwormA helminth with a tapering whiplike body that lives in the colon. In helminthic therapy, the microscopic eggs of either the human Trichuris trichiura (TTO) or pig Trichuris suis (TSO) are taken in a drink., Trichuris suis (TSOthe ova (eggs) of the porcine (pig) whipworm, Trichuris suis)
  • Rat tapewormA helminth with a flat, ribbon-like, segmented body. Only the murine (rat) tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta, is used in helminthic therapy and this generally does not reach adulthood in humans so requires regular dosing of HDC., Hymenolepis diminuta (HDCHymenolepis diminuta cysticercoids (Hi-men-o-lep'is dim-a-nu-ta sis-ti-sur-koid) - the larval cysts of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta)

Some of the reports and papers listed below have focussed on the effects of other species of helminthAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths], or molecules derived from them, but all are nevertheless valuable for the insights they provide about the therapeutic and prophylactic effects of helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths].

What researchers say about helminthic therapyThe reintroduction to the digestive tract of a controlled number of specially domesticated, mutualistic helminths (intestinal worms) in the form of microscopic eggs or larvae to reconstitute a depleted biome to treat or prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immune-related disorders, including allergy.

The following quotes illustrate the current thinking among researchers who are investigating the therapeutic use of living helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths].

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Although some helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] are known to cause disease and have been labeled parasitesAn organism that lives in or on another organism (its host) and benefits at the host’s expense. (The organisms used in helminthic therapy are, strictly speaking, not parasites, but mutualists, because they have a mutually beneficial symbiotic relationship with their hosts.), it is now clear that some exposure to this class of organisms is necessary for human health. (Bono-Lunn et al) [1]
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The results strongly support previous indications that helminth therapyThe reintroduction to the digestive tract of a controlled number of specially domesticated, mutualistic helminths (intestinal worms) in the form of microscopic eggs or larvae to reconstitute a depleted biome to treat or prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immune-related disorders, including allergy. can effectively treat a wide range of allergies, autoimmune conditions and neuropsychiatric disorders. (Liu et al) [2]
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What was a costly and sometimes risky venture into the unknown, undertaken by only a few 10 years ago, is rapidly becoming a readily available and well-established resource currently used by thousands of individuals. (Cheng et al, 2015) [3]
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Although self-treatmentMedication or treatment of one's own disease or condition without medical assistance. with helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] cannot be recommended by medical professionals due to a lack of blinded, placebo controlled trials, neither should it be discouraged since the available evidence suggests that it is beneficial in most cases when practiced by knowledgeable individuals. (Parker and Morey) [4]
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In developed countries, where we are well nourished, worms are potentially good. If I had Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitisUlcerative colitis (Colitis ulcerosa, UC) is a form of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) which specifically affects the large intestine, or colon, causing characteristic ulcers, or open sores. The main symptom of active disease is constant diarrhea mixed with blood, of gradual onset. or multiple sclerosis, I would infect myself without hesitation. (Prof Alex Loukas, Australian Institute of Tropical Health & Medicine) [5]
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Some patients with milder disease or more inclined for natural treatments may consider this as an option. (Prof Constantinescu, Nottingham University, commenting about Multiple Sclerosis.) [6]
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All immunocompetent humans need regular exposure to helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] in order to maintain optimal immune function and avoid risk for inflammation-associated disease… access to helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] is a basic human need. (Smyth et al) [7]
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We need to embrace the view that helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] are a necessary component of the ecosystem of a healthy body, and that helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] should be cultivated for population-wide biota restoration. (Villeneuve et al) [8]
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Biome reconstitutionAn alternative term for helminthic therapy taken from a seminal publication by Prof William Parker [http://evmedreview.com/?p=457] and used as the title of a citizen science Facebook group for discussion of issues relating to the epidemic of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases afflicting humans in the late 20th and 21st centuries. [https://www.facebook.com/groups/BiomeReconstitution/]… holds a promise for exposure of all individuals to naturally occurring organisms or selected variants of those organisms in a way that is required for human health. Such exposure must be considered a fundamental human right worthy of government support rather than an option for pharmaceutical development. (Parker and Ollerton) [9]
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In some not too distant futurity, there may come a day when we all take ‘helminth supplements’ along with our Omega 3 fatty acids, vitamins, and whatever else goes to make up a modern balanced diet. (Zaccone et al) [10]
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Twenty years from now everybody is going to have a helminthAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths], and no insurance company will begin to cover you if you don’t have your helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths]. We’re very confident in the science, that every single human being needs a helminthAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths]. It’s part of our biology. (Prof William Parker, Duke University, 2016) [11]

Reading packet

These selected papers provide a good overview of the potential of helminthic therapyThe reintroduction to the digestive tract of a controlled number of specially domesticated, mutualistic helminths (intestinal worms) in the form of microscopic eggs or larvae to reconstitute a depleted biome to treat or prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immune-related disorders, including allergy. and would be suitable resources to include in a reading packet to be given to a doctor or other medical professional, or to someone who is unaware of the evidence and rationale for helminthic therapyThe reintroduction to the digestive tract of a controlled number of specially domesticated, mutualistic helminths (intestinal worms) in the form of microscopic eggs or larvae to reconstitute a depleted biome to treat or prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immune-related disorders, including allergy.. The first two papers provide validation for the practice of self-treatmentMedication or treatment of one's own disease or condition without medical assistance. with helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths].

  • Overcoming Evolutionary Mismatch by Self-Treatment with Helminths: Current Practices and Experience (2015)
    This study probes the methods and outcomes reported by individuals who are self-treating with helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] and is an ideal basis for discussion between patients and their physicians.
  • Helminth–host immunological interactions: prevention and control of immune-mediated diseases (2012)
    Summarises the science underpinning helminthic therapyThe reintroduction to the digestive tract of a controlled number of specially domesticated, mutualistic helminths (intestinal worms) in the form of microscopic eggs or larvae to reconstitute a depleted biome to treat or prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immune-related disorders, including allergy..

Tips for searching the list

Symbols used in the list of documents:

  • ✅ - A key paper/report in the development of the therapeutic use of helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths]
  • ⚡ - A good place to start if you are new to helminthic therapyThe reintroduction to the digestive tract of a controlled number of specially domesticated, mutualistic helminths (intestinal worms) in the form of microscopic eggs or larvae to reconstitute a depleted biome to treat or prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immune-related disorders, including allergy., or if you are looking for resources that would help someone else to understand the therapy.

If you are interested in helminthic therapyThe reintroduction to the digestive tract of a controlled number of specially domesticated, mutualistic helminths (intestinal worms) in the form of microscopic eggs or larvae to reconstitute a depleted biome to treat or prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immune-related disorders, including allergy. in relation to a particular medical condition, use your device’s search function to locate the items that are relevant to that disease. Several conditions will require the use of more than one search term, for example:

  • Allergies - search for “allerg”, “atopy” and “anaphylaxis”
  • Anemia - search for “anemia” and “anaemia”
  • Arthritis - search for ”arthrit” and “joint”
  • Asthma - search for “asthma”, “airway” and “wheeze”
  • Autism - search for “autism” and “ASD”
  • Celiac disease - search for “celiac” and “coeliac”
  • Crohn’s disease - search for “Crohn”, “bowel” and “IBDInflammatory bowel disease is a group of conditions affecting the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, particularly the colon and small intestine. The major types of IBD are Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis (UC).
  • Diabetes - search for “diabet”, “insulin”, “glucose” and “metabolic”
  • Heart disease - search for “cardio” and “atherosclerosis”
  • Inflammation - search for “inflam”
  • Leaky gut - search for “barrier”
  • Multiple sclerosis - search for “multiple sclerosis” rather than “MSMultiple sclerosis (also known as disseminated sclerosis) is a chronic, typically progressive disease involving damage to the sheaths of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord, whose symptoms may include numbness, impairment of speech and of muscular coordination, blurred vision and severe fatigue.
  • Obesity - search for “obes” and “adipose”
  • Pregnancy - search for “preg” and “mater”
  • Ulcerative colitisUlcerative colitis (Colitis ulcerosa, UC) is a form of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) which specifically affects the large intestine, or colon, causing characteristic ulcers, or open sores. The main symptom of active disease is constant diarrhea mixed with blood, of gradual onset. - search for “colitis”, “bowel” and “IBDInflammatory bowel disease is a group of conditions affecting the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, particularly the colon and small intestine. The major types of IBD are Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis (UC).

Obtaining copies of scientific papers

Unless otherwise stated, the main links presented below are to PubMed abstracts, with additional links being provided to any full text and PDF copies that were available at the time we added the links to our list. (Some full text copies are embargoed for a period of time by their publishers.)

Where full text copies are not available from PubMed, these can usually be obtained instantly, free of charge, from Sci-Hub, although this pirate domain periodically becomes unavailable due to legal attacks by publishers, it invariably resurfaces once its founder, Alexandra Elbakyan, has erected yet another workaround. [12]

To get a paper from Sci-Hub, go to one of the following links and copy/paste the title, or DOI number, of the paper you want into Sci-Hub’s search box. Then hit Return.

https://sci-hub.do
https://sci-hub.st
https://sci-hub.se

In the rare event that the paper you want is not available from Sci-Hub, you will be able to get it free of charge from the Facebook group, Get Your Papers, although this process takes a little longer than using Sci-Hub.

Research papers & articles

2021

2020

  • ✅ 2020 Jun 15 Hookworm Treatment for Relapsing Multiple Sclerosis: A Randomized Double-Blinded Placebo-Controlled Trial -- Full text (While the primary statistical endpoint of this trial - the cumulative number of new/enlarging T2 and new enhancing T1 lesions at month 9 - was not significantly different between the hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. group (154) and the placebo group (164), a closer examination of the data reveals that more than half the patients given hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. did not have any new lesions. “The findings of the research… show that infecting MSMultiple sclerosis (also known as disseminated sclerosis) is a chronic, typically progressive disease involving damage to the sheaths of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord, whose symptoms may include numbness, impairment of speech and of muscular coordination, blurred vision and severe fatigue. patients with a safe dose of… Necator americanusThe species of human hookworm used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. induces immunoregulatory responses and boosts the number of cells which help keep the immune system under control.” [15] The trial’s lead researcher concluded, “I think there would be a niche for this approach - for individuals with mild disease who don't want to take immunomodulating drugs for life and would prefer a more natural approach.” [16])

2019

  • 2019 Oct 24 Tuftsin-phosphorylcholine attenuate experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (MSMultiple sclerosis (also known as disseminated sclerosis) is a chronic, typically progressive disease involving damage to the sheaths of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord, whose symptoms may include numbness, impairment of speech and of muscular coordination, blurred vision and severe fatigue.)
  • 2019 Jan 9 Cross-Domain and Viral Interactions in the Microbiome (Includes a 10-page section on microbiotaThe specific population of microorganisms living in a certain part of the body, such as the gut. "Microbiome" refers to all the microorganisms living in and on the body, or the genome of these microorganisms. These two terms are often used interchangeably./helminth interactions and their effects on immune function.)

2018

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2015

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1982

  • 1982 Jul Modulation of immune responses by commensalCommensalism is a relationship between two organisms where one benefits from the other without affecting it. bacteria and intestinal helminth PDF

1979

1978

1976

  • ✅ 1976 Sept 25 Letter: IgE, parasites, and allergy This letter reported the first known case of successful helminthic therapyThe reintroduction to the digestive tract of a controlled number of specially domesticated, mutualistic helminths (intestinal worms) in the form of microscopic eggs or larvae to reconstitute a depleted biome to treat or prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immune-related disorders, including allergy. in which colonisation with Necator americanusThe species of human hookworm used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. was shown to resolve hay fever. (NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus)
  • ✅ 1976 Aug Serum IgE levels in white and metis communities in Saskatchewan This paper's author suggested that atopic disease is the price paid by some members of the white community of northern Saskatchewan for their relative freedom from helminth infestation and viral and bacterial infection.

1968

  • ✅ 1968 Aug 17 Autoimmune disease and parasitic infections in Nigerians The author of this paper suggested a possible relationship between parasiticAn organism that lives in or on another organism (its host) and benefits at the host’s expense. (The organisms used in helminthic therapy are, strictly speaking, not parasites, but mutualists, because they have a mutually beneficial symbiotic relationship with their hosts.) infections and the reduced incidence of autoimmune disease in parts of tropical Africa.

1932

Take part in the research

Socio-medical research at Duke University

The researchers at Duke have previously reported on data they have already gathered.

The team at Duke are now looking for details about the use of helminthic therapyThe reintroduction to the digestive tract of a controlled number of specially domesticated, mutualistic helminths (intestinal worms) in the form of microscopic eggs or larvae to reconstitute a depleted biome to treat or prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immune-related disorders, including allergy. to treat those conditions for which helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] are less commonly employed, such as lupus, migraine headaches and neuropsychiatric disorders. If you have used helminthic therapyThe reintroduction to the digestive tract of a controlled number of specially domesticated, mutualistic helminths (intestinal worms) in the form of microscopic eggs or larvae to reconstitute a depleted biome to treat or prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immune-related disorders, including allergy. to treat one of these conditions, and whether or not this proved successful, please consider completing the Helminth Self-treatment Survey.

Support the research by donation

The vast majority of research into the effects of helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] is being carried out by researchers aiming to discover worm-derived molecules that can potentially be used to create drugs, and this work is already well funded by agencies hoping to benefit from the patents and sales which it is anticipated will follow in the wake of successful drug discovery.

Far less well funded is the research into the use and effects of live helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths], and their development for mass application in both the treatment and prevention of autoimmune, inflammatory, metabolic and allergic diseases, including neuropsychiatric conditions.

This latter work is being spearheaded by Prof William Parker and his team at Duke University, the progress of which is dependent on finance being found for each step they take - finance which is hard to secure from the usual sources due to the perceived lack of potential profits.

At the present time, the team at Duke have two main goals for their helminthic therapyThe reintroduction to the digestive tract of a controlled number of specially domesticated, mutualistic helminths (intestinal worms) in the form of microscopic eggs or larvae to reconstitute a depleted biome to treat or prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immune-related disorders, including allergy. research.

  • Writing papers, including reviews, commentaries, and policy briefs about helminthic therapyThe reintroduction to the digestive tract of a controlled number of specially domesticated, mutualistic helminths (intestinal worms) in the form of microscopic eggs or larvae to reconstitute a depleted biome to treat or prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immune-related disorders, including allergy.. In particular, they want to push for change in the landscape of the field to get helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] repositioned away from the modern drug pipeline, which is unsuitable and impractical for helminthic therapyThe reintroduction to the digestive tract of a controlled number of specially domesticated, mutualistic helminths (intestinal worms) in the form of microscopic eggs or larvae to reconstitute a depleted biome to treat or prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immune-related disorders, including allergy.. The Duke team would also like to be able to provide evidence to encourage governments to focus on the ultimate causes of diseases rather than on applying ‘sticking plasters’ to patch up sick people, and to concentrate on disease prevention - especially by means of biota restoration - rather than on the use of expensive pharmaceuticals.
  • Continuing to pursue the traditional pathway, for example, by seeking approval from the FDA for trials with HDCsHymenolepis diminuta cysticercoids (Hi-men-o-lep'is dim-a-nu-ta sis-ti-sur-koid) - the larval cysts of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta.

Donations are needed to support this work at Duke, and even small amounts will make a difference. For example, $50 will go a long way towards covering the cost of publishing a scientific paper. $500 will help towards supporting a summer intern working on the HDCHymenolepis diminuta cysticercoids (Hi-men-o-lep'is dim-a-nu-ta sis-ti-sur-koid) - the larval cysts of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta project. $5,000 would cover the supply costs of the HDCHymenolepis diminuta cysticercoids (Hi-men-o-lep'is dim-a-nu-ta sis-ti-sur-koid) - the larval cysts of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta project for five months. $10,000 could pay for a study in an animal model, for example testing the idea that helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] may help with wound healing. (This is something the team at Duke believe, based on available information, that helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] probably do, but which has not yet been tested. If the hypothesis were shown to be correct, this would provide a huge push forward for the field of wound care.)

Anyone wishing to donate by cheque should make this out either to "Duke University Medical Center", with "for William Parker's HThelminthic therapy research" in the memo, or to "William Parker", with "Immunity's Forge" in the memo. The Immunity’s Forge art studio website is also set up to take donations by credit card via a donation page. Either of these approaches will ensure that the money donated will be spent on helminthic therapyThe reintroduction to the digestive tract of a controlled number of specially domesticated, mutualistic helminths (intestinal worms) in the form of microscopic eggs or larvae to reconstitute a depleted biome to treat or prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immune-related disorders, including allergy. research and not on one of the other projects being pursued by Parker’s lab, such as the autism/paracetamolAcetaminophen (Tylenol) (acetaminophen) project. Both the medical centre and the art studio are registered non-profit organisations, so donations to either are tax deductible for US citizens.

Further reading

These pages contain further research papers and articles relevant to each page title.