Difference between revisions of "Helminthic therapy research"

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<div style="border:1px solid #BFA3AF;background-color:#F2CEDD;padding-left:8px;"><h2 style = "margin-top:10px;border:0px solid #CEDFF2;">What researchers say about helminthic therapy</h2></div>
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The following quotes illustrate the current thinking among researchers who are investigating the therapeutic use of living helminths.
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{{Quote|indent}}Although some helminths are known to cause disease and have been labeled parasites, it is now clear that some exposure to this class of organisms is necessary for human health. (Bono-Lunn et al) [https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/10601333.2016.1210159]{{Quote|/indent}}
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{{Quote|indent}}The results strongly support previous indications that helminth therapy can effectively treat a wide range of allergies, autoimmune conditions and neuropsychiatric disorders. (Liu et al) [https://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/images/7/77/Practices_and_outcomes_of_self-treatment_with_helminths_based_on_physicians_observations.pdf]{{Quote|/indent}}
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{{Quote|indent}}What was a costly and sometimes risky venture into the unknown, undertaken by only a few 10 years ago, is rapidly becoming a readily available and well-established resource currently used by thousands of individuals. (Cheng et al, 2015) [http://www.yourwildlife.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/galley-proof-v2.pdf]{{Quote|/indent}}
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{{Quote|indent}}In developed countries, where we are well nourished, worms are potentially good. If I had Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis or multiple sclerosis, I would infect myself without hesitation. (Prof Alex Loukas, Australian Institute of Tropical Health & Medicine) [http://lifeonus.vhx.tv]{{Quote|/indent}}
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{{Quote|indent}}All immunocompetent humans need regular exposure to helminths in order to maintain optimal immune function and avoid risk for inflammation-associated disease… access to helminths is a basic human need. (Smyth et al) [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29064448]{{Quote|/indent}}
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{{Quote|indent}}We need to embrace the view that helminths are a necessary component of the ecosystem of a healthy body, and that helminths should be cultivated for population-wide biota restoration. (Villeneuve et al) [https://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/images/5/57/Evolution_of_the_hygiene_hypothesis_into_biota_alteration_theory-_what_are_the_paradigms_and_where_are_the_clinical_applications%3F.pdf]{{Quote|/indent}}
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{{Quote|indent}}Biome reconstitution… holds a promise for exposure of all individuals to naturally occurring organisms or selected variants of those organisms in a way that is required for human health. Such exposure must be considered a fundamental human right worthy of government support rather than an option for pharmaceutical development. (Parker and Ollerton) [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24481190]{{Quote|/indent}}
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{{Quote|indent}}In some not too distant futurity, there may come a day when we all take ‘helminth supplements’ along with our Omega 3 fatty acids, vitamins, and whatever else goes to make up a modern balanced diet. (Zaccone et al) [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16965287]{{Quote|/indent}}
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{{Quote|indent}}Twenty years from now everybody is going to have a helminth, and no insurance company will begin to cover you if you don’t have your helminths. We’re very confident in the science, that every single human being needs a helminth. It’s part of our biology. (Prof William Parker, Duke University, 2016) [http://pamplinmedia.com/pt/9-news/302838-180108-hooked-on-hookworms-and-other-parasites]{{Quote|/indent}}
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These selected papers provide a good overview of the potential of helminthic therapy and would be suitable resources to include in a reading packet to be given to a doctor or someone who is unaware of the evidence and rationale for helminthic therapy. The first two papers provide validation for the practice of self-treatment with helminths.
 
These selected papers provide a good overview of the potential of helminthic therapy and would be suitable resources to include in a reading packet to be given to a doctor or someone who is unaware of the evidence and rationale for helminthic therapy. The first two papers provide validation for the practice of self-treatment with helminths.
  
* [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27240605 Practices and outcomes of self-treatment with helminths based on physicians' observations] -- [[media:Practices_and_outcomes_of_self-treatment_with_helminths_based_on_physicians’_observations.pdf | PDF]] (2016)<br>The first study to examine, through the eyes of their physicians, the practices and experiences of individuals who are self-treating with helminths.  
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* [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27240605 Practices and outcomes of self-treatment with helminths based on physicians' observations] -- [[media:Practices_and_outcomes_of_self-treatment_with_helminths_based_on_physicians_observations.pdf | PDF]] (2016)<br>The first study to examine, through the eyes of their physicians, the practices and experiences of individuals who are self-treating with helminths.  
  
 
* [http://www.yourwildlife.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/galley-proof-v2.pdf Overcoming Evolutionary Mismatch by Self-Treatment with Helminths: Current Practices and Experience] (2015)<br>This study probes the methods and outcomes reported by individuals who are self-treating with helminths and is an ideal basis for discussion between patients and their physicians.
 
* [http://www.yourwildlife.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/galley-proof-v2.pdf Overcoming Evolutionary Mismatch by Self-Treatment with Helminths: Current Practices and Experience] (2015)<br>This study probes the methods and outcomes reported by individuals who are self-treating with helminths and is an ideal basis for discussion between patients and their physicians.
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===2019===
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===2020===
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* 2020 May 20 [https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32436176/ Changes in the Severity of Gastric Mucosal Inflammation Associated With Helicobacter Pylori in Humans Coinfected With Intestinal Helminths]
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* 2020 May 18 [https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.05.11.20098053v1.full.pdf Parasites and their protection against COVID-19 - Ecology or Immunology?] (PDF)
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* 2020 May 14 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32407385 Harnessing helminth-driven immunoregulation in the search for novel therapeutic modalities] -- [https://journals.plos.org/plospathogens/article?id=10.1371/journal.ppat.1008508 Full text] | [https://journals.plos.org/plospathogens/article/file?id=10.1371/journal.ppat.1008508&type=printable PDF]
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* 2020 May 7 [https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32448639/ Microbes, Helminths, and Rheumatic Diseases]
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* 2020 May 5 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32372471 Systematic review: gastrointestinal infection and incident inflammatory bowel disease] -- [https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/apt.15770 Full text] (IBD)
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* 2020 May 4 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32367051 Heterogeneity in the initiation, development and function of type 2 immunity]
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* 2020 May 1 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32358579 Will helminth co-infection modulate COVID-19 severity in endemic regions?] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7193760/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7193760/pdf/41577_2020_Article_330.pdf PDF]
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* 2020 Apr 27 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32341115 The Potential Role of Schistosome-Associated Factors as Therapeutic Modulators of the Immune System]
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* 2020 Apr 22 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32321922 CD8+ regulatory T cells are critical in prevention of autoimmune-mediated diabetes]
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* 2020 Apr 22 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32321863 An anti-inflammatory eicosanoid switch mediates the suppression of type-2 inflammation by helminth larval products]
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* 2020 Mar 18 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32200170 Effects of the dietary fibre inulin and Trichuris suis products on inflammatory responses in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages] (TSO)
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* 2020 Mar 10 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32153025 Regulatory T cells in Helminth Infection: Induction, Function and Therapeutic Potential]
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* 2020 Mar 4 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32194529 Dietary Inulin and Trichuris suis Infection Promote Beneficial Bacteria Throughout the Porcine Gut] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7064446/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7064446/pdf/fmicb-11-00312.pdf PDF] (TSO)
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* 2020 Mar 3 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32126084 Helminth infection modulates systemic pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines implicated in type 2 diabetes mellitus pathogenesis] -- [https://journals.plos.org/plosntds/article?id=10.1371/journal.pntd.0008101 Full text]
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* 2020 Mar 2 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32135180 Helminths, polyparasitism, and the gut microbiome in the Philippines]
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* 2020 Feb 6 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32027755 IL-33 is essential to prevent high fat diet-induced obesity in mice infected with an intestinal helminth]
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* 2020 Jan-Feb [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32123528 Perspectives of People with Multiple Sclerosis About Helminth Immunotherapy] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7041615 Full text]
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* 2020 Jan 31 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32005978 The gut microbiota response to helminth infection depends on host sex and genotype]
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* 2020 Jan 24 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31976564 Wuchereria bancrofti macrophage migration inhibitory factor-2 (rWbaMIF-2) ameliorates experimental colitis]
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* 2020 Jan 23 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31971074 A critical analysis of helminth immunotherapy in multiple sclerosis]
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* 2020 Jan 16 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31954872 Suppression of systemic lupus erythematosus in NZBWF1 mice infected with Hymenolepis microstoma]
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* 2020 Jan 1 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31894102 Helminth infections drive heterogeneity in human type 2 and regulatory cells]
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* 2020 Jan [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31914677 Fasciola helminth defense molecule-1 protects against experimental arthritis by inhibiting osteoclast formation and function without modulating the systemic immune response]
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===2019===  
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* 2019 Dec 26 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31888063 Immunomodulation of Murine Chronic DSS-Induced Colitis by Tuftsin-Phosphorylcholine] -- [https://www.mdpi.com/2077-0383/9/1/65/htm  Full text]
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* 2019 Dec 24 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31878146 Safety of P28GST, a Protein Derived from a Schistosome Helminth Parasite, in Patients with Crohn's Disease: A Pilot Study (ACROHNEM)] -- [https://www.mdpi.com/2077-0383/9/1/41/htm Full text]
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* 2019 Dec 19 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31885223 Toxicity of parasites and their unconventional use in medicine]
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* 2019 Dec 16 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31845020 Amelioration of type 1 diabetes by recombinant fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase and cystatin derived from Schistosoma japonicum in a murine model]
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* 2019 Dec 13 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31836772 Immunomodulatory effect of Syphacia obvelata in treatment of experimental DSS-induced colitis in mouse model]
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* 2019 Dec 13 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31834940 Chronic infection with a tissue invasive helminth attenuates sublethal anaphylaxis and reduces granularity and number of mast cells]
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* 2019 Dec 11 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31829172 Safety and tolerability of experimental hookworm infection in humans with metabolic disease: study protocol for a phase 1b randomised controlled clinical trial]
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* 2019 Nov 6 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31781154 The Effect of Gut Microbiome Composition on Human Immune Responses: An Exploration of Interference by Helminth Infections] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6856646/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6856646/pdf/fgene-10-01028.pdf PDF]
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* 2019 Nov 7 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31719981 The interplay of type 2 immunity, helminth infection and the microbiota in regulating metabolism] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6837856/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6837856/pdf/CTI2-8-e01089.pdf PDF]
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* 2019 Oct 31 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31673002 Intestinal helminth infection enhances bacteria-induced recruitment of neutrophils to the airspace]
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* 2019 Oct 24 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31683117 Tuftsin-phosphorylcholine attenuate experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis] (MS)
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* 2019 Oct 12 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31605645 Th2 signals are not essential for the anti-arthritic effects of Trichinella spiralis in mice]
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* 2019 Sept 27 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31649786 Therapeutic applicability of helminths in autoimmune diseases - literature overview] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6807663/  Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6807663/pdf/PG-14-37798.pdf PDF]
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* 2019 Sept 27 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31611876 Ascaris lumbricoides Cystatin Prevents Development of Allergic Airway Inflammation in a Mouse Model] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6777510/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6777510/pdf/fimmu-10-02280.pdf PDF] (But also see the details [[Ascaris lumbricoides | '''here''']] regarding the potentially adverse effects of infection with ascaris lumbricoides.)
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* 2019 Sept 18 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31541662 Helminth-microbiota cross-talk - a journey through the vertebrate digestive system]
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* 2019 Sept 11 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31508807 Public health deworming programmes for soil-transmitted helminths in children living in endemic areas]
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* 2019 Sept 9 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31496071 Schistosoma japonicum peptide SJMHE1 suppresses airway inflammation of allergic asthma in mice] -- [https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/jcmm.14661 Full text] | [https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1111/jcmm.14661 PDF]
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* 2019 Sept 5 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31487324 Schistosoma mansoni soluble egg antigen (SEA) and recombinant Omega-1 modulate induced CD4+ T-lymphocyte responses and HIV-1 infection in vitro] -- [https://journals.plos.org/plospathogens/article?id=10.1371/journal.ppat.1007924 Full text] | [https://journals.plos.org/plospathogens/article/file?id=10.1371/journal.ppat.1007924&type=printable PDF] (Also reported by Healio: [https://www.healio.com/infectious-disease/hiv-aids/news/online/%7Bafe40491-17f2-456b-b151-8cf73288c38b%7D/helminth-infection-may-reduce-hiv-transmission-disease Helminth infection may reduce HIV transmission, disease])
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* 2019 Sept 3 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31492623 Immune Regulation of Metabolic Homeostasis by Helminths and Their Molecules]
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* 2019 Aug 30 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31504336 The effect of helminth infections and their treatment on metabolic outcomes: results of a cluster-randomised trial]
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* 2019 Aug 13 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31407335 Helminth-derived molecules inhibit colitis-associated colon cancer development through NF-kB and STAT3 regulation]
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* 2019 Aug 9 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31397879 Critical roles of regulatory B and T cells in helminth parasite-induced protection against allergic airway inflammation]
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* 2019 Jul 27 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31352539 Potential application of helminth therapy for resolution of neuroinflammation in neuropsychiatric disorders]
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* 2019 Jul 9 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31299381 The helminth-derived peptide GK-1 induces an anti-tumoral CD8 T cell response associated with downregulation of the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway] (Cancer)
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* 2019 Jul 1 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31260090 Soil-transmitted helminth infection and intestinal inflammation among the Shuar of Amazonian Ecuador] (TTO)
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* 2019 Jul-Dec [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31579670 The endosymbiotic role of intestinal helminths in multiple sclerosis: Promising probiotic hypothesis] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6767793/ Full text]
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* 2019 Jun 28 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31253164 Preventive and therapeutic effects of Trichinella spiralis adult extracts on allergic inflammation in an experimental asthma mouse model] -- [https://parasitesandvectors.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13071-019-3561-1 Full text]
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* 2019 Jun 27 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31255915 The immune response to Hymenolepis nana in mice decreases tumorigenesis induced by 7,12 dimethylbenz-anthracene] (For a very readable commentary on this paper, see, [https://biomebuzz.com/2019/07/09/more-on-helminths-and-the-prevention-of-cancer/ More on Helminths and the Prevention of Cancer].)
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* 2019 Jun 17 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31209366 Helminths and microbiota — partners in arthritis prevention?]
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* 2019 Jun 12 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31212833 Contribution of the Gut Microbiota in P28GST-Mediated Anti-Inflammatory Effects: Experimental and Clinical Insights] -- [https://www.mdpi.com/2073-4409/8/6/577/htm Full text]
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* 2019 Jun 12 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31187881 Regulation of Immunity and Allergy by Helminth Parasites]
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* 2019 Jun [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30716463 An advanced protocol for the purification of whipworm eggs from feces for use as therapeutic agents]
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* 2019 May 29 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31236458 Pre-conception maternal helminth infection transfers via nursing long-lasting cellular immunity against helminths to offspring] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6587632/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6587632/pdf/aav3058.pdf PDF]
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* 2019 May 29 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31153721 Helminth Therapy – From the Parasite Perspective]
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* 2019 May 28 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31138616 Schistosoma mansoni worm infection regulates the intestinal microbiota and susceptibility to colitis]
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* 2019 May 22 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31205419 Inverse Associations of Schistosoma mansoni Infection and Metabolic Syndromes in Humans: A Cross-Sectional Study in Northeast Ethiopia] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6537292/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6537292/pdf/10.1177_1178636119849934.pdf PDF]
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* 2019 May 21 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31178861 Anti-inflammatory Trained Immunity Mediated by Helminth Products Attenuates the Induction of T Cell-Mediated Autoimmune Disease] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6537856/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6537856/pdf/fimmu-10-01109.pdf PDF]
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* 2019 May [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30986403 Removal of adult cyathostomins alters faecal microbiota and promotes an inflammatory phenotype in horses] -- [https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0020751919300815?via%3Dihub Full text]
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* 2019 Apr 23 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31016721 Helminths products directly modulate T cells that mediate experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis]
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* 2019 Apr 17 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31004803 Cytokine production in allergic and Trichuris trichiura-infected children from an urban region of the Brazilian northeast] (TTO)
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* 2019 Apr 15 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30991712 Characterization of Tapeworm Metabolites and Their Reported Biological Activities] — [https://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/24/8/1480/htm Full text]
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* 2019 Apr 10 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30980897 Genetic diversity of the potentially therapeutic tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea)] -- [https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1383576918302800?fbclid=IwAR37HAgKvovhcjr5FkSQAK3NVpoW_7_n79WOyeqKBgCbJHtHaByAC6tRzlc Full text]
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* 2019 Apr 8 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30962398 Suppression of obesity by an intestinal helminth through interactions with intestinal microbiota] --  [https://iai.asm.org/content/iai/early/2019/03/19/IAI.00042-19.full.pdf PDF] (Also reported by EurekAlert: [https://eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2019-04/asfm-ihb040819.php Intestinal helminths boost fat burning: Japanese investigators show how])
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* 2019 Apr 5 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30952846 The parasitic worm product ES-62 normalises the gut microbiota bone marrow axis in inflammatory arthritis]
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* 2019 Apr [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30902137 Helminth therapy for autism under gut-brain axis- hypothesis]
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* 2019 Mar 14 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30879759 Therapeutic Potential of Helminths and Helminth-Derived Antigens for Resolution of Inflammation in Inflammatory Bowel Disease] (IBD)
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* 2019 Mar 29 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31016928 Progress of research on the interplay between helminth and intestinal protozoa and gut microbiota]
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* 2019 Mar 7 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30852293 Dendritic cells treated by Trichinella spiralis muscle larval excretory/secretory products alleviate TNBS-induced colitis in mice]
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* 2019 Mar [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30905098 Helminth-Related Tuftsin-Phosphorylcholine Compound and its Interplay with Autoimmune Diseases] -- [https://www.ima.org.il/FilesUpload/IMAJ/0/344/172407.pdf PDF]
  
 
* 2019 Feb 26 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30807258 Filarial extract of Litomosoides sigmodontis induces a type 2 immune response and attenuates plaque development in hyperlipidemic ApoE-knockout mice]
 
* 2019 Feb 26 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30807258 Filarial extract of Litomosoides sigmodontis induces a type 2 immune response and attenuates plaque development in hyperlipidemic ApoE-knockout mice]
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* 2019 Jan 4 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30640950 Exclusive dependence of IL-10Rα signalling on intestinal microbiota homeostasis and control of whipworm infection] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6347331/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6347331/pdf/ppat.1007265.pdf PDF] (This study contributes to understanding of the actions of TSO and TTO on diseases such as IBD. There's a more readable summary of the research [https://www.cambridgenetwork.co.uk/news/immune-master-regulator-responses-to-parasite/?fbclid=IwAR1MMJPuhc1SmoHUF7oGDWL3VELh8cOe-f46nnbeHjPDyKTb2eBDFUmFyFM here].)
 
* 2019 Jan 4 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30640950 Exclusive dependence of IL-10Rα signalling on intestinal microbiota homeostasis and control of whipworm infection] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6347331/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6347331/pdf/ppat.1007265.pdf PDF] (This study contributes to understanding of the actions of TSO and TTO on diseases such as IBD. There's a more readable summary of the research [https://www.cambridgenetwork.co.uk/news/immune-master-regulator-responses-to-parasite/?fbclid=IwAR1MMJPuhc1SmoHUF7oGDWL3VELh8cOe-f46nnbeHjPDyKTb2eBDFUmFyFM here].)
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* 2019 Jan [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30413272 Effect of Trichinella spiralis intervention on TNBS-induced experimental colitis in mice]
 +
 +
* 2019 [http://www.jneuropsychiatry.org/peer-review/parasitic-worms-for-the-treatment-of-neurodegeneration-12989.html Parasitic Worms for the Treatment of Neurodegeneration] -- [http://www.jneuropsychiatry.org/peer-review/parasitic-worms-for-the-treatment-of-neurodegeneration.pdf PDF]
  
 
===2018===
 
===2018===
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* 2018 Dec 10 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30638679 Modulation of autoimmune arthritis by environmental 'hygiene' and commensal microbiota]
 
* 2018 Dec 10 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30638679 Modulation of autoimmune arthritis by environmental 'hygiene' and commensal microbiota]
 
* 2018 Dec 4 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30529501 Helminth-based therapies for rheumatoid arthritis: A systematic review and meta-analysis]
 
* 2018 Dec 4 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30529501 Helminth-based therapies for rheumatoid arthritis: A systematic review and meta-analysis]
* 2018 Dec 4 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30517865 B Cells Produce the Tissue-Protective Protein RELMa during Helminth Infection, which Inhibits IL-17 Expression and Limits Emphysema]
+
* 2018 Dec 4 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30517865 B Cells Produce the Tissue-Protective Protein RELMa during Helminth Infection, which Inhibits IL-17 Expression and Limits Emphysema] -- [https://www.cell.com/cell-reports/fulltext/S2211-1247(18)31801-1 Full text] (Wound healing)
 
* 2018 Dec 4 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30517697 The double burden of diabetes and global infection in low and middle-income countries]
 
* 2018 Dec 4 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30517697 The double burden of diabetes and global infection in low and middle-income countries]
 
* 2018 Dec [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30567900 Fh15 Blocks the Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Cytokine Storm While Modulating Peritoneal Macrophage Migration and CD38 Expression within Spleen Macrophages in a Mouse Model of Septic Shock] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6300687/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6300687/pdf/mSphere.00548-18.pdf PDF]
 
* 2018 Dec [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30567900 Fh15 Blocks the Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Cytokine Storm While Modulating Peritoneal Macrophage Migration and CD38 Expression within Spleen Macrophages in a Mouse Model of Septic Shock] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6300687/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6300687/pdf/mSphere.00548-18.pdf PDF]
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* 2018 Oct 19 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30341242 Mast Cell Deficiency in Mice Results in Biomass Overgrowth and Delayed Expulsion of the Rat Tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta] (HDC)
 
* 2018 Oct 19 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30341242 Mast Cell Deficiency in Mice Results in Biomass Overgrowth and Delayed Expulsion of the Rat Tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta] (HDC)
 
* 2018 Oct 17 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30336585 Failure of the Anti-Inflammatory Parasitic Worm Product ES-62 to Provide Protection in Mouse Models of Type I Diabetes, Multiple Sclerosis, and Inflammatory Bowel Disease] -- [https://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/23/10/2669/htm Full text]
 
* 2018 Oct 17 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30336585 Failure of the Anti-Inflammatory Parasitic Worm Product ES-62 to Provide Protection in Mouse Models of Type I Diabetes, Multiple Sclerosis, and Inflammatory Bowel Disease] -- [https://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/23/10/2669/htm Full text]
 +
* 2018 Oct 16 [https://www.arc.gov.au/news-publications/media/feature-articles/combatting-autoimmune-diseases-humble-hookworm?fbclid=IwAR0DxQ-uGjksCaC1gkCgpXhw2_ImRwgswkbyTukwHbLY2ZbNbWQD53KlXvc Combatting autoimmune diseases with the humble hookworm]
 
* 2018 Oct 12 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30369927 Immunomodulation by Helminths: Intracellular Pathways and Extracellular Vesicles] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6194161/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6194161/pdf/fimmu-09-02349.pdf PDF]
 
* 2018 Oct 12 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30369927 Immunomodulation by Helminths: Intracellular Pathways and Extracellular Vesicles] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6194161/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6194161/pdf/fimmu-09-02349.pdf PDF]
 
* 2018 Oct 11 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30316775 Immunomodulatory effects of Trichinella spiralis excretory-secretory antigens on macrophages]
 
* 2018 Oct 11 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30316775 Immunomodulatory effects of Trichinella spiralis excretory-secretory antigens on macrophages]
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* 2018 Feb 16 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29453411 The impact of a helminth-modified microbiome on host immunity]
 
* 2018 Feb 16 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29453411 The impact of a helminth-modified microbiome on host immunity]
 
* 2018 Feb 2 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29402395 Intestinal worms eating neuropsychiatric disorders? Apparently so]
 
* 2018 Feb 2 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29402395 Intestinal worms eating neuropsychiatric disorders? Apparently so]
 +
* 2018 Jan 27 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31662622 Helminth Therapy: Advances in the use of Parasitic Worms Against Inflammatory Bowel Diseases and its Challenges] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6799527/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6799527/pdf/helm-55-001.pdf PDF]
 
* 2018 Jan 18 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29355617 Serine protease inhibitors containing a Kunitz domain: their role in modulation of host inflammatory responses and parasite survival]
 
* 2018 Jan 18 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29355617 Serine protease inhibitors containing a Kunitz domain: their role in modulation of host inflammatory responses and parasite survival]
 
* 2018 Jan 13 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29346656 Host responses to intestinal nematodes]   
 
* 2018 Jan 13 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29346656 Host responses to intestinal nematodes]   
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=== 2017 ===
 
=== 2017 ===
 
   
 
   
 +
* 2017 Winter [https://pdxscholar.library.pdx.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1430&context=honorstheses A Critical View of Helminthic Therapy: Is It a Viable Form of Treatment for Immune Disorders Under the Category of Inflammatory Bowel Disease?] Alyssa Murphy, undergraduate thesis
 
* 2017 Dec 30 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29491533 Tuftsin-phosphorylcholine treatment of autoimmune diseases - a benefit and a message from helminths?] (No abstract) -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5825963/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5825963/pdf/RU-55-31448.pdf PDF]
 
* 2017 Dec 30 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29491533 Tuftsin-phosphorylcholine treatment of autoimmune diseases - a benefit and a message from helminths?] (No abstract) -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5825963/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5825963/pdf/RU-55-31448.pdf PDF]
 
* 2017 Dec 22 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29312343 Review: Impact of Helminth Infection on Antimycobacterial Immunity - A Focus on the Macrophage] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5743664/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5743664/pdf/fimmu-08-01864.pdf PDF]
 
* 2017 Dec 22 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29312343 Review: Impact of Helminth Infection on Antimycobacterial Immunity - A Focus on the Macrophage] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5743664/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5743664/pdf/fimmu-08-01864.pdf PDF]
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* 2017 Dec 7 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29224909  Hygiene Hypothesis in Asthma Development: Is Hygiene to Blame?]
 
* 2017 Dec 7 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29224909  Hygiene Hypothesis in Asthma Development: Is Hygiene to Blame?]
 
* 2017 Nov 29 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29238348 The Mannose Receptor in Regulation of Helminth-Mediated Host Immunity] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5712593/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5712593/pdf/fimmu-08-01677.pdf PDF]
 
* 2017 Nov 29 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29238348 The Mannose Receptor in Regulation of Helminth-Mediated Host Immunity] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5712593/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5712593/pdf/fimmu-08-01677.pdf PDF]
 +
* 2017 Nov 28 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29184071 Preventive Trichuris suis ova (TSO) treatment protects immunocompetent rabbits from DSS colitis but may be detrimental under conditions of immunosuppression] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5705695/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5705695/pdf/41598_2017_Article_16287.pdf PDF]
 
* 2017 Nov 24 [https://medicalxpress.com/news/2017-11-discovery-potent-parasite-protein-therapeutic.html Discovery of potent parasite protein may lead to new therapeutic options for inflammatory bowel conditions] Medical News Today (IBD)
 
* 2017 Nov 24 [https://medicalxpress.com/news/2017-11-discovery-potent-parasite-protein-therapeutic.html Discovery of potent parasite protein may lead to new therapeutic options for inflammatory bowel conditions] Medical News Today (IBD)
 
* 2017 Nov 24 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29171863 Schistosoma mansoni-specific immune responses and allergy in Uganda]
 
* 2017 Nov 24 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29171863 Schistosoma mansoni-specific immune responses and allergy in Uganda]
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* 2017 Nov 15 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29162324 Modulation of human macrophage activity by Ascaris antigens is dependent on macrophage polarization state]
 
* 2017 Nov 15 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29162324 Modulation of human macrophage activity by Ascaris antigens is dependent on macrophage polarization state]
 
* 2017 Nov 13 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29133417 Human resistin protects against endotoxic shock by blocking LPS-TLR4 interaction] (For media comment on this study linking helminths with potential sepsis treatment, see [https://highlandernews.org/31486/ucr-researchers-discovered-effective-treatment-sepsis/ here].)
 
* 2017 Nov 13 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29133417 Human resistin protects against endotoxic shock by blocking LPS-TLR4 interaction] (For media comment on this study linking helminths with potential sepsis treatment, see [https://highlandernews.org/31486/ucr-researchers-discovered-effective-treatment-sepsis/ here].)
* ✅ 2017 Nov 10 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29133248 Evolution of the hygiene hypothesis into biota alteration theory: What are the paradigms and where are the clinical applications?]
+
* ✅ 2017 Nov 10 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29133248 Evolution of the hygiene hypothesis into biota alteration theory: What are the paradigms and where are the clinical applications?] -- [[media:Evolution_of_the_hygiene_hypothesis_into_biota_alteration_theory-_what_are_the_paradigms_and_where_are_the_clinical_applications?.pdf | PDF]]
 
* 2017 Nov 8 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29249872 Taenia crassiceps Antigens Control Experimental Type 1 Diabetes by Inducing Alternatively Activated Macrophages] — [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5698814/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5698814/pdf/MI2017-8074329.pdf PDF]  
 
* 2017 Nov 8 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29249872 Taenia crassiceps Antigens Control Experimental Type 1 Diabetes by Inducing Alternatively Activated Macrophages] — [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5698814/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5698814/pdf/MI2017-8074329.pdf PDF]  
 
* 2017 Nov 7 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29163443 Parasite-Derived Proteins for the Treatment of Allergies and Autoimmune Diseases] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5682104/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5682104/pdf/fmicb-08-02164.pdf PDF]
 
* 2017 Nov 7 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29163443 Parasite-Derived Proteins for the Treatment of Allergies and Autoimmune Diseases] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5682104/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5682104/pdf/fmicb-08-02164.pdf PDF]
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* 2017 Aug [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28877578 Syphacia obvelata: A New Hope to Induction of Intestinal Immunological Tolerance in C57BL/6 Mice] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5594727/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5594727/pdf/kjp-55-4-439.pdf PDF]
 
* 2017 Aug [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28877578 Syphacia obvelata: A New Hope to Induction of Intestinal Immunological Tolerance in C57BL/6 Mice] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5594727/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5594727/pdf/kjp-55-4-439.pdf PDF]
 
* 2017 Jul 24 [http://trjfas.org/uploads/pdf_1183.pdf Role of Parasitic Helminths in Bioremediating Some Heavy Metal Accumulation in the Tissues of Lethrinus mahsena]
 
* 2017 Jul 24 [http://trjfas.org/uploads/pdf_1183.pdf Role of Parasitic Helminths in Bioremediating Some Heavy Metal Accumulation in the Tissues of Lethrinus mahsena]
* 2017 Jul 15 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28720335 Not infection with parasitic worms, but rather colonization with therapeutic helminths]
+
* 2017 Jul 15 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28720335 Not infection with parasitic worms, but rather colonization with therapeutic helminths] | [https://projects.ncsu.edu/project/evoresources/evolution/coevolution%20and%20hygiene/hygiene%20hypothesis%202019/Reprint%20IL%202017-1.pdf PDF]
 
* 2017 Jul 13 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28703913 A. suum infection modulates inflammation: implication of CD4+CD25hi Foxp3+ T cells and IL-10]
 
* 2017 Jul 13 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28703913 A. suum infection modulates inflammation: implication of CD4+CD25hi Foxp3+ T cells and IL-10]
 
* 2017 Jul 8 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28689246 Parasites and asthma]
 
* 2017 Jul 8 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28689246 Parasites and asthma]
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* 2017 Jun 8 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28602842 Immune responses and parasitological observations induced during probiotic treatment with medicinal Trichuris suis ova in a healthy volunteer] (TSO)
 
* 2017 Jun 8 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28602842 Immune responses and parasitological observations induced during probiotic treatment with medicinal Trichuris suis ova in a healthy volunteer] (TSO)
 
* 2017 Jun 5 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28492420 Helminthic Therapy: A New Era in Immune-Mediated Diseases] -- [http://journals.lww.com/jclinrheum/Citation/2017/06000/Helminthic_Therapy__A_New_Era_in_Immune_Mediated.19.aspx Full text] (Mixed connective tissue disease/MCTD, Raynaud phenomenon)
 
* 2017 Jun 5 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28492420 Helminthic Therapy: A New Era in Immune-Mediated Diseases] -- [http://journals.lww.com/jclinrheum/Citation/2017/06000/Helminthic_Therapy__A_New_Era_in_Immune_Mediated.19.aspx Full text] (Mixed connective tissue disease/MCTD, Raynaud phenomenon)
* 2017 Jun [http://rdcu.be/tubO Parasites, ghosts and mutualists: a relational geography of microbes for global health] (PDF)
 
 
* 2017 May 16 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28526605 Microevolutionary response of a gut nematode to intestinal inflammation]
 
* 2017 May 16 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28526605 Microevolutionary response of a gut nematode to intestinal inflammation]
 
* 2017 May 12 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28494800 Somatic extracts of Marshallagia marshalli downregulate the Th2 associated immune responses in ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation in BALB/c mice] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5427607/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5427607/pdf/13071_2017_Article_2159.pdf PDF] (Asthma)
 
* 2017 May 12 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28494800 Somatic extracts of Marshallagia marshalli downregulate the Th2 associated immune responses in ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation in BALB/c mice] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5427607/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5427607/pdf/13071_2017_Article_2159.pdf PDF] (Asthma)
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* 2017 Apr 3 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28385494 Schistosome-induced pulmonary B cells inhibit allergic airway inflammation and display a reduced Th2-driving function]
 
* 2017 Apr 3 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28385494 Schistosome-induced pulmonary B cells inhibit allergic airway inflammation and display a reduced Th2-driving function]
 
* 2017 Apr 1 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28204053 Whipping Crohn's With Helminth Therapies? Not Yet]
 
* 2017 Apr 1 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28204053 Whipping Crohn's With Helminth Therapies? Not Yet]
 +
* 2017 Apr [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28031319 Apolipoprotein E4 is associated with improved cognitive function in Amazonian forager-horticulturalists with a high parasite burden] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5349792/ Full text]
 
* 2017 Mar 24 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28342137 Skewed Exposure to Environmental Antigens Complements Hygiene Hypothesis in Explaining the Rise of Allergy] -- [http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10441-017-9306-7 Full text] | [http://download.springer.com/static/pdf/689/art%253A10.1007%252Fs10441-017-9306-7.pdf?originUrl=http%3A%2F%2Flink.springer.com%2Farticle%2F10.1007%2Fs10441-017-9306-7&token2=exp=1490739158~acl=%2Fstatic%2Fpdf%2F689%2Fart%25253A10.1007%25252Fs10441-017-9306-7.pdf%3ForiginUrl%3Dhttp%253A%252F%252Flink.springer.com%252Farticle%252F10.1007%252Fs10441-017-9306-7*~hmac=9a64ec6d20433c8458c2148266ee7c346fa819eaa97422b8a79fccc79d005885 PDF]  
 
* 2017 Mar 24 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28342137 Skewed Exposure to Environmental Antigens Complements Hygiene Hypothesis in Explaining the Rise of Allergy] -- [http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10441-017-9306-7 Full text] | [http://download.springer.com/static/pdf/689/art%253A10.1007%252Fs10441-017-9306-7.pdf?originUrl=http%3A%2F%2Flink.springer.com%2Farticle%2F10.1007%2Fs10441-017-9306-7&token2=exp=1490739158~acl=%2Fstatic%2Fpdf%2F689%2Fart%25253A10.1007%25252Fs10441-017-9306-7.pdf%3ForiginUrl%3Dhttp%253A%252F%252Flink.springer.com%252Farticle%252F10.1007%252Fs10441-017-9306-7*~hmac=9a64ec6d20433c8458c2148266ee7c346fa819eaa97422b8a79fccc79d005885 PDF]  
 
* 2017 Mar 22 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28342825 Association between parasitic infections and tuberculin skin test results in refugees] (Tuberculosis)
 
* 2017 Mar 22 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28342825 Association between parasitic infections and tuberculin skin test results in refugees] (Tuberculosis)
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* 2017 Mar [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28030334 Trichuris suis secrete products that reduce disease severity in a multiple sclerosis model] (TSO)
 
* 2017 Mar [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28030334 Trichuris suis secrete products that reduce disease severity in a multiple sclerosis model] (TSO)
 
* 2017 Feb 24 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28235148 Parasites, nutrition, immune responses, and biology of metabolic tissues]
 
* 2017 Feb 24 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28235148 Parasites, nutrition, immune responses, and biology of metabolic tissues]
 +
* 2017 Feb 23 [http://rdcu.be/tubO Parasites, ghosts and mutualists: a relational geography of microbes for global health] (PDF) -- Jamie Lorimer, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, Royal Geographical Society.
 
* 2017 Feb 21 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28224678 Microbiome, autoimmunity, allergy, and helminth infection: The importance of the pregnancy period]
 
* 2017 Feb 21 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28224678 Microbiome, autoimmunity, allergy, and helminth infection: The importance of the pregnancy period]
 
* 2017 Feb 20 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28265273 New Data on Human Macrophages Polarization by Hymenolepis diminuta Tapeworm - An In Vitro Study] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5316519/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5316519/pdf/fimmu-08-00148.pdf PDF] (HDC)
 
* 2017 Feb 20 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28265273 New Data on Human Macrophages Polarization by Hymenolepis diminuta Tapeworm - An In Vitro Study] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5316519/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5316519/pdf/fimmu-08-00148.pdf PDF] (HDC)
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* 2016 Aug [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27116368 Macrobiota - helminths as active participants and partners of the microbiota in host intestinal homeostasis]
 
* 2016 Aug [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27116368 Macrobiota - helminths as active participants and partners of the microbiota in host intestinal homeostasis]
 
* 2016 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27480900 Role in Allergic Diseases of Immunological Cross-Reactivity between Allergens and Homologues of Parasite Proteins]
 
* 2016 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27480900 Role in Allergic Diseases of Immunological Cross-Reactivity between Allergens and Homologues of Parasite Proteins]
* 2016 Jul 28 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27476889 Regulation of the host immune system by helminth parasites]
+
* 2016 Jul 28 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27476889 Regulation of the host immune system by helminth parasites] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5010150/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5010150/pdf/main.pdf PDF]
 
* 2016 Jul [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27215921 Opening (and Swallowing) A Can of Worms to Treat My Crohn's Disease] -- [http://ocean.sci-hub.cc/870164b35621115a3f0bf71a1c1f3685/ahrens2016.pdf PDF]
 
* 2016 Jul [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27215921 Opening (and Swallowing) A Can of Worms to Treat My Crohn's Disease] -- [http://ocean.sci-hub.cc/870164b35621115a3f0bf71a1c1f3685/ahrens2016.pdf PDF]
 
* 2016 Jun 27 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27348757 Molecular events by which dendritic cells promote Th2 immune protection in helminth infection]
 
* 2016 Jun 27 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27348757 Molecular events by which dendritic cells promote Th2 immune protection in helminth infection]
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* 2016 Jun 1 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27183598 Myeloid-Restricted AMPKα1 Promotes Host Immunity and Protects against IL-12/23p40-Dependent Lung Injury during Hookworm Infection]
 
* 2016 Jun 1 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27183598 Myeloid-Restricted AMPKα1 Promotes Host Immunity and Protects against IL-12/23p40-Dependent Lung Injury during Hookworm Infection]
 
* 2016 Jun [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27403907 Hygienic hypothesis in immunopathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease] (IBD)
 
* 2016 Jun [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27403907 Hygienic hypothesis in immunopathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease] (IBD)
* ✅ ⚡ 2016 May 31 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27240605 Practices and outcomes of self-treatment with helminths based on physicians' observations] -- [[media:Practices_and_outcomes_of_self-treatment_with_helminths_based_on_physicians’_observations.pdf | PDF]] The first study to probe, through the eyes of their physicians, the practices and experiences of those who are self-treating with helminths.
+
* ✅ ⚡ 2016 May 31 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27240605 Practices and outcomes of self-treatment with helminths based on physicians' observations] -- [[media:Practices_and_outcomes_of_self-treatment_with_helminths_based_on_physicians_observations.pdf | PDF]] The first study to probe, through the eyes of their physicians, the practices and experiences of those who are self-treating with helminths.
 
* 2016 May 24 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27234811 Helminths and Intestinal Flora Team Up to Improve Gut Health]
 
* 2016 May 24 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27234811 Helminths and Intestinal Flora Team Up to Improve Gut Health]
 
* 2016 May 19 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27194189 The relationship between helminth infections and low haemoglobin levels in Ethiopian children with blood type A]
 
* 2016 May 19 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27194189 The relationship between helminth infections and low haemoglobin levels in Ethiopian children with blood type A]
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* 2016 May 9 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27172808 Parasitic helminth infections and the control of human allergic and autoimmune disorders]
 
* 2016 May 9 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27172808 Parasitic helminth infections and the control of human allergic and autoimmune disorders]
 
* 2016 May 5 [http://actu.epfl.ch/news/intestinal-worms-boost-immune-system-in-a-surprisi/ Intestinal worms boost immune system in a surprising way] -- Nik Papageorgiou, Mediacom
 
* 2016 May 5 [http://actu.epfl.ch/news/intestinal-worms-boost-immune-system-in-a-surprisi/ Intestinal worms boost immune system in a surprising way] -- Nik Papageorgiou, Mediacom
 +
* 2016 May 1 [http://environmentalhumanities.dukejournals.org/content/8/1/57.full.pdf Gut Buddies - Multispecies Studies and the Microbiome] -- Jamie Lorimer, Duke University Press
 
* 2016 Apr 27 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27120222 Interaction between Helminths and Toll-Like Receptors: Possibilities and Potentials for Asthma Therapy]
 
* 2016 Apr 27 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27120222 Interaction between Helminths and Toll-Like Receptors: Possibilities and Potentials for Asthma Therapy]
 
* 2016 Apr 23 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27116368 Macrobiota - helminths as active participants and partners of the microbiota in host intestinal homeostasis]
 
* 2016 Apr 23 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27116368 Macrobiota - helminths as active participants and partners of the microbiota in host intestinal homeostasis]
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* 2016 Jan [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26650734 Sweet secrets of a therapeutic worm: mass-spectrometric N-glycomic analysis of Trichuris suis] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4712359/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4712359/pdf/emss-66410.pdf PDF] (TSO)
 
* 2016 Jan [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26650734 Sweet secrets of a therapeutic worm: mass-spectrometric N-glycomic analysis of Trichuris suis] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4712359/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4712359/pdf/emss-66410.pdf PDF] (TSO)
 
* 2016 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27592717 Enteric Ecosystem Disruption in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Can the Microbiota and Macrobiota be Restored?]
 
* 2016 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27592717 Enteric Ecosystem Disruption in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Can the Microbiota and Macrobiota be Restored?]
 +
* 2016 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27088850 A Helminth Protease Inhibitor Modulates the Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Proinflammatory Phenotype of Microglia in vitro]
  
 
=== 2015 ===
 
=== 2015 ===
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* 2015 Nov [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26085597 Drug-like analogues of the parasitic worm-derived immunomodulator ES-62 are therapeutic in the MRL/Lpr model of systemic lupus erythematosus] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4616909/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4616909/pdf/10.1177_0961203315591031.pdf PDF]
 
* 2015 Nov [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26085597 Drug-like analogues of the parasitic worm-derived immunomodulator ES-62 are therapeutic in the MRL/Lpr model of systemic lupus erythematosus] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4616909/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4616909/pdf/10.1177_0961203315591031.pdf PDF]
 
* 2015 Nov [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25698173 Trichuris suis ova therapy in relapsing multiple sclerosis is safe but without signals of beneficial effect] This study used a treatment period of only 12 weeks, which is inadequate when assessing the efficacy of helminths, and it also used a novel TSO formulation with a pH of 5, when it is known that storage of TSO at a pH above 4 may impede its therapeutic effect in humans. [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28720335] The conclusions drawn by the authors of this study about the efficacy of TSO are therefore not reliable.  
 
* 2015 Nov [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25698173 Trichuris suis ova therapy in relapsing multiple sclerosis is safe but without signals of beneficial effect] This study used a treatment period of only 12 weeks, which is inadequate when assessing the efficacy of helminths, and it also used a novel TSO formulation with a pH of 5, when it is known that storage of TSO at a pH above 4 may impede its therapeutic effect in humans. [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28720335] The conclusions drawn by the authors of this study about the efficacy of TSO are therefore not reliable.  
* 2015 Nov [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26586763 Helminth infection, fecundity, and age of first pregnancy in women]
+
* 2015 Nov [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26586763 Helminth infection, fecundity, and age of first pregnancy in women] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5953513/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5953513/pdf/nihms961168.pdf PDF] (Also see [[Helminthic therapy and fertility | '''Helminthic therapy and fertility''']].)
 +
* 2015 Nov [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26332354 Adoptive transfer of helminth antigen-pulsed dendritic cells protects against the development of experimental colitis in mice] -- [https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/eji.201545579 Full text] | [https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1002/eji.201545579 PDF] (HDC)
 
* 2015 Oct 27 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26522986 The Intestinal Microbiota Contributes to the Ability of Helminths to Modulate Allergic Inflammation] -- [http://www.cell.com/immunity/fulltext/S1074-7613(15)00397-0 Full text] | [http://www.cell.com/immunity/pdf/S1074-7613(15)00397-0.pdf PDF]
 
* 2015 Oct 27 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26522986 The Intestinal Microbiota Contributes to the Ability of Helminths to Modulate Allergic Inflammation] -- [http://www.cell.com/immunity/fulltext/S1074-7613(15)00397-0 Full text] | [http://www.cell.com/immunity/pdf/S1074-7613(15)00397-0.pdf PDF]
 
* 2015 Oct 8 [http://onlinelibrary.ectrims-congress.eu/ectrims/2015/31st/115556/jorge.correale.il-35.is.a.critical.regulator.of.immunity.during.helminth.html?f=p6m3e891o11465 IL-35 is a critical regulator of immunity during helminth infections associated with multiple sclerosis]
 
* 2015 Oct 8 [http://onlinelibrary.ectrims-congress.eu/ectrims/2015/31st/115556/jorge.correale.il-35.is.a.critical.regulator.of.immunity.during.helminth.html?f=p6m3e891o11465 IL-35 is a critical regulator of immunity during helminth infections associated with multiple sclerosis]
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* 2015 Jul 15 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26188364 Enteric nematodes and the path to up-regulation of type 2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13] (Includes mention of increased cell turnover to maintain an effective gut barrier in the presence of helminths.)
 
* 2015 Jul 15 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26188364 Enteric nematodes and the path to up-regulation of type 2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13] (Includes mention of increased cell turnover to maintain an effective gut barrier in the presence of helminths.)
 
* 2015 Jul 7 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26162711 Got Worms? Perinatal Exposure to Helminths Prevents Persistent Immune Sensitization and Cognitive Dysfunction Induced by Early-Life Infection]
 
* 2015 Jul 7 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26162711 Got Worms? Perinatal Exposure to Helminths Prevents Persistent Immune Sensitization and Cognitive Dysfunction Induced by Early-Life Infection]
 +
* 2015 Jul 6 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26148848 Epigenetic Modulation of Microglial Inflammatory Gene Loci in Helminth-Induced Immune Suppression: Implications for Immune Regulation in Neurocysticercosis] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4552224/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4552224/pdf/10.1177_1759091415592126.pdf PDF]
 
* 2015 Jul 6 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26150662 Suppression of inflammation by helminths: a role for the gut microbiota?] -- [http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/370/1675/20140296 Full text] | [http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/royptb/370/1675/20140296.full.pdf PDF]
 
* 2015 Jul 6 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26150662 Suppression of inflammation by helminths: a role for the gut microbiota?] -- [http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/370/1675/20140296 Full text] | [http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/royptb/370/1675/20140296.full.pdf PDF]
 
* 2015 Jul 3 [http://evmedreview.com/?p=2767%23_ENREF_4 Progress on reconstituting the depleted biome to prevent immune disorders] Parker and Morey, The Evolution and Medicine Review
 
* 2015 Jul 3 [http://evmedreview.com/?p=2767%23_ENREF_4 Progress on reconstituting the depleted biome to prevent immune disorders] Parker and Morey, The Evolution and Medicine Review
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* 2015 Apr [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25712154 Exosome-transported microRNAs of helminth origin: new tools for allergic and autoimmune diseases therapy?]
 
* 2015 Apr [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25712154 Exosome-transported microRNAs of helminth origin: new tools for allergic and autoimmune diseases therapy?]
 
* 2015 Apr [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25801883 From the worm to the pill, the parasitic worm product ES-62 raises new horizons in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis] -- [http://lup.sagepub.com/content/24/4-5/400.full Full text] | [http://lup.sagepub.com/content/24/4-5/400.full.pdf PDF]
 
* 2015 Apr [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25801883 From the worm to the pill, the parasitic worm product ES-62 raises new horizons in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis] -- [http://lup.sagepub.com/content/24/4-5/400.full Full text] | [http://lup.sagepub.com/content/24/4-5/400.full.pdf PDF]
* 2015 Apr [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25683374 Potential long-term effects of previous schistosome infection may reduce the atherogenic index of plasma in Chinese men]
+
* 2015 Apr [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25683374 Potential long-term effects of previous schistosome infection may reduce the atherogenic index of plasma in Chinese men]  
 
* 2015 Mar 26 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25884706 Human helminth therapy to treat inflammatory disorders - where do we stand?] -- [http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2172/16/12 Full text] | [http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/s12865-015-0074-3.pdf PDF]
 
* 2015 Mar 26 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25884706 Human helminth therapy to treat inflammatory disorders - where do we stand?] -- [http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2172/16/12 Full text] | [http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/s12865-015-0074-3.pdf PDF]
 
* 2015 Mar 25 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25806513 Immune Antibodies and Helminth Products Drive CXCR2-Dependent Macrophage-Myofibroblast Crosstalk to Promote Intestinal Repair] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4373753/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4373753/pdf/ppat.1004778.pdf PDF]
 
* 2015 Mar 25 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25806513 Immune Antibodies and Helminth Products Drive CXCR2-Dependent Macrophage-Myofibroblast Crosstalk to Promote Intestinal Repair] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4373753/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4373753/pdf/ppat.1004778.pdf PDF]
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* 2015 Feb [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25547076 Helminthes and insects: maladies or therapies]
 
* 2015 Feb [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25547076 Helminthes and insects: maladies or therapies]
 
* 2015 Feb [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25248819 Experimental hookworm infection and gluten microchallenge promote tolerance in celiac disease] -- [http://www.jacionline.org/article/S0091-6749(14)01010-0/fulltext Full text] | [http://www.jacionline.org/article/S0091-6749(14)01010-0/pdf PDF] (Also reported by EurekAlert and ABC Austrailia. [https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2014-09/jcu-aws092414.php] [http://www.abc.net.au/news/2014-09-25/hookworms-coeliac-disease-research/5768732])
 
* 2015 Feb [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25248819 Experimental hookworm infection and gluten microchallenge promote tolerance in celiac disease] -- [http://www.jacionline.org/article/S0091-6749(14)01010-0/fulltext Full text] | [http://www.jacionline.org/article/S0091-6749(14)01010-0/pdf PDF] (Also reported by EurekAlert and ABC Austrailia. [https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2014-09/jcu-aws092414.php] [http://www.abc.net.au/news/2014-09-25/hookworms-coeliac-disease-research/5768732])
 +
* 2015 Feb [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25174866 Worms as therapeutic agents for allergy and asthma: understanding why benefits in animal studies have not translated into clinical success] -- [https://www.jacionline.org/article/S0091-6749%2814%2900960-9/fulltext Full text] | [https://www.jacionline.org/article/S0091-6749(14)00960-9/pdf PDF] 
 
* 2015 Feb [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25459578 Potential Treatments for Food Allergy]
 
* 2015 Feb [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25459578 Potential Treatments for Food Allergy]
 
* 2015 Feb [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25449677 The mechanisms behind helminth's immunomodulation in autoimmunity]
 
* 2015 Feb [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25449677 The mechanisms behind helminth's immunomodulation in autoimmunity]
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* 2014 Aug 28 Parasitic infection and immunomodulation: A possible explanation for the hygiene hypothesis in autoimmune and allergic disease -- [http://www.slideshare.net/Apollo_Hospitals/final-8-38449965 Full text]
 
* 2014 Aug 28 Parasitic infection and immunomodulation: A possible explanation for the hygiene hypothesis in autoimmune and allergic disease -- [http://www.slideshare.net/Apollo_Hospitals/final-8-38449965 Full text]
 
* 2014 Aug 26 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25161287 The "hygiene hypothesis" for allergic disease is a misnomer] (No abstract)
 
* 2014 Aug 26 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25161287 The "hygiene hypothesis" for allergic disease is a misnomer] (No abstract)
* 2014 Aug 24 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25210492 Extraintestinal helminth infection reduces the development of colitis-associated tumorigenesis] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4159685/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4159685/pdf/ijbsv10p0948.pdf PDF] (IBD)
+
* 2014 Aug 24 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25210492 Extraintestinal helminth infection reduces the development of colitis-associated tumorigenesis] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4159685/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4159685/pdf/ijbsv10p0948.pdf PDF] (IBD) (Cancer)
 
* 2014 Aug [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25171741 Maternal hookworm modifies risk factors for childhood eczema: results from a birth cohort in Uganda] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4312885/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4312885/pdf/pai0025-0481.pdf PDF]
 
* 2014 Aug [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25171741 Maternal hookworm modifies risk factors for childhood eczema: results from a birth cohort in Uganda] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4312885/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4312885/pdf/pai0025-0481.pdf PDF]
 
* 2014 Aug [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24471654 Pregnancy and helminth infections] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4260141/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4260141/pdf/pim0036-0328.pdf PDF]
 
* 2014 Aug [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24471654 Pregnancy and helminth infections] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4260141/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4260141/pdf/pim0036-0328.pdf PDF]
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=== 2013 ===
 
=== 2013 ===
 +
* 2013 Dec 19 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24351232 Serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BNDF) in multiple sclerosis patients with Trichuris suis ova therapy] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3866952/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3866952/pdf/parasite-20-55.pdf PDF] (TSO)
 
* 2013 Dec 12 [http://globenewswire.com/news-release/2013/12/12/596603/10061345/en/Coronado-Biosciences-Announces-Presentation-of-Interim-Data-From-Autism-Study-at-Neuropsychopharmacology-Meeting.html Presentation of Interim Data From Autism Study at Neuropsychopharmacology Meeting]
 
* 2013 Dec 12 [http://globenewswire.com/news-release/2013/12/12/596603/10061345/en/Coronado-Biosciences-Announces-Presentation-of-Interim-Data-From-Autism-Study-at-Neuropsychopharmacology-Meeting.html Presentation of Interim Data From Autism Study at Neuropsychopharmacology Meeting]
 
* 2013 Nov 12 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24154724 Regulation of the immune system by biodiversity from the natural environment: an ecosystem service essential to health] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3831972/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3831972/pdf/pnas.201313731.pdf PDF]
 
* 2013 Nov 12 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24154724 Regulation of the immune system by biodiversity from the natural environment: an ecosystem service essential to health] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3831972/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3831972/pdf/pnas.201313731.pdf PDF]
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* 2013 Aug 15 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23967364 Schistosoma mansoni-mediated suppression of allergic airway inflammation requires patency and Foxp3+ Treg cells] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3744427/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3744427/pdf/pntd.0002379.pdf PDF]
 
* 2013 Aug 15 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23967364 Schistosoma mansoni-mediated suppression of allergic airway inflammation requires patency and Foxp3+ Treg cells] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3744427/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3744427/pdf/pntd.0002379.pdf PDF]
 
* 2013 Aug [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23730956 Randomised clinical trial: the safety and tolerability of Trichuris suis ova in patients with Crohn's disease] -- [http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/apt.12366/full Full text] | [http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/apt.12366/epdf PDF] (TSO)
 
* 2013 Aug [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23730956 Randomised clinical trial: the safety and tolerability of Trichuris suis ova in patients with Crohn's disease] -- [http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/apt.12366/full Full text] | [http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/apt.12366/epdf PDF] (TSO)
 +
* 2013 Aug [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23827958 Type 2 immunity and wound healing: evolutionary refinement of adaptive immunity by helminths] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3789590/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3789590/pdf/nihms516840.pdf PDF]
 
* 2013 Jul [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23597946 Possible use of Trichuris suis ova in autism spectrum disorders therapy] (TSO)
 
* 2013 Jul [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23597946 Possible use of Trichuris suis ova in autism spectrum disorders therapy] (TSO)
 
* 2013 Jun [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23273955 Coassociations between IL10 polymorphisms, IL-10 production, helminth infection, and asthma/ wheeze in an urban tropical population in Brazil]
 
* 2013 Jun [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23273955 Coassociations between IL10 polymorphisms, IL-10 production, helminth infection, and asthma/ wheeze in an urban tropical population in Brazil]
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* 2012 Feb [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22355800 The hygiene hypothesis: an explanation for the increased frequency of insulin-dependent diabetes] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3281594/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3281594/pdf/cshperspectmed-DIA-a007799.pdf PDF]
 
* 2012 Feb [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22355800 The hygiene hypothesis: an explanation for the increased frequency of insulin-dependent diabetes] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3281594/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3281594/pdf/cshperspectmed-DIA-a007799.pdf PDF]
 
* 2012 Feb [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22346753 Characterising the mucosal and systemic immune responses to experimental human hookworm infection] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3276555/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3276555/pdf/ppat.1002520.pdf PDF]
 
* 2012 Feb [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22346753 Characterising the mucosal and systemic immune responses to experimental human hookworm infection] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3276555/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3276555/pdf/ppat.1002520.pdf PDF]
 +
* 2012 Feb [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22245779 An essential role for the Th2-type response in limiting tissue damage during helminth infection] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3274634/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3274634/pdf/nihms341991.pdf PDF] (Wound healing)
 
* ⚡ 2012 Jan [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22239614 Helminth-host immunological interactions: prevention and control of immune-mediated diseases] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3744090/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3744090/pdf/nihms492922.pdf PDF] Summarises the science underpinning helminthic therapy.
 
* ⚡ 2012 Jan [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22239614 Helminth-host immunological interactions: prevention and control of immune-mediated diseases] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3744090/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3744090/pdf/nihms492922.pdf PDF] Summarises the science underpinning helminthic therapy.
 
* 2012 Jan [http://www.asmscience.org/content/journal/microbe/10.1128/microbe.7.173.1 A Darwinian View of the Hygiene or “Old Friends” Hypothesis] Graham A. W. Rook, Microbe Magazine
 
* 2012 Jan [http://www.asmscience.org/content/journal/microbe/10.1128/microbe.7.173.1 A Darwinian View of the Hygiene or “Old Friends” Hypothesis] Graham A. W. Rook, Microbe Magazine
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* 2011 Jul 25 The neuroimmunoendocrine network during worm helminth infections -- [http://www.isj.unimo.it/articoli/ISJ242.pdf PDF]
 
* 2011 Jul 25 The neuroimmunoendocrine network during worm helminth infections -- [http://www.isj.unimo.it/articoli/ISJ242.pdf PDF]
 
* 2011 Jul 18 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21785696 Parasites or cohabitants: cruel omnipresent usurpers or creative "éminences grises"?] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3140032/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3140032/pdf/JPR2011-214174.pdf PDF]
 
* 2011 Jul 18 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21785696 Parasites or cohabitants: cruel omnipresent usurpers or creative "éminences grises"?] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3140032/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3140032/pdf/JPR2011-214174.pdf PDF]
* 2011 Jun 9 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21772981 Excretory-Secretory Products from Hookworm L3 and Adult Worms Suppress Proinflammatory Cytokines in Infected Individuals] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3135091/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3135091/pdf/JPR2011-512154.pdf PDF]
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* 2011 Jun 9 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21772981 Excretory-secretory products from hookworm l(3) and adult worms suppress proinflammatory cytokines in infected individuals] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3135091/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3135091/pdf/JPR2011-512154.pdf PDF]
 
* 2011 Jun [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21610741 Diversity and dialogue in immunity to helminths]
 
* 2011 Jun [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21610741 Diversity and dialogue in immunity to helminths]
 +
* 2011 Jun [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21372112 Probiotic helminth administration in relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis: a phase 1 study] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3894910/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3894910/pdf/nihms536054.pdf PDF]
 
* 2011 May 12 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21576944 Atopic dermatitis and the hygiene hypothesis revisited]
 
* 2011 May 12 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21576944 Atopic dermatitis and the hygiene hypothesis revisited]
 
* 2011 May 6 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21573157 Schistosome infection intensity is inversely related to auto-reactive antibody levels] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3089602/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3089602/pdf/pone.0019149.pdf PDF]
 
* 2011 May 6 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21573157 Schistosome infection intensity is inversely related to auto-reactive antibody levels] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3089602/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3089602/pdf/pone.0019149.pdf PDF]
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* 2010 Apr [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23105895 Immunomodulators of helminthes: Promising therapeutics for autoimmune disorders and allergic diseases] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3453099/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3453099/pdf/12291_2010_Article_21.pdf PDF]
 
* 2010 Apr [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23105895 Immunomodulators of helminthes: Promising therapeutics for autoimmune disorders and allergic diseases] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3453099/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3453099/pdf/12291_2010_Article_21.pdf PDF]
 
* 2010 Apr [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20044996 In vitro-derived alternatively activated macrophages reduce colonic inflammation in mice] (Colitis) (HDC)
 
* 2010 Apr [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20044996 In vitro-derived alternatively activated macrophages reduce colonic inflammation in mice] (Colitis) (HDC)
 +
* 2010 Apr [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20224568 Helminth-derived immunomodulators: can understanding the worm produce the pill?]
 
* 2010 Mar [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20028812 Extracts of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta, suppress macrophage activation in vitro and alleviate chemically induced colitis in mice] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2825920/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2825920/pdf/1349-08.pdf PDF] (HDC)
 
* 2010 Mar [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20028812 Extracts of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta, suppress macrophage activation in vitro and alleviate chemically induced colitis in mice] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2825920/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2825920/pdf/1349-08.pdf PDF] (HDC)
 
* 2010 Mar [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19691904 The immune response to and immunomodulation by Hymenolepis diminuta] (HDC)
 
* 2010 Mar [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19691904 The immune response to and immunomodulation by Hymenolepis diminuta] (HDC)
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* 2007 Mar [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17360880 Helicobacter pylori and intestinal parasites are not detrimental to the nutritional status of Amerindians] -- [https://www.researchgate.net/publication/6446118_Helicobacter_pylori_and_intestinal_parasites_are_not_detrimental_to_the_nutritional_status_of_Amerindians Full text (PDF)]
 
* 2007 Mar [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17360880 Helicobacter pylori and intestinal parasites are not detrimental to the nutritional status of Amerindians] -- [https://www.researchgate.net/publication/6446118_Helicobacter_pylori_and_intestinal_parasites_are_not_detrimental_to_the_nutritional_status_of_Amerindians Full text (PDF)]
 
* 2007 Feb 15 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17122383 Helminth-derived products inhibit the development of allergic responses in mice]
 
* 2007 Feb 15 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17122383 Helminth-derived products inhibit the development of allergic responses in mice]
* ✅⚡2007 Feb [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17230481 Association between parasite infection and immune responses in multiple sclerosis] (Also reported by Science Daily and the BBC. [https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/01/070117091058.htm] [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/health/6268585.stm]) This was the first study to explore the effect of helminth infection on immune response and the natural course of Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis. It showed that MS progressed much more slowly in patients who hosted intestinal worms.
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* ✅⚡2007 Feb [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17230481 Association between parasite infection and immune responses in multiple sclerosis] -- [https://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/images/e/ec/Association_Between_Parasite_Infection_and_Immune_Responses_in_Multiple_Sclerosis_.pdf PDF] (Also reported by Science Daily and the BBC. [https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/01/070117091058.htm] [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/health/6268585.stm]) This was the first study to explore the effect of helminth infection on immune response and the natural course of Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis. It showed that MS progressed much more slowly in patients who hosted intestinal worms.
 
* 2007 Feb [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17284099 Iatrogenic Trichuris suis infection] (TSO)
 
* 2007 Feb [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17284099 Iatrogenic Trichuris suis infection] (TSO)
 
* 2007 Jan [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17043101 Inhibition of autoimmune type 1 diabetes by gastrointestinal helminth infection] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1828378/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1828378/pdf/0664-06.pdf PDF]
 
* 2007 Jan [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17043101 Inhibition of autoimmune type 1 diabetes by gastrointestinal helminth infection] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1828378/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1828378/pdf/0664-06.pdf PDF]
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* 2004 Oct 13 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15486631 Schistosoma mansoni infection modulates the immune response against allergic and auto-immune diseases] -- [http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0074-02762004000900005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Full text] | [http://www.scielo.br/pdf/mioc/v99s1/v99s1a05.pdf PDF]
 
* 2004 Oct 13 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15486631 Schistosoma mansoni infection modulates the immune response against allergic and auto-immune diseases] -- [http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0074-02762004000900005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Full text] | [http://www.scielo.br/pdf/mioc/v99s1/v99s1a05.pdf PDF]
 
* 2004 Oct [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15361235 Helminth parasites--masters of regulation]
 
* 2004 Oct [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15361235 Helminth parasites--masters of regulation]
* 2004 Aug 15 [http://www.jimmunol.org/content/173/4/2699.full A Secreted Protein from the Human Hookworm Necator americanus Binds Selectively to NK Cells and Induces IFN-γ Production] -- [http://www.jimmunol.org/content/173/4/2699.full.pdf PDF] (NA)
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* 2004 Aug 15 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15294988 A Secreted Protein from the Human Hookworm Necator americanus Binds Selectively to NK Cells and Induces IFN-{gamma} Production] -- [https://www.jimmunol.org/content/173/4/2699.long Full text] |  [https://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/images/8/8a/A_Secreted_Protein.pdf PDF]
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* 2004 Aug 1 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15265954 Schistosoma mansoni and alpha-galactosylceramide: prophylactic effect of Th1 Immune suppression in a mouse model of Graves' hyperthyroidism] -- [https://www.jimmunol.org/content/173/3/2167.long Full text] | [https://www.jimmunol.org/content/jimmunol/173/3/2167.full.pdf PDF]
 
* 2004 Jul 9 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15247451 Immunotherapy. Can worms tame the immune system?]
 
* 2004 Jul 9 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15247451 Immunotherapy. Can worms tame the immune system?]
 
* 2004 Jul [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15196202 The increased prevalence of allergy and the hygiene hypothesis: missing immune deviation, reduced immune suppression, or both?] --  [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1782506/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1782506/pdf/imm0112-0352.pdf PDF]
 
* 2004 Jul [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15196202 The increased prevalence of allergy and the hygiene hypothesis: missing immune deviation, reduced immune suppression, or both?] --  [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1782506/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1782506/pdf/imm0112-0352.pdf PDF]
* 2004 Jun [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15330453 A review of autism and the immune response] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2270714/pdf/CDI-11-165.pdf PDF]
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* 2004 Jun [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15330453 A review of autism and the immune response] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2270714/pdf/CDI-11-165.pdf PDF]
 
* 2004 Apr [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15039389 Helminth infection modulates the development of allergen-induced airway inflammation] -- [http://intimm.oxfordjournals.org/content/16/4/585.long Full text] | [http://intimm.oxfordjournals.org/content/16/4/585.full.pdf PDF]
 
* 2004 Apr [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15039389 Helminth infection modulates the development of allergen-induced airway inflammation] -- [http://intimm.oxfordjournals.org/content/16/4/585.long Full text] | [http://intimm.oxfordjournals.org/content/16/4/585.full.pdf PDF]
 
* 2004 Mar [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15279624 Inhibition of neutrophil recruitment by ES of Nippostrongylus brasiliensis] -- [http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.0141-9838.2004.00692.x/full Full text] | [http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.0141-9838.2004.00692.x/epdf PDF]
 
* 2004 Mar [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15279624 Inhibition of neutrophil recruitment by ES of Nippostrongylus brasiliensis] -- [http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.0141-9838.2004.00692.x/full Full text] | [http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.0141-9838.2004.00692.x/epdf PDF]
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The researchers at Duke have previously reported on data they have already gathered.
 
The researchers at Duke have previously reported on data they have already gathered.
  
* [http://www.yourwildlife.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/galley-proof-v2.pdf Overcoming Evolutionary Mismatch by Self-Treatment with Helminths: Current Practices and Experience]
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* [http://www.yourwildlife.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/galley-proof-v2.pdf Overcoming Evolutionary Mismatch by Self-Treatment with Helminths: Current Practices and Experience] (PDF)
* [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27240605 Practices and outcomes of self-treatment with helminths based on physicians' observations]
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* [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27240605 Practices and outcomes of self-treatment with helminths based on physicians' observations] -- [[media:Practices_and_outcomes_of_self-treatment_with_helminths_based_on_physicians_observations.pdf | PDF]]
  
 
The team at Duke are now looking for details about the use of helminthic therapy to treat those conditions for which helminths are less commonly employed, such as lupus, migraine headaches and neuropsychiatric disorders. If you have used helminthic therapy to treat one of these conditions, and whether or not this proved successful, please consider completing the [[Helminth self-treatment survey | Helminth Self-treatment Survey]].
 
The team at Duke are now looking for details about the use of helminthic therapy to treat those conditions for which helminths are less commonly employed, such as lupus, migraine headaches and neuropsychiatric disorders. If you have used helminthic therapy to treat one of these conditions, and whether or not this proved successful, please consider completing the [[Helminth self-treatment survey | Helminth Self-treatment Survey]].
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The vast majority of research into the effects of helminths is being carried out by researchers aiming to discover worm-derived molecules that can potentially be used to create drugs, and this work is already well funded by agencies hoping to benefit from the patents and sales which it is anticipated will follow in the wake of successful drug discovery.  
 
The vast majority of research into the effects of helminths is being carried out by researchers aiming to discover worm-derived molecules that can potentially be used to create drugs, and this work is already well funded by agencies hoping to benefit from the patents and sales which it is anticipated will follow in the wake of successful drug discovery.  
  
Far less well funded is the research into the use and effects of live helminths, and their development for mass application in both the treatment and prevention of autoimmune, inflammatory and allergic diseases, including neuropsychiatric conditions.  
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Far less well funded is the research into the use and effects of live helminths, and their development for mass application in both the treatment and prevention of autoimmune, inflammatory, metabolic and allergic diseases, including neuropsychiatric conditions.  
  
 
This latter work is being spearheaded by Prof William Parker and his team at Duke University, the progress of which is dependent on finance being found for each step they take - finance which is hard to secure from the usual sources due to the perceived lack of potential profits.   
 
This latter work is being spearheaded by Prof William Parker and his team at Duke University, the progress of which is dependent on finance being found for each step they take - finance which is hard to secure from the usual sources due to the perceived lack of potential profits.   
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Donations are needed to support this work at Duke, and even small amounts will make a difference. For example, $50 will go a long way towards covering the cost of publishing a scientific paper. $500 will help towards supporting a summer intern working on the HDC project. $5,000 would cover the supply costs of the HDC project for five months. $10,000 could pay for a study in an animal model, for example testing the idea that helminths may help with wound healing. (This is something the team at Duke believe, based on available information, that helminths probably do, but which has not yet been tested. If the hypothesis were shown to be correct, this would provide a huge push forward for the field of wound care.)
 
Donations are needed to support this work at Duke, and even small amounts will make a difference. For example, $50 will go a long way towards covering the cost of publishing a scientific paper. $500 will help towards supporting a summer intern working on the HDC project. $5,000 would cover the supply costs of the HDC project for five months. $10,000 could pay for a study in an animal model, for example testing the idea that helminths may help with wound healing. (This is something the team at Duke believe, based on available information, that helminths probably do, but which has not yet been tested. If the hypothesis were shown to be correct, this would provide a huge push forward for the field of wound care.)
  
Anyone wishing to donate by cheque should make this out either to "Duke University Medical Center", with "for William Parker's HT research" in the memo, or to "William Parker", with "Immunity's Forge" in the memo. The [http://www.immunitysforge.org/about/ Immunity’s Forge art studio] website is also set up to take donations by credit card via a [https://secure.squarespace.com/commerce/donate?donatePageId=545d2c86e4b081b329698faf donation page]. Either of these approaches will ensure that the money donated will be spent on helminthic therapy research and not on one of the other projects being pursued by Parker’s lab, such as the autism/acetaminophen project. Both the medical centre and the art studio are registered non-profit organisations, so donations to either are tax deductible for US citizens.  
+
Anyone wishing to donate by cheque should make this out either to "Duke University Medical Center", with "for William Parker's HT research" in the memo, or to "William Parker", with "Immunity's Forge" in the memo. The [http://www.immunitysforge.org/about/ Immunity’s Forge art studio] website is also set up to take donations by credit card via a [https://secure.squarespace.com/commerce/donate?donatePageId=545d2c86e4b081b329698faf donation page]. Either of these approaches will ensure that the money donated will be spent on helminthic therapy research and not on one of the other projects being pursued by Parker’s lab, such as the autism/acetaminophen project. Both the medical centre and the art studio are registered non-profit organisations, so donations to either are tax deductible for US citizens.
  
 
== Further reading ==
 
== Further reading ==

Revision as of 03:52, 26 May 2020

Home>Helminthic therapy research

This page lists over 700 papers and reports of scientific studies relating to helminthic therapyThe reintroduction to the digestive tract of a controlled number of specially domesticated, mutualistic helminths (intestinal worms) in the form of microscopic eggs or larvae to reconstitute a depleted biome to treat and prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy. and closely associated topics such as the Hygiene Hypothesis, the Old Friends' Hypothesis, Evolutionary Mismatch Theory and Biome Depletion Theory / Biota Alteration Theory.

There are four organisms being used currently in helminthic therapyThe reintroduction to the digestive tract of a controlled number of specially domesticated, mutualistic helminths (intestinal worms) in the form of microscopic eggs or larvae to reconstitute a depleted biome to treat and prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy..

  • Human hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin., Necator americanus (NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus)
  • Human whipwormA helminth with a tapering whiplike body that lives in the colon. In helminthic therapy, the microscopic eggs of either the human Trichuris trichiura (TTO) or pig Trichuris suis (TSO) are taken in a drink., Trichuris trichiura (TTOthe ova (eggs) of the human whipworm, Trichuris trichiura)
  • Pig whipwormA helminth with a tapering whiplike body that lives in the colon. In helminthic therapy, the microscopic eggs of either the human Trichuris trichiura (TTO) or pig Trichuris suis (TSO) are taken in a drink., Trichuris suis (TSOthe ova (eggs) of the porcine (pig) whipworm, Trichuris suis)
  • Rat tapewormA helminth with a flat, ribbon-like, segmented body. Only the murine (rat) tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta, is used in helminthic therapy and this generally does not reach adulthood in humans so requires regular dosing of HDC., Hymenolepis diminuta (HDCHymenolepis diminuta cysticercoids (Hi-men-o-lep'is dim-a-nu-ta sis-ti-sur-koid) - the larval cysts of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta)

Some of the reports and papers listed below have focussed on the effects of other species of helminthAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths], or molecules derived from them, but all are nevertheless valuable for the insights they provide about the therapeutic and prophylactic effects of helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths].

Unless otherwise stated, the main links are to PubMed abstracts, with additional inks to full text and PDF copies, if available. Where free full text copies are not accessible via PubMed, these can usually be obtained from other sources such as Sci-Hub, or the Facebook group, Get Your Papers. Further papers on helminthic therapyThe reintroduction to the digestive tract of a controlled number of specially domesticated, mutualistic helminths (intestinal worms) in the form of microscopic eggs or larvae to reconstitute a depleted biome to treat and prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy. can be found by searching PubMed, which carries almost all of the scientific papers written on this subject.

What researchers say about helminthic therapyThe reintroduction to the digestive tract of a controlled number of specially domesticated, mutualistic helminths (intestinal worms) in the form of microscopic eggs or larvae to reconstitute a depleted biome to treat and prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy.

The following quotes illustrate the current thinking among researchers who are investigating the therapeutic use of living helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths].

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Although some helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] are known to cause disease and have been labeled parasitesAn organism that lives in or on another organism (its host) and benefits at the host’s expense. (The organisms used in helminthic therapy are, strictly speaking, not parasites, but mutualists, because they have a mutually beneficial symbiotic relationship with their hosts.), it is now clear that some exposure to this class of organisms is necessary for human health. (Bono-Lunn et al) [1]
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The results strongly support previous indications that helminth therapyThe reintroduction to the digestive tract of a controlled number of specially domesticated, mutualistic helminths (intestinal worms) in the form of microscopic eggs or larvae to reconstitute a depleted biome to treat and prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy. can effectively treat a wide range of allergies, autoimmune conditions and neuropsychiatric disorders. (Liu et al) [2]
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What was a costly and sometimes risky venture into the unknown, undertaken by only a few 10 years ago, is rapidly becoming a readily available and well-established resource currently used by thousands of individuals. (Cheng et al, 2015) [3]
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In developed countries, where we are well nourished, worms are potentially good. If I had Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitisUlcerative colitis (Colitis ulcerosa, UC) is a form of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) which specifically affects the large intestine, or colon, causing characteristic ulcers, or open sores. The main symptom of active disease is constant diarrhea mixed with blood, of gradual onset. or multiple sclerosis, I would infect myself without hesitation. (Prof Alex Loukas, Australian Institute of Tropical Health & Medicine) [4]
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All immunocompetent humans need regular exposure to helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] in order to maintain optimal immune function and avoid risk for inflammation-associated disease… access to helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] is a basic human need. (Smyth et al) [5]
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We need to embrace the view that helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] are a necessary component of the ecosystem of a healthy body, and that helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] should be cultivated for population-wide biota restoration. (Villeneuve et al) [6]
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Biome reconstitution… holds a promise for exposure of all individuals to naturally occurring organisms or selected variants of those organisms in a way that is required for human health. Such exposure must be considered a fundamental human right worthy of government support rather than an option for pharmaceutical development. (Parker and Ollerton) [7]
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In some not too distant futurity, there may come a day when we all take ‘helminth supplements’ along with our Omega 3 fatty acids, vitamins, and whatever else goes to make up a modern balanced diet. (Zaccone et al) [8]
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Twenty years from now everybody is going to have a helminthAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths], and no insurance company will begin to cover you if you don’t have your helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths]. We’re very confident in the science, that every single human being needs a helminthAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths]. It’s part of our biology. (Prof William Parker, Duke University, 2016) [9]

Reading packet

These selected papers provide a good overview of the potential of helminthic therapyThe reintroduction to the digestive tract of a controlled number of specially domesticated, mutualistic helminths (intestinal worms) in the form of microscopic eggs or larvae to reconstitute a depleted biome to treat and prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy. and would be suitable resources to include in a reading packet to be given to a doctor or someone who is unaware of the evidence and rationale for helminthic therapyThe reintroduction to the digestive tract of a controlled number of specially domesticated, mutualistic helminths (intestinal worms) in the form of microscopic eggs or larvae to reconstitute a depleted biome to treat and prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy.. The first two papers provide validation for the practice of self-treatmentMedication or treatment of one's own disease or condition without medical assistance. with helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths].

  • Overcoming Evolutionary Mismatch by Self-Treatment with Helminths: Current Practices and Experience (2015)
    This study probes the methods and outcomes reported by individuals who are self-treating with helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] and is an ideal basis for discussion between patients and their physicians.
  • Helminth–host immunological interactions: prevention and control of immune-mediated diseases (2012)
    Summarises the science underpinning helminthic therapyThe reintroduction to the digestive tract of a controlled number of specially domesticated, mutualistic helminths (intestinal worms) in the form of microscopic eggs or larvae to reconstitute a depleted biome to treat and prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy..

Research papers & articles

Tips for searching the list

Symbols used in the list of documents:

  • ✅ - A key paper/report in the development of the therapeutic use of helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths]
  • ⚡ - A good place to start if you are new to helminthic therapyThe reintroduction to the digestive tract of a controlled number of specially domesticated, mutualistic helminths (intestinal worms) in the form of microscopic eggs or larvae to reconstitute a depleted biome to treat and prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy., or if you are looking for resources that would help someone else to understand the therapy.

If you are interested in helminthic therapyThe reintroduction to the digestive tract of a controlled number of specially domesticated, mutualistic helminths (intestinal worms) in the form of microscopic eggs or larvae to reconstitute a depleted biome to treat and prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy. in relation to a particular medical condition, use your device’s search function to locate the items that are relevant to that disease. Several conditions will require the use of more than one search term, for example:

  • Allergies - search for “allerg”, “atopy” and “anaphylaxis”
  • Anemia - search for “anemia” and “anaemia”
  • Arthritis - search for ”arthrit” and “joint”
  • Asthma - search for “asthma”, “airway” and “wheeze”
  • Autism - search for “autism” and “ASD”
  • Celiac disease - search for “celiac” and “coeliac”
  • Crohn’s disease - search for “Crohn”, “bowel” and “IBDInflammatory bowel disease is a group of conditions affecting the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, particularly the colon and small intestine. The major types of IBD are Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis (UC).
  • Diabetes - search for “diabet”, “insulin”, “glucose” and “metabolic”
  • Heart disease - search for “cardio” and “atherosclerosis”
  • Inflammation - search for “inflam”
  • Leaky gut - search for “barrier”
  • Multiple sclerosis - search for “multiple sclerosis” rather than “MSMultiple sclerosis (also known as disseminated sclerosis) is a chronic, typically progressive disease involving damage to the sheaths of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord, whose symptoms may include numbness, impairment of speech and of muscular coordination, blurred vision and severe fatigue.
  • Obesity - search for “obes” and “adipose”
  • Pregnancy - search for “preg” and “mater”
  • Ulcerative colitisUlcerative colitis (Colitis ulcerosa, UC) is a form of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) which specifically affects the large intestine, or colon, causing characteristic ulcers, or open sores. The main symptom of active disease is constant diarrhea mixed with blood, of gradual onset. - search for “colitis”, “bowel” and “IBDInflammatory bowel disease is a group of conditions affecting the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, particularly the colon and small intestine. The major types of IBD are Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis (UC).

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  • 2019 Oct 24 Tuftsin-phosphorylcholine attenuate experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (MSMultiple sclerosis (also known as disseminated sclerosis) is a chronic, typically progressive disease involving damage to the sheaths of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord, whose symptoms may include numbness, impairment of speech and of muscular coordination, blurred vision and severe fatigue.)
  • 2019 Jan 9 Cross-Domain and Viral Interactions in the Microbiome (Includes a 10-page section on microbiotaThe specific population of microorganisms living in a certain part of the body, such as the gut. "Microbiome" refers to all the microorganisms living in and on the body, or the genome of these microorganisms. These two terms are often used interchangeably./helminth interactions and their effects on immune function.)

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  • 1982 Jul Modulation of immune responses by commensalCommensalism is a relationship between two organisms where one benefits from the other without affecting it. bacteria and intestinal helminth PDF

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  • ✅ 1976 Sept 25 Letter: IgE, parasites, and allergy This paper reported the first known case of successful helminthic therapyThe reintroduction to the digestive tract of a controlled number of specially domesticated, mutualistic helminths (intestinal worms) in the form of microscopic eggs or larvae to reconstitute a depleted biome to treat and prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy. in which colonisation with Necator americanusThe species of human hookworm used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. was shown to resolve hay fever. (NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus)
  • ✅ 1976 Aug Serum IgE levels in white and metis communities in Saskatchewan This paper's author suggested that atopic disease is the price paid by some members of the white community of northern Saskatchewan for their relative freedom from helminth infestation and viral and bacterial infection.

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  • ✅ 1968 Aug 17 Autoimmune disease and parasitic infections in Nigerians The author of this paper suggested a possible relationship between parasiticAn organism that lives in or on another organism (its host) and benefits at the host’s expense. (The organisms used in helminthic therapy are, strictly speaking, not parasites, but mutualists, because they have a mutually beneficial symbiotic relationship with their hosts.) infections and the reduced incidence of autoimmune disease in parts of tropical Africa.

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Take part in the research

Socio-medical research at Duke University

The researchers at Duke have previously reported on data they have already gathered.

The team at Duke are now looking for details about the use of helminthic therapyThe reintroduction to the digestive tract of a controlled number of specially domesticated, mutualistic helminths (intestinal worms) in the form of microscopic eggs or larvae to reconstitute a depleted biome to treat and prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy. to treat those conditions for which helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] are less commonly employed, such as lupus, migraine headaches and neuropsychiatric disorders. If you have used helminthic therapyThe reintroduction to the digestive tract of a controlled number of specially domesticated, mutualistic helminths (intestinal worms) in the form of microscopic eggs or larvae to reconstitute a depleted biome to treat and prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy. to treat one of these conditions, and whether or not this proved successful, please consider completing the Helminth Self-treatment Survey.

Support the research by donation

The vast majority of research into the effects of helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] is being carried out by researchers aiming to discover worm-derived molecules that can potentially be used to create drugs, and this work is already well funded by agencies hoping to benefit from the patents and sales which it is anticipated will follow in the wake of successful drug discovery.

Far less well funded is the research into the use and effects of live helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths], and their development for mass application in both the treatment and prevention of autoimmune, inflammatory, metabolic and allergic diseases, including neuropsychiatric conditions.

This latter work is being spearheaded by Prof William Parker and his team at Duke University, the progress of which is dependent on finance being found for each step they take - finance which is hard to secure from the usual sources due to the perceived lack of potential profits.

At the present time, the team at Duke have two main goals for their helminthic therapyThe reintroduction to the digestive tract of a controlled number of specially domesticated, mutualistic helminths (intestinal worms) in the form of microscopic eggs or larvae to reconstitute a depleted biome to treat and prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy. research.

  • Writing papers, including reviews, commentaries, and policy briefs about helminthic therapyThe reintroduction to the digestive tract of a controlled number of specially domesticated, mutualistic helminths (intestinal worms) in the form of microscopic eggs or larvae to reconstitute a depleted biome to treat and prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy.. In particular, they want to push for change in the landscape of the field to get helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] repositioned away from the modern drug pipeline, which is unsuitable and impractical for helminthic therapyThe reintroduction to the digestive tract of a controlled number of specially domesticated, mutualistic helminths (intestinal worms) in the form of microscopic eggs or larvae to reconstitute a depleted biome to treat and prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy.. The Duke team would also like to be able to provide evidence to encourage governments to focus on the ultimate causes of diseases rather than on applying ‘sticking plasters’ to patch up sick people, and to concentrate on disease prevention - especially by means of biota restoration - rather than on the use of expensive pharmaceuticals.
  • Continuing to pursue the traditional pathway, for example, by seeking approval from the FDA for trials with HDCsHymenolepis diminuta cysticercoids (Hi-men-o-lep'is dim-a-nu-ta sis-ti-sur-koid) - the larval cysts of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta.

Donations are needed to support this work at Duke, and even small amounts will make a difference. For example, $50 will go a long way towards covering the cost of publishing a scientific paper. $500 will help towards supporting a summer intern working on the HDCHymenolepis diminuta cysticercoids (Hi-men-o-lep'is dim-a-nu-ta sis-ti-sur-koid) - the larval cysts of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta project. $5,000 would cover the supply costs of the HDCHymenolepis diminuta cysticercoids (Hi-men-o-lep'is dim-a-nu-ta sis-ti-sur-koid) - the larval cysts of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta project for five months. $10,000 could pay for a study in an animal model, for example testing the idea that helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] may help with wound healing. (This is something the team at Duke believe, based on available information, that helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] probably do, but which has not yet been tested. If the hypothesis were shown to be correct, this would provide a huge push forward for the field of wound care.)

Anyone wishing to donate by cheque should make this out either to "Duke University Medical Center", with "for William Parker's HThelminthic therapy research" in the memo, or to "William Parker", with "Immunity's Forge" in the memo. The Immunity’s Forge art studio website is also set up to take donations by credit card via a donation page. Either of these approaches will ensure that the money donated will be spent on helminthic therapyThe reintroduction to the digestive tract of a controlled number of specially domesticated, mutualistic helminths (intestinal worms) in the form of microscopic eggs or larvae to reconstitute a depleted biome to treat and prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy. research and not on one of the other projects being pursued by Parker’s lab, such as the autism/acetaminophen project. Both the medical centre and the art studio are registered non-profit organisations, so donations to either are tax deductible for US citizens.

Further reading

These pages contain further research papers and articles relevant to each page title.