Difference between revisions of "Helminthic therapy research"

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This page lists papers and reports of scientific studies relating to helminthic therapy and closely related topics such as the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hygiene_hypothesis Hygiene Hypothesis], the [http://evmedreview.com/?p=103 Old Friends' Hypothesis], [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21741180 Biome Depletion Theory] and [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mismatch_theory Evolutionary Mismatch Theory].
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This page lists over 700 papers and reports of scientific studies relating to helminthic therapy and closely associated topics such as the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hygiene_hypothesis Hygiene Hypothesis], the [http://evmedreview.com/?p=103 Old Friends' Hypothesis], [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mismatch_theory Evolutionary Mismatch Theory] and [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21741180 Biome Depletion Theory] / [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29133248 Biota Alteration Theory].
  
 
There are four organisms being used currently in helminthic therapy.  
 
There are four organisms being used currently in helminthic therapy.  
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* Rat tapeworm, [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hymenolepis_diminuta Hymenolepis diminuta] (HDC)
 
* Rat tapeworm, [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hymenolepis_diminuta Hymenolepis diminuta] (HDC)
  
Some of the reports and papers listed below have focussed on the effects of other species of helminth, or molecules derived from them, but all are nevertheless valuable for the insights they provide about the therapeutic effects of helminths.
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Some of the reports and papers listed below have focussed on the effects of other species of helminth, or molecules derived from them, but all are nevertheless valuable for the insights they provide about the therapeutic and prophylactic effects of helminths.
  
Unless otherwise stated, the main links are to [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed PubMed] abstracts, with additional inks to full text copies and PDFs, if available. Where free full text copies are not available via PubMed, these can usually be obtained from other sources such as [http://sci-hub.bz/ Sci-Hub] and the Facebook group, [https://www.facebook.com/groups/682874568401180/?fref=ts Get Your Papers]. Further papers on helminthic therapy can be found by searching [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed PubMed], which carries almost all of the scientific
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Unless otherwise stated, the main links are to [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed PubMed] abstracts, with additional inks to full text and PDF copies, if available. Where free full text copies are not accessible via PubMed, these can usually be obtained from other sources such as [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sci-Hub Sci-Hub], or the Facebook group, [https://www.facebook.com/groups/655550701282346/ Get Your Papers]. Further papers on helminthic therapy can be found by searching [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed PubMed], which carries almost all of the scientific papers written on this subject.
papers written on this subject.
 
  
 
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<div style="border:1px solid #BFA3AF;background-color:#F2CEDD;padding-left:8px;"><h2 style = "margin-top:10px;border:0px solid #CEDFF2;">What researchers say about helminthic therapy</h2></div>
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The following quotes illustrate the current thinking among researchers who are investigating the therapeutic use of living helminths.
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{{Quote|indent}}Although some helminths are known to cause disease and have been labeled parasites, it is now clear that some exposure to this class of organisms is necessary for human health. (Bono-Lunn et al) [https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/10601333.2016.1210159]{{Quote|/indent}}
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{{Quote|indent}}The results strongly support previous indications that helminth therapy can effectively treat a wide range of allergies, autoimmune conditions and neuropsychiatric disorders. (Liu et al) [https://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/images/7/77/Practices_and_outcomes_of_self-treatment_with_helminths_based_on_physicians_observations.pdf]{{Quote|/indent}}
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{{Quote|indent}}What was a costly and sometimes risky venture into the unknown, undertaken by only a few 10 years ago, is rapidly becoming a readily available and well-established resource currently used by thousands of individuals. (Cheng et al, 2015) [http://www.yourwildlife.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/galley-proof-v2.pdf]{{Quote|/indent}}
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{{Quote|indent}}In developed countries, where we are well nourished, worms are potentially good. If I had Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis or multiple sclerosis, I would infect myself without hesitation. (Prof Alex Loukas, Australian Institute of Tropical Health & Medicine) [http://lifeonus.vhx.tv]{{Quote|/indent}}
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{{Quote|indent}}All immunocompetent humans need regular exposure to helminths in order to maintain optimal immune function and avoid risk for inflammation-associated disease… access to helminths is a basic human need. (Smyth et al) [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29064448]{{Quote|/indent}}
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{{Quote|indent}}We need to embrace the view that helminths are a necessary component of the ecosystem of a healthy body, and that helminths should be cultivated for population-wide biota restoration. (Villeneuve et al) [https://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/images/5/57/Evolution_of_the_hygiene_hypothesis_into_biota_alteration_theory-_what_are_the_paradigms_and_where_are_the_clinical_applications%3F.pdf]{{Quote|/indent}}
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{{Quote|indent}}Biome reconstitution… holds a promise for exposure of all individuals to naturally occurring organisms or selected variants of those organisms in a way that is required for human health. Such exposure must be considered a fundamental human right worthy of government support rather than an option for pharmaceutical development. (Parker and Ollerton) [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24481190]{{Quote|/indent}}
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{{Quote|indent}}In some not too distant futurity, there may come a day when we all take ‘helminth supplements’ along with our Omega 3 fatty acids, vitamins, and whatever else goes to make up a modern balanced diet. (Zaccone et al) [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16965287]{{Quote|/indent}}
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{{Quote|indent}}Twenty years from now everybody is going to have a helminth, and no insurance company will begin to cover you if you don’t have your helminths. We’re very confident in the science, that every single human being needs a helminth. It’s part of our biology. (Prof William Parker, Duke University, 2016) [http://pamplinmedia.com/pt/9-news/302838-180108-hooked-on-hookworms-and-other-parasites]{{Quote|/indent}}
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These selected papers provide a good overview of the potential of helminthic therapy and would be suitable resources to include in a reading packet to be given to a doctor or someone who is unaware of the evidence and rationale for helminthic therapy. The first two papers provide validation for the practice of self-treatment with helminths.
 
These selected papers provide a good overview of the potential of helminthic therapy and would be suitable resources to include in a reading packet to be given to a doctor or someone who is unaware of the evidence and rationale for helminthic therapy. The first two papers provide validation for the practice of self-treatment with helminths.
  
* [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27240605 Practices and outcomes of self-treatment with helminths based on physicians' observations] (2016)<br>The first study to examine, through the eyes of their physicians, the practices and experiences of individuals who are self-treating with helminths.  
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* [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27240605 Practices and outcomes of self-treatment with helminths based on physicians' observations] -- [[media:Practices_and_outcomes_of_self-treatment_with_helminths_based_on_physicians_observations.pdf | PDF]] (2016)<br>The first study to examine, through the eyes of their physicians, the practices and experiences of individuals who are self-treating with helminths.  
  
 
* [http://www.yourwildlife.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/galley-proof-v2.pdf Overcoming Evolutionary Mismatch by Self-Treatment with Helminths: Current Practices and Experience] (2015)<br>This study probes the methods and outcomes reported by individuals who are self-treating with helminths and is an ideal basis for discussion between patients and their physicians.
 
* [http://www.yourwildlife.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/galley-proof-v2.pdf Overcoming Evolutionary Mismatch by Self-Treatment with Helminths: Current Practices and Experience] (2015)<br>This study probes the methods and outcomes reported by individuals who are self-treating with helminths and is an ideal basis for discussion between patients and their physicians.
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<div style="border:1px solid #BFA3AF;background-color:#F2CEDD;padding-left:8px;">'''Tips for searching the list'''</div>
 
<div style="border:1px solid #BFA3AF;background-color:#F2CEDD;padding-left:8px;">'''Tips for searching the list'''</div>
<p>'''Note:''' Expand the full list using the [[#expando|'''More papers...''']] link below before searching for symbols or text.</p>
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Symbols used in the list of documents:  
 
Symbols used in the list of documents:  
 
* ✅ - A key paper/report in the development of the therapeutic use of helminths
 
* ✅ - A key paper/report in the development of the therapeutic use of helminths
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* '''Celiac disease''' - search for “celiac” and “coeliac”
 
* '''Celiac disease''' - search for “celiac” and “coeliac”
 
* '''Crohn’s disease''' - search for “Crohn”, “bowel” and “IBD”
 
* '''Crohn’s disease''' - search for “Crohn”, “bowel” and “IBD”
* '''Diabetes''' - search for “diabet”, “insulin”, “glucose” and “metabolic syndrome”
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* '''Diabetes''' - search for “diabet”, “insulin”, “glucose” and “metabolic”
 
* '''Heart disease''' - search for “cardio” and “atherosclerosis”
 
* '''Heart disease''' - search for “cardio” and “atherosclerosis”
 
* '''Inflammation''' - search for “inflam”
 
* '''Inflammation''' - search for “inflam”
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===2020===
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* 2020 May 20 [https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32436176/ Changes in the Severity of Gastric Mucosal Inflammation Associated With Helicobacter Pylori in Humans Coinfected With Intestinal Helminths]
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* 2020 May 18 [https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.05.11.20098053v1.full.pdf Parasites and their protection against COVID-19 - Ecology or Immunology?] (PDF)
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* 2020 May 14 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32407385 Harnessing helminth-driven immunoregulation in the search for novel therapeutic modalities] -- [https://journals.plos.org/plospathogens/article?id=10.1371/journal.ppat.1008508 Full text] | [https://journals.plos.org/plospathogens/article/file?id=10.1371/journal.ppat.1008508&type=printable PDF]
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* 2020 May 7 [https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32448639/ Microbes, Helminths, and Rheumatic Diseases]
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* 2020 May 5 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32372471 Systematic review: gastrointestinal infection and incident inflammatory bowel disease] -- [https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/apt.15770 Full text] (IBD)
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* 2020 May 4 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32367051 Heterogeneity in the initiation, development and function of type 2 immunity]
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* 2020 May 1 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32358579 Will helminth co-infection modulate COVID-19 severity in endemic regions?] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7193760/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7193760/pdf/41577_2020_Article_330.pdf PDF]
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* 2020 Apr 27 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32341115 The Potential Role of Schistosome-Associated Factors as Therapeutic Modulators of the Immune System]
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* 2020 Apr 22 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32321922 CD8+ regulatory T cells are critical in prevention of autoimmune-mediated diabetes]
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* 2020 Apr 22 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32321863 An anti-inflammatory eicosanoid switch mediates the suppression of type-2 inflammation by helminth larval products]
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* 2020 Mar 18 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32200170 Effects of the dietary fibre inulin and Trichuris suis products on inflammatory responses in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages] (TSO)
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* 2020 Mar 10 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32153025 Regulatory T cells in Helminth Infection: Induction, Function and Therapeutic Potential]
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* 2020 Mar 4 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32194529 Dietary Inulin and Trichuris suis Infection Promote Beneficial Bacteria Throughout the Porcine Gut] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7064446/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7064446/pdf/fmicb-11-00312.pdf PDF] (TSO)
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* 2020 Mar 3 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32126084 Helminth infection modulates systemic pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines implicated in type 2 diabetes mellitus pathogenesis] -- [https://journals.plos.org/plosntds/article?id=10.1371/journal.pntd.0008101 Full text]
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* 2020 Mar 2 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32135180 Helminths, polyparasitism, and the gut microbiome in the Philippines]
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* 2020 Feb 6 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32027755 IL-33 is essential to prevent high fat diet-induced obesity in mice infected with an intestinal helminth]
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* 2020 Jan-Feb [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32123528 Perspectives of People with Multiple Sclerosis About Helminth Immunotherapy] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7041615 Full text]
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* 2020 Jan 31 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32005978 The gut microbiota response to helminth infection depends on host sex and genotype]
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* 2020 Jan 24 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31976564 Wuchereria bancrofti macrophage migration inhibitory factor-2 (rWbaMIF-2) ameliorates experimental colitis]
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* 2020 Jan 23 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31971074 A critical analysis of helminth immunotherapy in multiple sclerosis]
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* 2020 Jan 16 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31954872 Suppression of systemic lupus erythematosus in NZBWF1 mice infected with Hymenolepis microstoma]
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* 2020 Jan 1 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31894102 Helminth infections drive heterogeneity in human type 2 and regulatory cells]
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* 2020 Jan [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31914677 Fasciola helminth defense molecule-1 protects against experimental arthritis by inhibiting osteoclast formation and function without modulating the systemic immune response]
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===2019===
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* 2019 Dec 26 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31888063 Immunomodulation of Murine Chronic DSS-Induced Colitis by Tuftsin-Phosphorylcholine] -- [https://www.mdpi.com/2077-0383/9/1/65/htm  Full text]
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* 2019 Dec 24 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31878146 Safety of P28GST, a Protein Derived from a Schistosome Helminth Parasite, in Patients with Crohn's Disease: A Pilot Study (ACROHNEM)] -- [https://www.mdpi.com/2077-0383/9/1/41/htm Full text]
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* 2019 Dec 19 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31885223 Toxicity of parasites and their unconventional use in medicine]
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* 2019 Dec 16 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31845020 Amelioration of type 1 diabetes by recombinant fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase and cystatin derived from Schistosoma japonicum in a murine model]
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* 2019 Dec 13 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31836772 Immunomodulatory effect of Syphacia obvelata in treatment of experimental DSS-induced colitis in mouse model]
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* 2019 Dec 13 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31834940 Chronic infection with a tissue invasive helminth attenuates sublethal anaphylaxis and reduces granularity and number of mast cells]
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* 2019 Dec 11 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31829172 Safety and tolerability of experimental hookworm infection in humans with metabolic disease: study protocol for a phase 1b randomised controlled clinical trial]
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* 2019 Nov 6 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31781154 The Effect of Gut Microbiome Composition on Human Immune Responses: An Exploration of Interference by Helminth Infections] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6856646/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6856646/pdf/fgene-10-01028.pdf PDF]
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* 2019 Nov 7 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31719981 The interplay of type 2 immunity, helminth infection and the microbiota in regulating metabolism] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6837856/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6837856/pdf/CTI2-8-e01089.pdf PDF]
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* 2019 Oct 31 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31673002 Intestinal helminth infection enhances bacteria-induced recruitment of neutrophils to the airspace]
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* 2019 Oct 24 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31683117 Tuftsin-phosphorylcholine attenuate experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis] (MS)
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* 2019 Oct 12 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31605645 Th2 signals are not essential for the anti-arthritic effects of Trichinella spiralis in mice]
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* 2019 Sept 27 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31649786 Therapeutic applicability of helminths in autoimmune diseases - literature overview] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6807663/  Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6807663/pdf/PG-14-37798.pdf PDF]
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* 2019 Sept 27 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31611876 Ascaris lumbricoides Cystatin Prevents Development of Allergic Airway Inflammation in a Mouse Model] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6777510/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6777510/pdf/fimmu-10-02280.pdf PDF] (But also see the details [[Ascaris lumbricoides | '''here''']] regarding the potentially adverse effects of infection with ascaris lumbricoides.)
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* 2019 Sept 18 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31541662 Helminth-microbiota cross-talk - a journey through the vertebrate digestive system]
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* 2019 Sept 11 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31508807 Public health deworming programmes for soil-transmitted helminths in children living in endemic areas]
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* 2019 Sept 9 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31496071 Schistosoma japonicum peptide SJMHE1 suppresses airway inflammation of allergic asthma in mice] -- [https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/jcmm.14661 Full text] | [https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1111/jcmm.14661 PDF]
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* 2019 Sept 5 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31487324 Schistosoma mansoni soluble egg antigen (SEA) and recombinant Omega-1 modulate induced CD4+ T-lymphocyte responses and HIV-1 infection in vitro] -- [https://journals.plos.org/plospathogens/article?id=10.1371/journal.ppat.1007924 Full text] | [https://journals.plos.org/plospathogens/article/file?id=10.1371/journal.ppat.1007924&type=printable PDF] (Also reported by Healio: [https://www.healio.com/infectious-disease/hiv-aids/news/online/%7Bafe40491-17f2-456b-b151-8cf73288c38b%7D/helminth-infection-may-reduce-hiv-transmission-disease Helminth infection may reduce HIV transmission, disease])
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* 2019 Sept 3 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31492623 Immune Regulation of Metabolic Homeostasis by Helminths and Their Molecules]
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* 2019 Aug 30 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31504336 The effect of helminth infections and their treatment on metabolic outcomes: results of a cluster-randomised trial]
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* 2019 Aug 13 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31407335 Helminth-derived molecules inhibit colitis-associated colon cancer development through NF-kB and STAT3 regulation]
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* 2019 Aug 9 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31397879 Critical roles of regulatory B and T cells in helminth parasite-induced protection against allergic airway inflammation]
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* 2019 Jul 27 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31352539 Potential application of helminth therapy for resolution of neuroinflammation in neuropsychiatric disorders]
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* 2019 Jul 9 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31299381 The helminth-derived peptide GK-1 induces an anti-tumoral CD8 T cell response associated with downregulation of the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway] (Cancer)
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* 2019 Jul 1 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31260090 Soil-transmitted helminth infection and intestinal inflammation among the Shuar of Amazonian Ecuador] (TTO)
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* 2019 Jul-Dec [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31579670 The endosymbiotic role of intestinal helminths in multiple sclerosis: Promising probiotic hypothesis] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6767793/ Full text]
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* 2019 Jun 28 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31253164 Preventive and therapeutic effects of Trichinella spiralis adult extracts on allergic inflammation in an experimental asthma mouse model] -- [https://parasitesandvectors.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13071-019-3561-1 Full text]
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* 2019 Jun 27 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31255915 The immune response to Hymenolepis nana in mice decreases tumorigenesis induced by 7,12 dimethylbenz-anthracene] (For a very readable commentary on this paper, see, [https://biomebuzz.com/2019/07/09/more-on-helminths-and-the-prevention-of-cancer/ More on Helminths and the Prevention of Cancer].)
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* 2019 Jun 17 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31209366 Helminths and microbiota — partners in arthritis prevention?]
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* 2019 Jun 12 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31212833 Contribution of the Gut Microbiota in P28GST-Mediated Anti-Inflammatory Effects: Experimental and Clinical Insights] -- [https://www.mdpi.com/2073-4409/8/6/577/htm Full text]
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* 2019 Jun 12 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31187881 Regulation of Immunity and Allergy by Helminth Parasites]
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* 2019 Jun [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30716463 An advanced protocol for the purification of whipworm eggs from feces for use as therapeutic agents]
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* 2019 May 29 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31236458 Pre-conception maternal helminth infection transfers via nursing long-lasting cellular immunity against helminths to offspring] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6587632/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6587632/pdf/aav3058.pdf PDF]
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* 2019 May 29 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31153721 Helminth Therapy – From the Parasite Perspective]
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* 2019 May 28 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31138616 Schistosoma mansoni worm infection regulates the intestinal microbiota and susceptibility to colitis]
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* 2019 May 22 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31205419 Inverse Associations of Schistosoma mansoni Infection and Metabolic Syndromes in Humans: A Cross-Sectional Study in Northeast Ethiopia] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6537292/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6537292/pdf/10.1177_1178636119849934.pdf PDF]
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* 2019 May 21 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31178861 Anti-inflammatory Trained Immunity Mediated by Helminth Products Attenuates the Induction of T Cell-Mediated Autoimmune Disease] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6537856/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6537856/pdf/fimmu-10-01109.pdf PDF]
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* 2019 May [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30986403 Removal of adult cyathostomins alters faecal microbiota and promotes an inflammatory phenotype in horses] -- [https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0020751919300815?via%3Dihub Full text]
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* 2019 Apr 23 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31016721 Helminths products directly modulate T cells that mediate experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis]
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* 2019 Apr 17 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31004803 Cytokine production in allergic and Trichuris trichiura-infected children from an urban region of the Brazilian northeast] (TTO)
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* 2019 Apr 15 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30991712 Characterization of Tapeworm Metabolites and Their Reported Biological Activities] — [https://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/24/8/1480/htm Full text]
 +
 +
* 2019 Apr 10 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30980897 Genetic diversity of the potentially therapeutic tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea)] -- [https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1383576918302800?fbclid=IwAR37HAgKvovhcjr5FkSQAK3NVpoW_7_n79WOyeqKBgCbJHtHaByAC6tRzlc Full text]
 +
 +
* 2019 Apr 8 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30962398 Suppression of obesity by an intestinal helminth through interactions with intestinal microbiota] --  [https://iai.asm.org/content/iai/early/2019/03/19/IAI.00042-19.full.pdf PDF] (Also reported by EurekAlert: [https://eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2019-04/asfm-ihb040819.php Intestinal helminths boost fat burning: Japanese investigators show how])
 +
 +
* 2019 Apr 5 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30952846 The parasitic worm product ES-62 normalises the gut microbiota bone marrow axis in inflammatory arthritis]
 +
 +
* 2019 Apr [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30902137 Helminth therapy for autism under gut-brain axis- hypothesis]
 +
 +
* 2019 Mar 14 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30879759 Therapeutic Potential of Helminths and Helminth-Derived Antigens for Resolution of Inflammation in Inflammatory Bowel Disease] (IBD)
 +
 +
* 2019 Mar 29 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31016928 Progress of research on the interplay between helminth and intestinal protozoa and gut microbiota]
 +
 +
* 2019 Mar 7 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30852293 Dendritic cells treated by Trichinella spiralis muscle larval excretory/secretory products alleviate TNBS-induced colitis in mice]
 +
 +
* 2019 Mar [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30905098 Helminth-Related Tuftsin-Phosphorylcholine Compound and its Interplay with Autoimmune Diseases] -- [https://www.ima.org.il/FilesUpload/IMAJ/0/344/172407.pdf PDF]
 +
 +
* 2019 Feb 26 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30807258 Filarial extract of Litomosoides sigmodontis induces a type 2 immune response and attenuates plaque development in hyperlipidemic ApoE-knockout mice]
 +
 +
* 2019 Feb 19 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30801028 Helminth-Based Product and the Microbiome of Mice with Lupus] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6381224/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6381224/pdf/mSystems.00160-18.pdf PDF]
 +
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* 2019 Feb 13 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30758662 Helminths protect against type 1 diabetes: effects and mechanisms]
 +
 +
* 2019 Feb [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30623233 Chinese liver fluke Clonorchis sinensis infection changes the gut microbiome and increases probiotic Lactobacillus in mice]
 +
 +
* 2019 Jan 22 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30670631 Role of mast cells in the generation of a T-helper type 2 dominated anti-helminthic immune response] (HDC)
 +
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* 2019 Jan 22 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30668930 Macrophages treated with antigen from the tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta condition CD25+ T cells to suppress colitis] (HDC)
 +
 +
* 2019 Jan 9 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30626617 Cross-Domain and Viral Interactions in the Microbiome] (Includes a 10-page section on microbiota/helminth interactions and their effects on immune function.)
 +
 +
* 2019 Jan 4 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30640950 Exclusive dependence of IL-10Rα signalling on intestinal microbiota homeostasis and control of whipworm infection] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6347331/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6347331/pdf/ppat.1007265.pdf PDF] (This study contributes to understanding of the actions of TSO and TTO on diseases such as IBD. There's a more readable summary of the research [https://www.cambridgenetwork.co.uk/news/immune-master-regulator-responses-to-parasite/?fbclid=IwAR1MMJPuhc1SmoHUF7oGDWL3VELh8cOe-f46nnbeHjPDyKTb2eBDFUmFyFM here].)
 +
 +
* 2019 Jan [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30413272 Effect of Trichinella spiralis intervention on TNBS-induced experimental colitis in mice]
 +
 +
* 2019 [http://www.jneuropsychiatry.org/peer-review/parasitic-worms-for-the-treatment-of-neurodegeneration-12989.html Parasitic Worms for the Treatment of Neurodegeneration] -- [http://www.jneuropsychiatry.org/peer-review/parasitic-worms-for-the-treatment-of-neurodegeneration.pdf PDF]
 +
 +
===2018===
 +
 +
* 2018 Dec 28 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30592734 Treatment with P28GST, a schistosome-derived enzyme, after acute colitis induction in mice: Decrease of intestinal inflammation associated with a down regulation of Th1/Th17 responses]
 +
* 2018 Dec 15 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30554380 Tuftsin phosphorylcholine-a novel compound harnessing helminths to fight autoimmunity]
 +
* 2018 Dec 14 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30619265 Human Hookworm Infection Enhances Mycobacterial Growth Inhibition and Associates With Reduced Risk of Tuberculosis Infection] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6302045/  Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6302045/pdf/fimmu-09-02893.pdf PDF] (NA)
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* 2018 Dec 11 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30292284 The Schistosoma mansoni lipidome: Leads for immunomodulation] -- [https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0003267017313363 Full text] | [https://reader.elsevier.com/reader/sd/pii/S0003267017313363?token=BE837298629AA0AF5C0E7F7891E97CA7FBF2194B7348A12FD0CCFD79C45F12DF3E6C69079090C901826FD2CA09ADDD16 PDF]
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* 2018 Dec 10 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30638679 Modulation of autoimmune arthritis by environmental 'hygiene' and commensal microbiota]
 +
* 2018 Dec 4 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30529501 Helminth-based therapies for rheumatoid arthritis: A systematic review and meta-analysis]
 +
* 2018 Dec 4 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30517865 B Cells Produce the Tissue-Protective Protein RELMa during Helminth Infection, which Inhibits IL-17 Expression and Limits Emphysema] -- [https://www.cell.com/cell-reports/fulltext/S2211-1247(18)31801-1 Full text] (Wound healing)
 +
* 2018 Dec 4 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30517697 The double burden of diabetes and global infection in low and middle-income countries]
 +
* 2018 Dec [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30567900 Fh15 Blocks the Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Cytokine Storm While Modulating Peritoneal Macrophage Migration and CD38 Expression within Spleen Macrophages in a Mouse Model of Septic Shock] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6300687/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6300687/pdf/mSphere.00548-18.pdf PDF]
 +
* 2018 Nov 20 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30462997 Modulation of Host Immunity by Helminths: The Expanding Repertoire of Parasite Effector Molecules]
 +
* 2018 Nov 16 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30230399 Randomized crossover feasibility trial of helminthic Trichuris suis ova versus placebo for repetitive behaviors in adult autism spectrum disorder] (TSO)
 +
* 2018 Nov 12 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30483256 Schistosoma mansoni Infection-Induced Transcriptional Changes in Hepatic Macrophage Metabolism Correlate With an Athero-Protective Phenotype] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6240656/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6240656/pdf/fimmu-09-02580.pdf PDF] (Metabolic syndrome)
 +
* 2018 Nov 9 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30473696 Mucosal Barrier and Th2 Immune Responses Are Enhanced by Dietary Inulin in Pigs Infected With Trichuris suis] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6237860/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6237860/pdf/fimmu-09-02557.pdf PDF] (TSO)
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* 2018 Nov 8 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30407548 Metabolic consequences of concomitant Strongyloides stercoralis infection in Type 2 diabetes mellitus]
 +
* 2018 Nov 6 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30401814 Intestinal helminth infection promotes IL-5- and CD4+ T cell-dependent immunity in the lung against migrating parasites]
 +
* 2018 Oct 31 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30379806 The Foxp3+ regulatory T-cell population requires IL-4Rα signaling to control inflammation during helminth infections]
 +
* 2018 Oct 30 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30375396 Helminth-induced IL-4 expands bystander memory CD8+ T cells for early control of viral infection]
 +
* 2018 Oct 29 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30372527 Maternal helminth infections and the shaping of offspring immunity]
 +
* 2018 Oct 29 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30374177 Analysis of the Trichuris suis excretory/secretory proteins as a function of life cycle stage and their immunomodulatory properties] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6206011/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6206011/pdf/41598_2018_Article_34174.pdf PDF] (TSO)
 +
* 2018 Oct 25 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30361537 Virtual memory CD8 T cells expanded by helminth infection confer broad protection against bacterial infection]
 +
* 2018 Oct 23 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30416709 Helminth parasites and immune regulation] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6206608/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6206608/pdf/f1000research-7-17014.pdf PDF]
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* 2018 Oct 23 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30353019 A comprehensive analysis of the faecal microbiome and metabolome of Strongyloides stercoralis infected volunteers from a non-endemic area] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6199319/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6199319/pdf/41598_2018_Article_33937.pdf PDF]
 +
* 2018 Oct 19 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30341242 Mast Cell Deficiency in Mice Results in Biomass Overgrowth and Delayed Expulsion of the Rat Tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta] (HDC)
 +
* 2018 Oct 17 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30336585 Failure of the Anti-Inflammatory Parasitic Worm Product ES-62 to Provide Protection in Mouse Models of Type I Diabetes, Multiple Sclerosis, and Inflammatory Bowel Disease] -- [https://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/23/10/2669/htm Full text]
 +
* 2018 Oct 16 [https://www.arc.gov.au/news-publications/media/feature-articles/combatting-autoimmune-diseases-humble-hookworm?fbclid=IwAR0DxQ-uGjksCaC1gkCgpXhw2_ImRwgswkbyTukwHbLY2ZbNbWQD53KlXvc Combatting autoimmune diseases with the humble hookworm]
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* 2018 Oct 12 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30369927 Immunomodulation by Helminths: Intracellular Pathways and Extracellular Vesicles] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6194161/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6194161/pdf/fimmu-09-02349.pdf PDF]
 +
* 2018 Oct 11 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30316775 Immunomodulatory effects of Trichinella spiralis excretory-secretory antigens on macrophages]
 +
* 2018 Oct 5 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30291167 Helminth-Induced Production of TGF-β and Suppression of Graft-versus-Host Disease Is Dependent on IL-4 Production by Host Cells]
 +
* 2018 Sept 28 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30266743 Parasites as negative regulators of cancer]
 +
* 2018 Sept 25 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30319571 The Gut Microbiota in the Pathogenesis and Therapeutics of Inflammatory Bowel Disease] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6167487/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6167487/pdf/fmicb-09-02247.pdf PDF] (IBD)
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* 2018 Sept 19 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30229947 Soil-transmitted helminth parasites and allergy: observations from Ecuador]
 +
* 2018 Sept 19 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30230399 Randomized Crossover Feasibility Trial of Helminthic Trichuris Suis Ova vs. Placebo for Repetitive Behaviors in Adult Autism Spectrum Disorder] (TSO) This research was completed 4 years previous to publication, and used a novel TSO formulation at pH 5 that is known to be less effective than the original formulation at pH 2.4. [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28720335]
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* 2018 Sept 14 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30216486 Parasites and allergy: observations from Africa]
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* 2018 Sept 11 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30205385 A Trypsin-Sensitive Proteoglycan from the Tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta Inhibits Murine Neutrophil Chemotaxis in vitro by Suppressing p38 MAP Kinase Activation] (HDC)
 +
* 2018 Sept 8 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30194773 STAT6 & IL-10 are required for the anti-arthritic effects of Schistosoma mansoni via different mechanisms]
 +
* 2018 Sept 3 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30177522 Modulation of the immune response by helminths: a role for serotonin?]
 +
* 2018 Aug 27 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30165069 The hygiene hypothesis at a glance: early exposures, immune mechanism and novel therapies]
 +
* 2018 Aug 16 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30121255 Helminth Antigen-Conditioned Dendritic Cells Generate Anti-Inflammatory CD4 T Cells Independent of Antigen Presentation via MHC II] (HDC) (Colitis)
 +
* 2018 Aug 16 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30113218 Interactions of helminths with macrophages: therapeutic potential for inflammatory intestinal disease]
 +
* 2018 Aug 14 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30118915 Acute infection with Strongyloides venezuelensis increases intestine production IL-10, reduces Th1/Th2/Th17 induction in colon and attenuates Dextran Sulfate Sodium-induced colitis in BALB/c mice]
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* 2018 Aug 14 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30107039 Isolated Schistosoma mansoni eggs prevent allergic airway inflammation] (Allergic asthma)
 +
* 2018 Aug 13 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30104215 Host and helminth-derived endocannabinoids are generated during infection with effects on host immunity] (Also reported by EurekAlert: [https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2018-08/uoc--gho082218.php Getting high on worms.])
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* 2018 Aug 8 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30089122 Helminths-based bi-functional molecule, tuftsin-phosphorylcholine (TPC), ameliorates an established murine arthritis] -- [http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0200615 Full text] | [http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article/file?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0200615&type=printable PDF]
 +
* 2018 Aug 7 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30131945 The Intestinal Roundworm Ascaris suum Releases Antimicrobial Factors Which Interfere With Bacterial Growth and Biofilm Formation] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6090379/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6090379/pdf/fcimb-08-00271.pdf PDF]
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* 2018 Aug 1 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30069018 Hookworm exposure decreases human papillomavirus uptake and cervical cancer cell migration through systemic regulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition marker expression] -- [https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-018-30058-9 Full text] | [https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-018-30058-9.pdf PDF]
 +
* 2018 Aug [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30142867 Trichuris suis ova therapy in inflammatory bowel disease: A meta-analysis] -- [https://journals.lww.com/md-journal/fulltext/2018/08240/Trichuris_suis_ova_therapy_in_inflammatory_bowel.119.aspx Full text] (IBD) The 6 papers analysed in this study all have significant design flaws. All but one had a treatment period of only 12 weeks, which is inadequate when assessing the efficacy of helminths, and the only study with a longer treatment period was designed to assess the safety and tolerability, and not the efficacy, of a ''single'' dose of TSO. Four of the six studies selected had also used a novel TSO formulation with a pH of 5, when it is known that storage of TSO at a pH above 4 may impede its therapeutic effect in humans. [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28720335] The conclusions drawn by the authors of this study are therefore not reliable.
 +
* 2018 Jul 31 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30108588 A Role for Epitope Networking in Immunomodulation by Helminths] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6079203/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6079203/pdf/fimmu-09-01763.pdf PDF]
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* 2018 Jul 26 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30093899 Trichinella spiralis Infection Mitigates Collagen-Induced Arthritis via Programmed Death 1-Mediated Immunomodulation] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6070611/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6070611/pdf/fimmu-09-01566.pdf PDF]
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* 2018 Jul 25 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30043455 Worms: Pernicious Parasites or Allies Against Allergies?]
 +
* 2018 Jul 17 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30021142 Getting a Taste for Parasites in the Gut]
 +
* 2018 Jul 16 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30061834 Influence of NOD2 Variants on Trichuris suis ova Treatment Outcome in Crohn's Disease] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6054957/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6054957/pdf/fphar-09-00764.pdf PDF]
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* 2018 Jul 13 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30003599 Hookworms Make Us Human: The Microbiome, Eco-immunology, and a Probiotic Turn in Western Health Care] | [https://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/images/2/2d/Hookworms_Make_Us_Human-_The_Microbiome%2C_Eco-immunology%2C_and_a_Probiotic_Turn_in_Western_Health_Care.pdf PDF] (NA)
 +
* 2018 Jul 10 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29992625 Hematopoietic cell-derived RELMα regulates hookworm immunity through effects on macrophages] (Also reported by Science Daily. [https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/08/180806145207.htm])
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* 2018 Jul 2 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30057915 Macrophage Activation and Functions during Helminth Infection: Recent Advances from the Laboratory Mouse] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6051086/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6051086/pdf/JIR2018-2790627.pdf PDF]
 +
* 2018 Jul [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30072827 SXP-RAL Family Filarial Protein, rWbL2, Prevents Development of DSS-Induced Acute Ulcerative Colitis] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6052733/ Full text]
 +
* 2018 Jun 19 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29915224 Characteristics of the bacterial microbiome in association with common intestinal parasites in irritable bowel syndrome] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6006308/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6006308/pdf/41424_2018_Article_27.pdf PDF] (IBS)
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* 2018 Jun 18 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29909781 The benign helminth Hymenolepis diminuta ameliorates chemically induced colitis in a rat model system] (HDC)
 +
* 2018 Jun 1 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29796663 The therapeutic prospect of crosstalk between prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms in the human gut]
 +
* 2018 May 29 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29808496 Immunobiology of parasitic worm extracellular vesicles]
 +
* 2018 May 28 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29852470 Helminth-induced regulatory T cells and suppression of allergic responses]
 +
* 2018 May 23 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29875750 Extracellular Vesicles From the Helminth Fasciola hepatica Prevent DSS-Induced Acute Ulcerative Colitis in a T-Lymphocyte Independent Mode] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5974114/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5974114/pdf/fmicb-09-01036.pdf PDF]
 +
* 2018 May 14 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29867986 Protection Against Arthritis by the Parasitic Worm Product ES-62, and Its Drug-Like Small Molecule Analogues, Is Associated With Inhibition of Osteoclastogenesis] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5967578/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5967578/pdf/fimmu-09-01016 PDF]
 +
* 2018 May 14 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29867790 Parasite-Microbiota Interactions With the Vertebrate Gut: Synthesis Through an Ecological Lens] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5960673/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5960673/pdf/fmicb-09-00843.pdf PDF]
 +
* 2018 May 10 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29746467 Disentangling complex parasite interactions: Protection against cerebral malaria by one helminth species is jeopardized by co-infection with another] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5963812/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5963812/pdf/pntd.0006483.pdf PDF]
 +
* 2018 Apr 30  [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29760697 Hookworm Secreted Extracellular Vesicles Interact With Host Cells and Prevent Inducible Colitis in Mice] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5936971/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5936971/pdf/fimmu-09-00850.pdf PDF]
 +
* 2018 Apr 26 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29698559 Tuftsin-phosphorylcholine (TPC) equally effective to methylprednisolone in ameliorating lupus nephritis in a mice model]
 +
* 2018 Apr 10 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29653264 Helminth infection in mice improves insulin sensitivity via modulation of gut microbiota and fatty acid metabolism]
 +
* 2018 Apr 4 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29670630 Helminth Infections: Recognition and Modulation of the Immune Response by Innate Immune Cells] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5893867/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5893867/pdf/fimmu-09-00664.pdf PDF]
 +
* 2018 Apr [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29623983 Symptomatic hypereosinophilia associated with Necator americanus self-inoculation] (NA)
 +
* 2018 Apr [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29355990 A sticky end for gastrointestinal helminths; the role of the mucus barrier] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5900928/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5900928/pdf/PIM-40-na.pdf PDF]
 +
* 2018 Mar 25 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29574798 Modulation of human dendritic cell activity by Giardia and helminth antigens]
 +
* 2018 Mar 23 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29569735 Anisakis pegreffii impacts differentiation and function of human dendritic cells]
 +
* 2018 Mar 19 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29567298 Associations between Gut Microbiota and Common Luminal Intestinal Parasites]
 +
* 2018 Mar 15 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29545532 Helminth infection protects against high fat diet-induced obesity via induction of alternatively activated macrophages] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5854586/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5854586/pdf/41598_2018_Article_22920.pdf PDF]
 +
* 2018 Mar 14 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29546242 Manipulation of host and parasite microbiotas: Survival strategies during chronic nematode infection] -- [http://advances.sciencemag.org/content/4/3/eaap7399.full Full text] | [http://advances.sciencemag.org/content/4/3/eaap7399/tab-pdf PDF]
 +
* 2018 Feb 28 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29486796 Differential human gut microbiome assemblages during soil-transmitted helminth infections in Indonesia and Liberia] -- [https://microbiomejournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s40168-018-0416-5 Full text] | [https://microbiomejournal.biomedcentral.com/track/pdf/10.1186/s40168-018-0416-5?site=microbiomejournal.biomedcentral.com PDF]
 +
* 2018 Feb 24 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29486173 Soil-transmitted helminth infections and intestinal and systemic inflammation in schoolchildren] -- [https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0001706X1830233X?via%3Dihub Full text] | [https://ac.els-cdn.com/S0001706X1830233X/1-s2.0-S0001706X1830233X-main.pdf?_tid=40509b04-c3e5-4baf-9f89-dfd29ef353d6&acdnat=1520445863_d2042c3fffa57972d2a29a072cebca94 PDF]
 +
* 2018 Feb 16 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29453411 The impact of a helminth-modified microbiome on host immunity]
 +
* 2018 Feb 2 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29402395 Intestinal worms eating neuropsychiatric disorders? Apparently so]
 +
* 2018 Jan 27 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31662622 Helminth Therapy: Advances in the use of Parasitic Worms Against Inflammatory Bowel Diseases and its Challenges] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6799527/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6799527/pdf/helm-55-001.pdf PDF]
 +
* 2018 Jan 18 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29355617 Serine protease inhibitors containing a Kunitz domain: their role in modulation of host inflammatory responses and parasite survival]
 +
* 2018 Jan 13 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29346656 Host responses to intestinal nematodes] 
 +
* 2018 Jan 12 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29339033 Helminth Modulation of Lung Inflammation] (Asthma)
 +
* 2018 Jan 4 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29351392 Young mice expel the tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta and are protected from colitis by triggering a memory response with worm antigen] -- [http://www.physiology.org/doi/pdf/10.1152/ajpgi.00295.2017 PDF] (HDC)
 +
* 2018 Jan 4 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29300114 The tropics, helminth infections and hygiene hypotheses]
 +
* 2018 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29956141 Production of Hymenolepis diminuta in the Laboratory: An Old Research Tool with New Clinical Applications] -- [[media:Production_of_Hymenolepis_diminuta_in_the_Laboratory-_An_Old_Research_Tool_with_New_Clinical_Applications.pdf | PDF]] (HDC)
  
 
=== 2017 ===
 
=== 2017 ===
 
+
 +
* 2017 Winter [https://pdxscholar.library.pdx.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1430&context=honorstheses A Critical View of Helminthic Therapy: Is It a Viable Form of Treatment for Immune Disorders Under the Category of Inflammatory Bowel Disease?] Alyssa Murphy, undergraduate thesis
 +
* 2017 Dec 30 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29491533 Tuftsin-phosphorylcholine treatment of autoimmune diseases - a benefit and a message from helminths?] (No abstract) -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5825963/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5825963/pdf/RU-55-31448.pdf PDF]
 +
* 2017 Dec 22 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29312343 Review: Impact of Helminth Infection on Antimycobacterial Immunity - A Focus on the Macrophage] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5743664/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5743664/pdf/fimmu-08-01864.pdf PDF]
 +
* 2017 Dec 19 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29262347 Recent Advances in Type-2-Cell-Mediated Immunity: Insights from Helminth Infection]
 +
* 2017 Dec 7 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29224909  Hygiene Hypothesis in Asthma Development: Is Hygiene to Blame?]
 +
* 2017 Nov 29 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29238348 The Mannose Receptor in Regulation of Helminth-Mediated Host Immunity] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5712593/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5712593/pdf/fimmu-08-01677.pdf PDF]
 +
* 2017 Nov 28 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29184071 Preventive Trichuris suis ova (TSO) treatment protects immunocompetent rabbits from DSS colitis but may be detrimental under conditions of immunosuppression] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5705695/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5705695/pdf/41598_2017_Article_16287.pdf PDF]
 +
* 2017 Nov 24 [https://medicalxpress.com/news/2017-11-discovery-potent-parasite-protein-therapeutic.html Discovery of potent parasite protein may lead to new therapeutic options for inflammatory bowel conditions] Medical News Today (IBD)
 +
* 2017 Nov 24 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29171863 Schistosoma mansoni-specific immune responses and allergy in Uganda]
 +
* 2017 Nov 23 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29170498 A structurally distinct TGF-β mimic from an intestinal helminth parasite potently induces regulatory T cells] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5701006/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5701006/pdf/41467_2017_Article_1886.pdf PDF]
 +
* 2017 Nov 15 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29162324 Modulation of human macrophage activity by Ascaris antigens is dependent on macrophage polarization state]
 +
* 2017 Nov 13 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29133417 Human resistin protects against endotoxic shock by blocking LPS-TLR4 interaction] (For media comment on this study linking helminths with potential sepsis treatment, see [https://highlandernews.org/31486/ucr-researchers-discovered-effective-treatment-sepsis/ here].)
 +
* ✅ 2017 Nov 10 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29133248 Evolution of the hygiene hypothesis into biota alteration theory: What are the paradigms and where are the clinical applications?] -- [[media:Evolution_of_the_hygiene_hypothesis_into_biota_alteration_theory-_what_are_the_paradigms_and_where_are_the_clinical_applications?.pdf | PDF]]
 +
* 2017 Nov 8 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29249872 Taenia crassiceps Antigens Control Experimental Type 1 Diabetes by Inducing Alternatively Activated Macrophages] — [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5698814/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5698814/pdf/MI2017-8074329.pdf PDF]
 +
* 2017 Nov 7 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29163443 Parasite-Derived Proteins for the Treatment of Allergies and Autoimmune Diseases] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5682104/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5682104/pdf/fmicb-08-02164.pdf PDF]
 +
* 2017 Nov 2 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29095820 "Omic" investigations of protozoa and worms for a deeper understanding of the human gut "parasitome"] -- [http://journals.plos.org/plosntds/article?id=10.1371/journal.pntd.0005916 Full text]
 +
* 2017 Nov [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28546083 Mechanisms of tolerance and potential therapeutic interventions in Alopecia Areata] -- [https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0163725817301274 Full text] | [https://reader.elsevier.com/reader/sd/AC9EE197F0C767FE2BD19733984F2A1778F480A95D795C37C59054082989950798E313F68A0E18CFE314465013C2BBFB PDF] (See section 4: Gut microbiota and helminths, autoimmunity and tolerance.)
 +
* 2017 Nov [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29108604 Global issues in allergy and immunology: Parasitic infections and allergy]
 +
* 2017 Nov [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29068485 Is the hygiene hypothesis relevant for the risk of multiple sclerosis?]
 +
* 2017 Oct 30 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29141759 Cell Type-Specific Immunomodulation Induced by Helminthes: Effect on Metainflammation, Insulin Resistance and Type-2 Diabetes] (Metabolic syndrome)
 +
* 2017 Oct 28 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29109850 Liver cystic echinococcosis and human host immune and autoimmune follow-up: A review] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5666304/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5666304/pdf/WJH-9-1176.pdf PDF]
 +
* 2017 Oct 26 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29073139 Composition of the Schistosoma mansoni worm secretome: Identification of immune modulatory Cyclophilin A] -- [http://journals.plos.org/plosntds/article?id=10.1371/journal.pntd.0006012 Full text]
 +
* 2017 Oct 24 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29064448 Production and Use of Hymenolepis diminuta Cysticercoids as Anti-Inflammatory Therapeutics] -- [http://www.mdpi.com/2077-0383/6/10/98/htm Full text] (HDC)
 +
* 2017 Oct 17 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29045903 HpARI Protein Secreted by a Helminth Parasite Suppresses Interleukin-33] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5655542/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5655542/pdf/main.pdf PDF] (Allergy, asthma)
 +
* 2017 Oct 16 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29034905 The hygiene hypothesis in autoimmunity: the role of pathogens and commensals]
 +
* 2017 Oct 16 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29036211 Orally administered Taenia solium Calreticulin prevents experimental intestinal inflammation and is associated with a type 2 immune response] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5643116/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5643116/pdf/pone.0186510.pdf PDF] (Colitis)
 
*2017 Oct 13 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29027962 Novel Therapeutics for Multiple Sclerosis Designed by Parasitic Worms] -- [http://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/18/10/2141/htm Full text]
 
*2017 Oct 13 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29027962 Novel Therapeutics for Multiple Sclerosis Designed by Parasitic Worms] -- [http://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/18/10/2141/htm Full text]
 +
* 2017 Oct 6 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29114386 Suppression of inflammation and tissue damage by a hookworm recombinant protein in experimental colitis] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5671989/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5671989/pdf/cti201742a.pdf PDF] (NA)
 
* 2017 Oct 3 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28975357 The Effects of Intestinal Nematode L4 Stage on Mouse Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis] (Multiple sclerosis)
 
* 2017 Oct 3 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28975357 The Effects of Intestinal Nematode L4 Stage on Mouse Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis] (Multiple sclerosis)
 +
* 2017 Oct 1 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29064315 Safety and efficacy of helminth treatment in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: Results of the HINT 2 clinical trial] -- [http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/1352458517736377 PDF] This trial employed a novel TSO formulation with a pH of 5, when it is known that storage of TSO at a pH above 4 may impede its therapeutic effect in humans. [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28720335] The conclusions drawn by the authors of this study about the efficacy of TSO are therefore not reliable.
 +
* 2017 Oct [https://www.cambridge.org/core/books/governing-medical-knowledge-commons/chronic-disease-new-thinking-and-outlaw-innovation-patients-on-the-edge-in-the-knowledge-commons/8105C66FEBA55446E15538FD4B164005/core-reader# Chronic Disease, New Thinking, and Outlaw Innovation: Patients on the Edge in the Knowledge Commons] (Chapter 14 of the book, [https://www.cambridge.org/core/books/governing-medical-knowledge-commons/C4CAF56DF197BA93E850E65509EB36E8 Governing Medical Knowledge Commons], Cambridge University Press.)
 
* 2017 Oct [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28779539 Effect of ES products from Anisakis (Nematoda: Anisakidae) on experimentally induced colitis in adult zebrafish]
 
* 2017 Oct [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28779539 Effect of ES products from Anisakis (Nematoda: Anisakidae) on experimentally induced colitis in adult zebrafish]
 
* 2017 Oct [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28970236 Cardioprotective manifestations of chronic helminth infections: new aspects of an old disease]
 
* 2017 Oct [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28970236 Cardioprotective manifestations of chronic helminth infections: new aspects of an old disease]
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* 2017 Sep 27 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28960280 Functional specialization of intestinal dendritic cell subsets during Th2 helminth infection in mice]
 
* 2017 Sep 27 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28960280 Functional specialization of intestinal dendritic cell subsets during Th2 helminth infection in mice]
 
* 2017 Sep 7 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28970717 Helminths as an alternative therapy for intestinal diseases] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5597493/ Full text] [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5597493/pdf/WJG-23-6009.pdf PDF]
 
* 2017 Sep 7 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28970717 Helminths as an alternative therapy for intestinal diseases] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5597493/ Full text] [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5597493/pdf/WJG-23-6009.pdf PDF]
* 2017 Sep 11 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28892562 Triggering immunological memory against the tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta to protect against colitis]
+
* 2017 Sep 11 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28892562 Triggering immunological memory against the tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta to protect against colitis] (HDC)
* 2017 Sep 11 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28892494 Infections by human gastrointestinal helminths are associated with changes in faecal microbiota diversity and composition]
+
* 2017 Sep 11 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28892494 Infections by human gastrointestinal helminths are associated with changes in faecal microbiota diversity and composition] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5593201/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5593201/pdf/pone.0184719.pdf PDF]
 
* 2017 Aug 21 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28883695 Schistosoma japonicum attenuates dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis in mice via reduction of endoplasmic reticulum stress] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5569284/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5569284/pdf/WJG-23-5700.pdf PDF]
 
* 2017 Aug 21 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28883695 Schistosoma japonicum attenuates dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis in mice via reduction of endoplasmic reticulum stress] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5569284/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5569284/pdf/WJG-23-5700.pdf PDF]
 
* 2017 Aug 16 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28815724 Secreted products of Fasciola hepatica inhibit the induction of T cell responses that mediate allergy]  
 
* 2017 Aug 16 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28815724 Secreted products of Fasciola hepatica inhibit the induction of T cell responses that mediate allergy]  
 
* 2017 Aug 5 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28779539 Effect of ES-products from Anisakis (Nematoda: Anisakidae) on experimentally induced colitis in adult zebrafish]
 
* 2017 Aug 5 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28779539 Effect of ES-products from Anisakis (Nematoda: Anisakidae) on experimentally induced colitis in adult zebrafish]
 
* 2017 Aug 3 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28771620 A benign helminth alters the host immune system and the gut microbiota in a rat model system] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5542714/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5542714/pdf/pone.0182205.pdf PDF] (HDC)
 
* 2017 Aug 3 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28771620 A benign helminth alters the host immune system and the gut microbiota in a rat model system] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5542714/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5542714/pdf/pone.0182205.pdf PDF] (HDC)
* 2017 Aug [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28877578 Syphacia obvelata: A New Hope to Induction of Intestinal Immunological Tolerance in C57BL/6 Mice]  
+
* 2017 Aug [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28877578 Syphacia obvelata: A New Hope to Induction of Intestinal Immunological Tolerance in C57BL/6 Mice] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5594727/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5594727/pdf/kjp-55-4-439.pdf PDF]
* 2017 Jul 15 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28720335 Not infection with parasitic worms, but rather colonization with therapeutic helminths]
+
* 2017 Jul 24 [http://trjfas.org/uploads/pdf_1183.pdf Role of Parasitic Helminths in Bioremediating Some Heavy Metal Accumulation in the Tissues of Lethrinus mahsena]
 +
* 2017 Jul 15 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28720335 Not infection with parasitic worms, but rather colonization with therapeutic helminths] | [https://projects.ncsu.edu/project/evoresources/evolution/coevolution%20and%20hygiene/hygiene%20hypothesis%202019/Reprint%20IL%202017-1.pdf PDF]
 
* 2017 Jul 13 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28703913 A. suum infection modulates inflammation: implication of CD4+CD25hi Foxp3+ T cells and IL-10]
 
* 2017 Jul 13 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28703913 A. suum infection modulates inflammation: implication of CD4+CD25hi Foxp3+ T cells and IL-10]
 
* 2017 Jul 8 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28689246 Parasites and asthma]
 
* 2017 Jul 8 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28689246 Parasites and asthma]
 
* 2017 Jun 29 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28659212 Helminth-induced apoptosis: a silent strategy for immunosuppression]
 
* 2017 Jun 29 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28659212 Helminth-induced apoptosis: a silent strategy for immunosuppression]
 
* 2017 Jun 29 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28664463 Therapeutic potential of helminths in autoimmune diseases: helminth-derived immune-regulators and immune balance]
 
* 2017 Jun 29 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28664463 Therapeutic potential of helminths in autoimmune diseases: helminth-derived immune-regulators and immune balance]
* 2017 Jun 28 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28744067 Helminth Products Potently Modulate Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis by Downregulating Neuroinflammation and Promoting a Suppressive Microenvironment] (Multiple Sclerosis)
+
* 2017 Jun 28 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28744067 Helminth Products Potently Modulate Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis by Downregulating Neuroinflammation and Promoting a Suppressive Microenvironment] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5506484/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5506484/pdf/MI2017-8494572.pdf PDF] (Multiple Sclerosis)
 
* 2017 Jun 20 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28676845 Th2/1 Hybrid Cells Occurring in Murine and Human Strongyloidiasis Share Effector Functions of Th1 Cells] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5476698/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5476698/pdf/fcimb-07-00261.pdf PDF]
 
* 2017 Jun 20 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28676845 Th2/1 Hybrid Cells Occurring in Murine and Human Strongyloidiasis Share Effector Functions of Th1 Cells] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5476698/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5476698/pdf/fcimb-07-00261.pdf PDF]
 
* 2017 Jun 14 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28614408 Schistosoma japonicum infection downregulates house dust mite-induced allergic airway inflammation in mice] -- [http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0179565 Full text] | [http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article/file?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0179565&type=printable PDF] (Asthma)
 
* 2017 Jun 14 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28614408 Schistosoma japonicum infection downregulates house dust mite-induced allergic airway inflammation in mice] -- [http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0179565 Full text] | [http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article/file?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0179565&type=printable PDF] (Asthma)
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* 2017 Jun 8 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28602842 Immune responses and parasitological observations induced during probiotic treatment with medicinal Trichuris suis ova in a healthy volunteer] (TSO)
 
* 2017 Jun 8 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28602842 Immune responses and parasitological observations induced during probiotic treatment with medicinal Trichuris suis ova in a healthy volunteer] (TSO)
 
* 2017 Jun 5 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28492420 Helminthic Therapy: A New Era in Immune-Mediated Diseases] -- [http://journals.lww.com/jclinrheum/Citation/2017/06000/Helminthic_Therapy__A_New_Era_in_Immune_Mediated.19.aspx Full text] (Mixed connective tissue disease/MCTD, Raynaud phenomenon)
 
* 2017 Jun 5 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28492420 Helminthic Therapy: A New Era in Immune-Mediated Diseases] -- [http://journals.lww.com/jclinrheum/Citation/2017/06000/Helminthic_Therapy__A_New_Era_in_Immune_Mediated.19.aspx Full text] (Mixed connective tissue disease/MCTD, Raynaud phenomenon)
* 2017 Jun [http://rdcu.be/tubO Parasites, ghosts and mutualists: a relational geography of microbes for global health] (PDF)
 
 
* 2017 May 16 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28526605 Microevolutionary response of a gut nematode to intestinal inflammation]
 
* 2017 May 16 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28526605 Microevolutionary response of a gut nematode to intestinal inflammation]
 
* 2017 May 12 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28494800 Somatic extracts of Marshallagia marshalli downregulate the Th2 associated immune responses in ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation in BALB/c mice] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5427607/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5427607/pdf/13071_2017_Article_2159.pdf PDF] (Asthma)
 
* 2017 May 12 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28494800 Somatic extracts of Marshallagia marshalli downregulate the Th2 associated immune responses in ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation in BALB/c mice] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5427607/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5427607/pdf/13071_2017_Article_2159.pdf PDF] (Asthma)
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* 2017 Apr 8 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28390393 Regulatory monocytes in helminth infections: insights from the modulation during human hookworm infection] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5385058/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5385058/pdf/12879_2017_Article_2366.pdf PDF]
 
* 2017 Apr 8 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28390393 Regulatory monocytes in helminth infections: insights from the modulation during human hookworm infection] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5385058/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5385058/pdf/12879_2017_Article_2366.pdf PDF]
 
* 2017 Apr 3 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28385494 Schistosome-induced pulmonary B cells inhibit allergic airway inflammation and display a reduced Th2-driving function]
 
* 2017 Apr 3 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28385494 Schistosome-induced pulmonary B cells inhibit allergic airway inflammation and display a reduced Th2-driving function]
 +
* 2017 Apr 1 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28204053 Whipping Crohn's With Helminth Therapies? Not Yet]
 +
* 2017 Apr [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28031319 Apolipoprotein E4 is associated with improved cognitive function in Amazonian forager-horticulturalists with a high parasite burden] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5349792/ Full text]
 
* 2017 Mar 24 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28342137 Skewed Exposure to Environmental Antigens Complements Hygiene Hypothesis in Explaining the Rise of Allergy] -- [http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10441-017-9306-7 Full text] | [http://download.springer.com/static/pdf/689/art%253A10.1007%252Fs10441-017-9306-7.pdf?originUrl=http%3A%2F%2Flink.springer.com%2Farticle%2F10.1007%2Fs10441-017-9306-7&token2=exp=1490739158~acl=%2Fstatic%2Fpdf%2F689%2Fart%25253A10.1007%25252Fs10441-017-9306-7.pdf%3ForiginUrl%3Dhttp%253A%252F%252Flink.springer.com%252Farticle%252F10.1007%252Fs10441-017-9306-7*~hmac=9a64ec6d20433c8458c2148266ee7c346fa819eaa97422b8a79fccc79d005885 PDF]  
 
* 2017 Mar 24 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28342137 Skewed Exposure to Environmental Antigens Complements Hygiene Hypothesis in Explaining the Rise of Allergy] -- [http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10441-017-9306-7 Full text] | [http://download.springer.com/static/pdf/689/art%253A10.1007%252Fs10441-017-9306-7.pdf?originUrl=http%3A%2F%2Flink.springer.com%2Farticle%2F10.1007%2Fs10441-017-9306-7&token2=exp=1490739158~acl=%2Fstatic%2Fpdf%2F689%2Fart%25253A10.1007%25252Fs10441-017-9306-7.pdf%3ForiginUrl%3Dhttp%253A%252F%252Flink.springer.com%252Farticle%252F10.1007%252Fs10441-017-9306-7*~hmac=9a64ec6d20433c8458c2148266ee7c346fa819eaa97422b8a79fccc79d005885 PDF]  
 
* 2017 Mar 22 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28342825 Association between parasitic infections and tuberculin skin test results in refugees] (Tuberculosis)
 
* 2017 Mar 22 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28342825 Association between parasitic infections and tuberculin skin test results in refugees] (Tuberculosis)
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* 2017 Mar 8 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28284979 Effect of polymorphisms on TGFB1 on allergic asthma and helminth infection in an African admixed population]
 
* 2017 Mar 8 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28284979 Effect of polymorphisms on TGFB1 on allergic asthma and helminth infection in an African admixed population]
 
* 2017 Mar 8 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28271497 Chronic schistosomiasis during pregnancy epigenetically reprograms T cell differentiation in offspring of infected mothers] (Allergy)
 
* 2017 Mar 8 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28271497 Chronic schistosomiasis during pregnancy epigenetically reprograms T cell differentiation in offspring of infected mothers] (Allergy)
* 2017 Mar [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28030334 Trichuris suis secrete products that reduce disease severity in a multiple sclerosis model]
+
* 2017 Mar [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28030334 Trichuris suis secrete products that reduce disease severity in a multiple sclerosis model] (TSO)
 
* 2017 Feb 24 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28235148 Parasites, nutrition, immune responses, and biology of metabolic tissues]
 
* 2017 Feb 24 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28235148 Parasites, nutrition, immune responses, and biology of metabolic tissues]
 +
* 2017 Feb 23 [http://rdcu.be/tubO Parasites, ghosts and mutualists: a relational geography of microbes for global health] (PDF) -- Jamie Lorimer, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, Royal Geographical Society.
 
* 2017 Feb 21 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28224678 Microbiome, autoimmunity, allergy, and helminth infection: The importance of the pregnancy period]
 
* 2017 Feb 21 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28224678 Microbiome, autoimmunity, allergy, and helminth infection: The importance of the pregnancy period]
* 2017 Feb 20 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28265273 New Data on Human Macrophages Polarization by Hymenolepis diminuta Tapeworm - An In Vitro Study] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5316519/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5316519/pdf/fimmu-08-00148.pdf PDF]
+
* 2017 Feb 20 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28265273 New Data on Human Macrophages Polarization by Hymenolepis diminuta Tapeworm - An In Vitro Study] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5316519/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5316519/pdf/fimmu-08-00148.pdf PDF] (HDC)
 
* 2017 Feb 15 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28201853 Antigenic cross-reactivity between Schistosoma mansoni and peanut: a role for cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCDs) and implications for the hygiene hypothesis] (Allergy)
 
* 2017 Feb 15 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28201853 Antigenic cross-reactivity between Schistosoma mansoni and peanut: a role for cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCDs) and implications for the hygiene hypothesis] (Allergy)
 
* 2017 Feb 13 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28192437 Species dependent impact of helminth-derived antigens on human macrophages infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis: Direct effect on the innate anti-mycobacterial response] -- [http://journals.plos.org/plosntds/article?id=10.1371/journal.pntd.0005390 Full text] | [http://journals.plos.org/plosntds/article/file?id=10.1371/journal.pntd.0005390&type=printable PDF]
 
* 2017 Feb 13 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28192437 Species dependent impact of helminth-derived antigens on human macrophages infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis: Direct effect on the innate anti-mycobacterial response] -- [http://journals.plos.org/plosntds/article?id=10.1371/journal.pntd.0005390 Full text] | [http://journals.plos.org/plosntds/article/file?id=10.1371/journal.pntd.0005390&type=printable PDF]
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* 2017 Jan 17 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28094779 Suppression of colitis by adoptive transfer of helminth antigen-treated dendritic cells requires interleukin-4 receptor-α signaling] -- [http://www.nature.com/articles/srep40631 Full text] | [http://readcube.com/view/10.1038/srep40631 PDF]
 
* 2017 Jan 17 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28094779 Suppression of colitis by adoptive transfer of helminth antigen-treated dendritic cells requires interleukin-4 receptor-α signaling] -- [http://www.nature.com/articles/srep40631 Full text] | [http://readcube.com/view/10.1038/srep40631 PDF]
 
* 2017 Jan 13 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28084120 Inflammatory arthritis and systemic bone loss are attenuated by gastrointestinal helminth parasites]
 
* 2017 Jan 13 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28084120 Inflammatory arthritis and systemic bone loss are attenuated by gastrointestinal helminth parasites]
 +
* 2017 Jan 10 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27665994 Regulation of type 2 diabetes by helminth-induced Th2 immune response] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5240765/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5240765/pdf/jvms-77-1855.pdf PDF]
 +
* 2017 Jan 10 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28073356 Gut microbiota disturbance during helminth infection: can it affect cognition and behaviour of children?] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5225537/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5225537/pdf/12879_2016_Article_2146.pdf PDF]
 
* 2017 Jan 9 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28066896 Parasite excretory-secretory products and their effects on metabolic syndrome]
 
* 2017 Jan 9 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28066896 Parasite excretory-secretory products and their effects on metabolic syndrome]
* 2017 Jan 2 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28452686 Helminths and intestinal barrier function]
+
* 2017 Jan 2 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28452686 Helminths and intestinal barrier function] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5362995/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5362995/pdf/ktib-05-01-1283385.pdf PDF]  
 
* 2017 Jan [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25919312 Downregulation of immune responses in asthmatic humans by ES products of Marshallagia marshalli]
 
* 2017 Jan [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25919312 Downregulation of immune responses in asthmatic humans by ES products of Marshallagia marshalli]
  
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* 2016 Dec 7 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27925245 Helminths, hygiene hypothesis and type 2 diabetes]
 
* 2016 Dec 7 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27925245 Helminths, hygiene hypothesis and type 2 diabetes]
 
* 2016 Dec [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28087937 Myeloid Cell Phenotypes in Susceptibility and Resistance to Helminth Parasite Infections]
 
* 2016 Dec [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28087937 Myeloid Cell Phenotypes in Susceptibility and Resistance to Helminth Parasite Infections]
 +
* 2016 Dec [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30144791 Effect of Helminthic Infection on the Prevention and Treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Disease and the Mechanisms] (IBD)
 
* 2016 Nov 24 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27883079 A parasite-derived 68-mer peptide ameliorates autoimmune disease in murine models of Type 1 diabetes and multiple sclerosis] -- [http://www.nature.com/articles/srep37789 Full text] | [http://www.readcube.com/articles/10.1038/srep37789 PDF]
 
* 2016 Nov 24 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27883079 A parasite-derived 68-mer peptide ameliorates autoimmune disease in murine models of Type 1 diabetes and multiple sclerosis] -- [http://www.nature.com/articles/srep37789 Full text] | [http://www.readcube.com/articles/10.1038/srep37789 PDF]
 
* 2016 Nov 22 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27872476 New insights into the immunopathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus] -- [http://api.ning.com/files/8jjNHgLtomKsoq6sl8mJexRf8ONvFy7AtXXsTE4kw1m2l9aCE83aya7w6mG5n-4ZmJqFwl7X0Q-Z76n3KwW-lriHT54hbHuZ/sheba5299.pdf PDF]
 
* 2016 Nov 22 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27872476 New insights into the immunopathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus] -- [http://api.ning.com/files/8jjNHgLtomKsoq6sl8mJexRf8ONvFy7AtXXsTE4kw1m2l9aCE83aya7w6mG5n-4ZmJqFwl7X0Q-Z76n3KwW-lriHT54hbHuZ/sheba5299.pdf PDF]
 +
* 2016 Nov 18 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27672083 Treatment with Cestode Parasite Antigens Results in Recruitment of CCR2+ Myeloid Cells, the Adoptive Transfer of Which Ameliorates Colitis] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5116724/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5116724/pdf/zii3471.pdf PDF] (HDC)
 
* 2016 Nov 11 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27956844 Helminth infection during pregnancy: insights from evolutionary ecology]
 
* 2016 Nov 11 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27956844 Helminth infection during pregnancy: insights from evolutionary ecology]
 
* 2016 Nov 10 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27861815 Intestinal helminth infection induces highly functional resident memory CD4+ T cells in mice]
 
* 2016 Nov 10 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27861815 Intestinal helminth infection induces highly functional resident memory CD4+ T cells in mice]
 
* 2016 Nov 10 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27862000 Immunomodulation by helminths: similar impact on type 1 and type 2 diabetes?]
 
* 2016 Nov 10 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27862000 Immunomodulation by helminths: similar impact on type 1 and type 2 diabetes?]
 
* 2016 Nov 9 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27827438 Changes in duodenal tissue-associated microbiota following hookworm infection and consecutive gluten challenges in humans with coeliac disease] -- [http://www.nature.com/articles/srep36797 Full text] | [http://www.readcube.com/articles/10.1038/srep36797 PDF]
 
* 2016 Nov 9 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27827438 Changes in duodenal tissue-associated microbiota following hookworm infection and consecutive gluten challenges in humans with coeliac disease] -- [http://www.nature.com/articles/srep36797 Full text] | [http://www.readcube.com/articles/10.1038/srep36797 PDF]
* 2016 Nov 7 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27905107 Co-operative suppression of inflammatory responses in human dendritic cells by plant proanthocyanidins and products from the parasitic nematode Trichuris suis]
+
* 2016 Nov 7 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27905107 Co-operative suppression of inflammatory responses in human dendritic cells by plant proanthocyanidins and products from the parasitic nematode Trichuris suis] (TSO)
* 2016 Nov 2 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27806992 The whipworm (Trichuris suis) secretes prostaglandin E2 to suppress proinflammatory properties in human dendritic cells]
+
* 2016 Nov 2 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27806992 The whipworm (Trichuris suis) secretes prostaglandin E2 to suppress proinflammatory properties in human dendritic cells] (TSO)
 
* 2016 Nov 1 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27802332 Anti-Arthritic Activity of Schistosoma mansoni and Trichinella spiralis Derived-Antigens in Adjuvant Arthritis in Rats: Role of FOXP3+ Treg Cells] --  [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5089557/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5089557/pdf/pone.0165916.pdf PDF]
 
* 2016 Nov 1 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27802332 Anti-Arthritic Activity of Schistosoma mansoni and Trichinella spiralis Derived-Antigens in Adjuvant Arthritis in Rats: Role of FOXP3+ Treg Cells] --  [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5089557/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5089557/pdf/pone.0165916.pdf PDF]
* 2016 Nov [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27548652 Aberrant immune response with consequent vascular and connective tissue remodeling - causal to scleroderma and associated syndromes such as Raynaud phenomenon and other fibrosing syndromes?] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5114306/ Full text]
+
* 2016 Nov [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27548652 Aberrant immune response with consequent vascular and connective tissue remodeling - causal to scleroderma and associated syndromes such as Raynaud phenomenon and other fibrosing syndromes?] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5114306/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5114306/pdf/nihms821879.pdf PDF]
 
* 2016 Oct 27 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27983971 Immune-protective effect of echinococcosis on colitis experimental model is dependent of down regulation of TNF-α and NO production]
 
* 2016 Oct 27 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27983971 Immune-protective effect of echinococcosis on colitis experimental model is dependent of down regulation of TNF-α and NO production]
 
* 2016 Oct 26 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27797959 Hookworm recombinant protein promotes regulatory T cell responses that suppress experimental asthma]
 
* 2016 Oct 26 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27797959 Hookworm recombinant protein promotes regulatory T cell responses that suppress experimental asthma]
 
* 2016 Oct 17 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27791067 Community deworming alleviates geohelminth-induced immune hyporesponsiveness]
 
* 2016 Oct 17 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27791067 Community deworming alleviates geohelminth-induced immune hyporesponsiveness]
* 2016 Oct 15 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27743501 Mucosal and systemic immune modulation by Trichuris trichiura in a self-infected individual]
+
* 2016 Oct 15 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27743501 Mucosal and systemic immune modulation by Trichuris trichiura in a self-infected individual] (TTO)
 
* 2016 Oct 6 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27863931 The Multibiome: The Intestinal Ecosystem's Influence on Immune Homeostasis, Health, and Disease] -- [http://www.ebiomedicine.com/article/S2352-3964(16)30462-5/fulltext Full text] | [http://www.ebiomedicine.com/article/S2352-3964(16)30462-5/pdf PDF]
 
* 2016 Oct 6 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27863931 The Multibiome: The Intestinal Ecosystem's Influence on Immune Homeostasis, Health, and Disease] -- [http://www.ebiomedicine.com/article/S2352-3964(16)30462-5/fulltext Full text] | [http://www.ebiomedicine.com/article/S2352-3964(16)30462-5/pdf PDF]
* 2016 Oct 5 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27707789 A Randomised, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Trial of Trichuris suis ova in Active Crohn's disease] (This was one of several studies mounted by a single company that used a novel formulation of TSO against the advice of the manufacturer, and a trial period of inadequate length. [https://1.usa.gov/19CrqWg])
+
* 2016 Oct 5 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27707789 A Randomised, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Trial of Trichuris suis ova in Active Crohn's disease] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5881737/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5881737/pdf/jjw184.pdf PDF] This trial employed a novel TSO formulation with a pH of 5, when it is known that storage of TSO at a pH above 4 may impede its therapeutic effect in humans. [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28720335] The conclusions drawn by the authors of this study about the efficacy of TSO are therefore not reliable.
 
* 2016 Oct-Dec [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28127363 Anti-inflammatory Potentials of Excretory/Secretory (ES) and Somatic Products of Marshallagia marshalli on Allergic Airway Inflammation in BALB/c Mice] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5251180/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5251180/pdf/IJPA-11-515.pdf PDF]
 
* 2016 Oct-Dec [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28127363 Anti-inflammatory Potentials of Excretory/Secretory (ES) and Somatic Products of Marshallagia marshalli on Allergic Airway Inflammation in BALB/c Mice] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5251180/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5251180/pdf/IJPA-11-515.pdf PDF]
 
* 2016 Sept 25 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27666719 Cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes in evolutionary perspective: a critical role for helminths] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5101910/ Full text] | [http://emph.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2016/09/24/emph.eow028.full.pdf PDF]
 
* 2016 Sept 25 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27666719 Cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes in evolutionary perspective: a critical role for helminths] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5101910/ Full text] | [http://emph.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2016/09/24/emph.eow028.full.pdf PDF]
 
* 2016 Sept 1 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27587063 Dendritic cells and parasites: from recognition and activation to immune response instruction]
 
* 2016 Sept 1 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27587063 Dendritic cells and parasites: from recognition and activation to immune response instruction]
 
* 2016 Aug 29 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27573628 Human Helminths and Allergic Disease: The Hygiene Hypothesis and Beyond]
 
* 2016 Aug 29 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27573628 Human Helminths and Allergic Disease: The Hygiene Hypothesis and Beyond]
* 2016 Aug 26 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27575495 Helminth Regulation of Immunity: A Three-pronged Approach to Treat Colitis]
+
* 2016 Aug 26 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27575495 Helminth Regulation of Immunity: A Three-pronged Approach to Treat Colitis] -- [https://tanawisa.com/publications/Helminth_Regulation_of_Immunity.pdf PDF] (TSO)
 
* 2016 Aug 25 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27596058 Do worms protect against the metabolic syndrome? A systematic review and meta-analysis] -- [http://www.diabetesresearchclinicalpractice.com/article/S0168-8227(16)30437-5/fulltext Full text] [http://www.diabetesresearchclinicalpractice.com/article/S0168-8227(16)30437-5/pdf PDF] (Diabetes)
 
* 2016 Aug 25 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27596058 Do worms protect against the metabolic syndrome? A systematic review and meta-analysis] -- [http://www.diabetesresearchclinicalpractice.com/article/S0168-8227(16)30437-5/fulltext Full text] [http://www.diabetesresearchclinicalpractice.com/article/S0168-8227(16)30437-5/pdf PDF] (Diabetes)
 
* 2016 Aug 25 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27560829 The Helminth-Derived Immunomodulator AvCystatin Reduces Virus Enhanced Inflammation by Induction of Regulatory IL-10+ T Cells] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4999285/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4999285/pdf/pone.0161885.pdf PDF]
 
* 2016 Aug 25 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27560829 The Helminth-Derived Immunomodulator AvCystatin Reduces Virus Enhanced Inflammation by Induction of Regulatory IL-10+ T Cells] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4999285/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4999285/pdf/pone.0161885.pdf PDF]
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* 2016 Aug [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27116368 Macrobiota - helminths as active participants and partners of the microbiota in host intestinal homeostasis]
 
* 2016 Aug [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27116368 Macrobiota - helminths as active participants and partners of the microbiota in host intestinal homeostasis]
 
* 2016 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27480900 Role in Allergic Diseases of Immunological Cross-Reactivity between Allergens and Homologues of Parasite Proteins]
 
* 2016 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27480900 Role in Allergic Diseases of Immunological Cross-Reactivity between Allergens and Homologues of Parasite Proteins]
* 2016 Jul 28 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27476889 Regulation of the host immune system by helminth parasites]
+
* 2016 Jul 28 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27476889 Regulation of the host immune system by helminth parasites] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5010150/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5010150/pdf/main.pdf PDF]
 
* 2016 Jul [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27215921 Opening (and Swallowing) A Can of Worms to Treat My Crohn's Disease] -- [http://ocean.sci-hub.cc/870164b35621115a3f0bf71a1c1f3685/ahrens2016.pdf PDF]
 
* 2016 Jul [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27215921 Opening (and Swallowing) A Can of Worms to Treat My Crohn's Disease] -- [http://ocean.sci-hub.cc/870164b35621115a3f0bf71a1c1f3685/ahrens2016.pdf PDF]
 
* 2016 Jun 27 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27348757 Molecular events by which dendritic cells promote Th2 immune protection in helminth infection]
 
* 2016 Jun 27 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27348757 Molecular events by which dendritic cells promote Th2 immune protection in helminth infection]
 
* 2016 Jun 26 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27424065 Intestinal parasites infection: protective effect in rheumatoid arthritis?] -- [http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2255502116300426 Full text] | [http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2255502116300426/pdfft?md5=4749d7bd9eac36329b3f1e5412ef2a28&pid=1-s2.0-S2255502116300426-main.pdf PDF]
 
* 2016 Jun 26 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27424065 Intestinal parasites infection: protective effect in rheumatoid arthritis?] -- [http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2255502116300426 Full text] | [http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2255502116300426/pdfft?md5=4749d7bd9eac36329b3f1e5412ef2a28&pid=1-s2.0-S2255502116300426-main.pdf PDF]
* 2016 Jun 25 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27344656 How the tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta affects zinc and cadmium accumulation in a host fed a hyperaccumulating plant (Arabidopsis halleri)]
+
* 2016 Jun 25 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27344656 How the tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta affects zinc and cadmium accumulation in a host fed a hyperaccumulating plant (Arabidopsis halleri)] (HDC)
 
* 2016 Jun 15 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26908751 Maternal Helminth Infection Is Associated With Higher Infant Immunoglobulin A Titers to Antigen in Orally Administered Vaccines]
 
* 2016 Jun 15 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26908751 Maternal Helminth Infection Is Associated With Higher Infant Immunoglobulin A Titers to Antigen in Orally Administered Vaccines]
 
* 2016 Jun 14 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27297236 Intimate gut interactions: helminths and the microbiota]
 
* 2016 Jun 14 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27297236 Intimate gut interactions: helminths and the microbiota]
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* 2016 Jun 7 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27273006 Th2 and eosinophil responses suppress inflammatory arthritis] -- [http://www.nature.com/ncomms/2016/160607/ncomms11596/full/ncomms11596.html Full text] | [http://www.nature.com/ncomms/2016/160607/ncomms11596/pdf/ncomms11596.pdf PDF]
 
* 2016 Jun 7 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27273006 Th2 and eosinophil responses suppress inflammatory arthritis] -- [http://www.nature.com/ncomms/2016/160607/ncomms11596/full/ncomms11596.html Full text] | [http://www.nature.com/ncomms/2016/160607/ncomms11596/pdf/ncomms11596.pdf PDF]
 
* 2016 Jun 1 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27183598 Myeloid-Restricted AMPKα1 Promotes Host Immunity and Protects against IL-12/23p40-Dependent Lung Injury during Hookworm Infection]
 
* 2016 Jun 1 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27183598 Myeloid-Restricted AMPKα1 Promotes Host Immunity and Protects against IL-12/23p40-Dependent Lung Injury during Hookworm Infection]
* 2016 Jun [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27403907 Hygienic hypothesis in immunopathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease]
+
* 2016 Jun [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27403907 Hygienic hypothesis in immunopathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease] (IBD)
* ✅ ⚡ 2016 May 31 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27240605 Practices and outcomes of self-treatment with helminths based on physicians' observations] The first study to probe, through the eyes of their physicians, the practices and experiences of individuals who are treating themselves with helminths.
+
* ✅ ⚡ 2016 May 31 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27240605 Practices and outcomes of self-treatment with helminths based on physicians' observations] -- [[media:Practices_and_outcomes_of_self-treatment_with_helminths_based_on_physicians_observations.pdf | PDF]] The first study to probe, through the eyes of their physicians, the practices and experiences of those who are self-treating with helminths.
 
* 2016 May 24 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27234811 Helminths and Intestinal Flora Team Up to Improve Gut Health]
 
* 2016 May 24 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27234811 Helminths and Intestinal Flora Team Up to Improve Gut Health]
 
* 2016 May 19 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27194189 The relationship between helminth infections and low haemoglobin levels in Ethiopian children with blood type A]
 
* 2016 May 19 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27194189 The relationship between helminth infections and low haemoglobin levels in Ethiopian children with blood type A]
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* 2016 May 9 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27172808 Parasitic helminth infections and the control of human allergic and autoimmune disorders]
 
* 2016 May 9 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27172808 Parasitic helminth infections and the control of human allergic and autoimmune disorders]
 
* 2016 May 5 [http://actu.epfl.ch/news/intestinal-worms-boost-immune-system-in-a-surprisi/ Intestinal worms boost immune system in a surprising way] -- Nik Papageorgiou, Mediacom
 
* 2016 May 5 [http://actu.epfl.ch/news/intestinal-worms-boost-immune-system-in-a-surprisi/ Intestinal worms boost immune system in a surprising way] -- Nik Papageorgiou, Mediacom
 +
* 2016 May 1 [http://environmentalhumanities.dukejournals.org/content/8/1/57.full.pdf Gut Buddies - Multispecies Studies and the Microbiome] -- Jamie Lorimer, Duke University Press
 
* 2016 Apr 27 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27120222 Interaction between Helminths and Toll-Like Receptors: Possibilities and Potentials for Asthma Therapy]
 
* 2016 Apr 27 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27120222 Interaction between Helminths and Toll-Like Receptors: Possibilities and Potentials for Asthma Therapy]
 
* 2016 Apr 23 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27116368 Macrobiota - helminths as active participants and partners of the microbiota in host intestinal homeostasis]
 
* 2016 Apr 23 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27116368 Macrobiota - helminths as active participants and partners of the microbiota in host intestinal homeostasis]
 
* 2016 Apr 21 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27101372 Diplomatic Assistance: Can Helminth-Modulated Macrophages Act as Treatment for Inflammatory Disease?] -- [http://journals.plos.org/plospathogens/article?id=10.1371/journal.ppat.1005480 Full text] | [http://journals.plos.org/plospathogens/article/asset?id=10.1371/journal.ppat.1005480.PDF PDF]
 
* 2016 Apr 21 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27101372 Diplomatic Assistance: Can Helminth-Modulated Macrophages Act as Treatment for Inflammatory Disease?] -- [http://journals.plos.org/plospathogens/article?id=10.1371/journal.ppat.1005480 Full text] | [http://journals.plos.org/plospathogens/article/asset?id=10.1371/journal.ppat.1005480.PDF PDF]
* 2016 Apr 19 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27095802 Treatment with Trichuris suis soluble products during monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation reduces inflammatory responses through epigenetic remodeling]
+
* 2016 Apr 19 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27095802 Treatment with Trichuris suis soluble products during monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation reduces inflammatory responses through epigenetic remodeling] (TSO)
 
* 2016 Apr 14 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27080105 Helminth infection promotes colonization resistance via type 2 immunity] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4905769/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4905769/pdf/nihms790698.pdf PDF]
 
* 2016 Apr 14 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27080105 Helminth infection promotes colonization resistance via type 2 immunity] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4905769/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4905769/pdf/nihms790698.pdf PDF]
 
* 2016 Apr 14 [http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2016/04/parasitic-worms-may-prevent-crohn-s-disease-altering-bacterial-balance Parasitic worms may prevent Crohn’s disease by altering bacterial balance] -- Mitch Leslie, Science. (Also reported by Science Daily. [https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/04/160414145513.htm])
 
* 2016 Apr 14 [http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2016/04/parasitic-worms-may-prevent-crohn-s-disease-altering-bacterial-balance Parasitic worms may prevent Crohn’s disease by altering bacterial balance] -- Mitch Leslie, Science. (Also reported by Science Daily. [https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/04/160414145513.htm])
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* 2016 (Mar?) [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28008805 Eosinophils in Homeostasis and Their Contrasting Roles during Inflammation and Helminth Infections]
 
* 2016 (Mar?) [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28008805 Eosinophils in Homeostasis and Their Contrasting Roles during Inflammation and Helminth Infections]
 
* 2016 Feb 6 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26852392 Malaria, helminths, co-infection and anaemia in a cohort of children from Mutengene, south western Cameroon] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4744422/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4744422/pdf/12936_2016_Article_1111.pdf PDF]
 
* 2016 Feb 6 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26852392 Malaria, helminths, co-infection and anaemia in a cohort of children from Mutengene, south western Cameroon] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4744422/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4744422/pdf/12936_2016_Article_1111.pdf PDF]
 +
* 2016 Jan 21 [http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/10601333.2016.1210159 Policy and regulations in light of the human body as a ‘superorganism’ containing multiple, intertwined symbiotic relationships]
 +
* 2016 Jan 15 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26816384 Transkingdom control of viral infection and immunity in the mammalian intestine] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4751997/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4751997/pdf/nihms757312.pdf PDF]
 
* 2016 Jan 14 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26763929 The parasitic worm-derived immunomodulator, ES-62 and its drug-like small molecule analogues exhibit therapeutic potential in a model of chronic asthma] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4725896/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4725896/pdf/srep19224.pdf PDF]
 
* 2016 Jan 14 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26763929 The parasitic worm-derived immunomodulator, ES-62 and its drug-like small molecule analogues exhibit therapeutic potential in a model of chronic asthma] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4725896/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4725896/pdf/srep19224.pdf PDF]
 
* 2016 Jan 11 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26752538 The Role of Helminth Infection and Environment in the Development of Allergy: A Prospective Study of Newly-Arrived Ethiopian Immigrants in Israel] -- [http://journals.plos.org/plosntds/article?id=10.1371/journal.pntd.0004208 Full text]
 
* 2016 Jan 11 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26752538 The Role of Helminth Infection and Environment in the Development of Allergy: A Prospective Study of Newly-Arrived Ethiopian Immigrants in Israel] -- [http://journals.plos.org/plosntds/article?id=10.1371/journal.pntd.0004208 Full text]
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* 2016 Jan [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26345715 Interactions between the intestinal microbiome and helminth parasites] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5019230/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5019230/pdf/PIM-38-5.pdf PDF]
 
* 2016 Jan [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26345715 Interactions between the intestinal microbiome and helminth parasites] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5019230/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5019230/pdf/PIM-38-5.pdf PDF]
 
* 2016 Jan [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26577605 Mast cells: new therapeutic target in helminth immune modulation] -- [http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/pim.12295/full Full text] | [http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/pim.12295/epdf PDF]
 
* 2016 Jan [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26577605 Mast cells: new therapeutic target in helminth immune modulation] -- [http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/pim.12295/full Full text] | [http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/pim.12295/epdf PDF]
* 2016 Jan [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26650734 Sweet secrets of a therapeutic worm: mass-spectrometric N-glycomic analysis of Trichuris suis] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4712359/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4712359/pdf/emss-66410.pdf PDF]
+
* 2016 Jan [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26650734 Sweet secrets of a therapeutic worm: mass-spectrometric N-glycomic analysis of Trichuris suis] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4712359/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4712359/pdf/emss-66410.pdf PDF] (TSO)
 
* 2016 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27592717 Enteric Ecosystem Disruption in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Can the Microbiota and Macrobiota be Restored?]
 
* 2016 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27592717 Enteric Ecosystem Disruption in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Can the Microbiota and Macrobiota be Restored?]
{{Expando|More papers...}}
+
* 2016 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27088850 A Helminth Protease Inhibitor Modulates the Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Proinflammatory Phenotype of Microglia in vitro]
  
 
=== 2015 ===
 
=== 2015 ===
 
* 2015 Dec 16 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26673140 Helminth Products Protect against Autoimmunity via Innate Type 2 Cytokines IL-5 and IL-33, Which Promote Eosinophilia]
 
* 2015 Dec 16 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26673140 Helminth Products Protect against Autoimmunity via Innate Type 2 Cytokines IL-5 and IL-33, Which Promote Eosinophilia]
 
* 2015 Dec 7 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26644379 Low-Dose Intestinal Trichuris muris Infection Alters the Lung Immune Microenvironment and Can Suppress Allergic Airway Inflammation] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4730564/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4730564/pdf/zii491.pdf PDF]
 
* 2015 Dec 7 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26644379 Low-Dose Intestinal Trichuris muris Infection Alters the Lung Immune Microenvironment and Can Suppress Allergic Airway Inflammation] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4730564/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4730564/pdf/zii491.pdf PDF]
 +
* 2015 Dec [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26571397 Helminth-induced arginase-1 exacerbates lung inflammation and disease severity in tuberculosis]
 
* 2015 Nov 17 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26588776 Worming Their Way into the Picture: Microbiota Help Helminths Modulate Host Immunity]
 
* 2015 Nov 17 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26588776 Worming Their Way into the Picture: Microbiota Help Helminths Modulate Host Immunity]
 
* 2015 Nov 10 [http://www.abc.net.au/news/2015-11-10/hookworm-larvae-injected-into-coeliacs-gluten-intolerance/6926286 Hookworm larvae to be injected into coeliacs in bid to treat gluten intolerance] ABC News
 
* 2015 Nov 10 [http://www.abc.net.au/news/2015-11-10/hookworm-larvae-injected-into-coeliacs-gluten-intolerance/6926286 Hookworm larvae to be injected into coeliacs in bid to treat gluten intolerance] ABC News
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* 2015 Nov [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26604162 Can Helminth Infection Reverse Microbial Dysbiosis?]
 
* 2015 Nov [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26604162 Can Helminth Infection Reverse Microbial Dysbiosis?]
 
* 2015 Nov [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26085597 Drug-like analogues of the parasitic worm-derived immunomodulator ES-62 are therapeutic in the MRL/Lpr model of systemic lupus erythematosus] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4616909/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4616909/pdf/10.1177_0961203315591031.pdf PDF]
 
* 2015 Nov [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26085597 Drug-like analogues of the parasitic worm-derived immunomodulator ES-62 are therapeutic in the MRL/Lpr model of systemic lupus erythematosus] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4616909/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4616909/pdf/10.1177_0961203315591031.pdf PDF]
* 2015 Nov [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25698173 Trichuris suis ova therapy in relapsing multiple sclerosis is safe but without signals of beneficial effect] (See also the comment on efficacy by Donna Beales at the end of this abstract. [https://1.usa.gov/19CrqWg])
+
* 2015 Nov [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25698173 Trichuris suis ova therapy in relapsing multiple sclerosis is safe but without signals of beneficial effect] This study used a treatment period of only 12 weeks, which is inadequate when assessing the efficacy of helminths, and it also used a novel TSO formulation with a pH of 5, when it is known that storage of TSO at a pH above 4 may impede its therapeutic effect in humans. [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28720335] The conclusions drawn by the authors of this study about the efficacy of TSO are therefore not reliable.
* 2015 Nov [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26586763 Helminth infection, fecundity, and age of first pregnancy in women]
+
* 2015 Nov [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26586763 Helminth infection, fecundity, and age of first pregnancy in women] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5953513/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5953513/pdf/nihms961168.pdf PDF] (Also see [[Helminthic therapy and fertility | '''Helminthic therapy and fertility''']].)
 +
* 2015 Nov [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26332354 Adoptive transfer of helminth antigen-pulsed dendritic cells protects against the development of experimental colitis in mice] -- [https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/eji.201545579 Full text] | [https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1002/eji.201545579 PDF] (HDC)
 
* 2015 Oct 27 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26522986 The Intestinal Microbiota Contributes to the Ability of Helminths to Modulate Allergic Inflammation] -- [http://www.cell.com/immunity/fulltext/S1074-7613(15)00397-0 Full text] | [http://www.cell.com/immunity/pdf/S1074-7613(15)00397-0.pdf PDF]
 
* 2015 Oct 27 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26522986 The Intestinal Microbiota Contributes to the Ability of Helminths to Modulate Allergic Inflammation] -- [http://www.cell.com/immunity/fulltext/S1074-7613(15)00397-0 Full text] | [http://www.cell.com/immunity/pdf/S1074-7613(15)00397-0.pdf PDF]
 
* 2015 Oct 8 [http://onlinelibrary.ectrims-congress.eu/ectrims/2015/31st/115556/jorge.correale.il-35.is.a.critical.regulator.of.immunity.during.helminth.html?f=p6m3e891o11465 IL-35 is a critical regulator of immunity during helminth infections associated with multiple sclerosis]
 
* 2015 Oct 8 [http://onlinelibrary.ectrims-congress.eu/ectrims/2015/31st/115556/jorge.correale.il-35.is.a.critical.regulator.of.immunity.during.helminth.html?f=p6m3e891o11465 IL-35 is a critical regulator of immunity during helminth infections associated with multiple sclerosis]
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* 2015 Aug 19 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26150661 Interactions between multiple helminths and the gut microbiota in wild rodents] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4528493/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4528493/pdf/rstb20140295.pdf PDF]
 
* 2015 Aug 19 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26150661 Interactions between multiple helminths and the gut microbiota in wild rodents] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4528493/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4528493/pdf/rstb20140295.pdf PDF]
 
* 2015 Aug 13 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26270819 Are Human Intestinal Eukaryotes Beneficial or Commensals?] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4536199/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4536199/pdf/ppat.1005039.pdf PDF]
 
* 2015 Aug 13 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26270819 Are Human Intestinal Eukaryotes Beneficial or Commensals?] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4536199/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4536199/pdf/ppat.1005039.pdf PDF]
 +
* 2015 Aug 6 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26248316 Asymptomatic Helminth Infection in Active Tuberculosis Is Associated with Increased Regulatory and Th-2 Responses and a Lower Sputum Smear Positivity] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4527760/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4527760/pdf/pntd.0003994.pdf PDF]
 
* 2015 Aug 5 [http://news.sciencemag.org/biology/2015/08/tapeworms-may-be-good-your-brain Tapeworms may be good for your brain] Hanae Armitage, Science
 
* 2015 Aug 5 [http://news.sciencemag.org/biology/2015/08/tapeworms-may-be-good-your-brain Tapeworms may be good for your brain] Hanae Armitage, Science
 
* 2015 Aug [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26672222 The Role of Adoptive Transfer of Immune Cells in Helminth- induced Regulation of Allergy and Autoimmune Diseases]
 
* 2015 Aug [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26672222 The Role of Adoptive Transfer of Immune Cells in Helminth- induced Regulation of Allergy and Autoimmune Diseases]
 
* 2015 Jul 27 The hygiene hypothesis: current perspectives and future therapies -- [https://www.dovepress.com/the-hygiene-hypothesis-current-perspectives-and-future-therapies-peer-reviewed-fulltext-article-ITT Full text] has a PDF download link.
 
* 2015 Jul 27 The hygiene hypothesis: current perspectives and future therapies -- [https://www.dovepress.com/the-hygiene-hypothesis-current-perspectives-and-future-therapies-peer-reviewed-fulltext-article-ITT Full text] has a PDF download link.
* 2015 Jul 25 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26205402 Trichuris suis induces human non-classical patrolling monocytes via the mannose receptor and PKC: implications for multiple sclerosis] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4513676/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4513676/pdf/40478_2015_Article_223.pdf PDF]
+
* 2015 Jul 25 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26205402 Trichuris suis induces human non-classical patrolling monocytes via the mannose receptor and PKC: implications for multiple sclerosis] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4513676/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4513676/pdf/40478_2015_Article_223.pdf PDF] (TSO)
 
* 2015 Jul 20 [http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/07/150720145207.htm Gut worms protect babies' brains from inflammation] Science Daily
 
* 2015 Jul 20 [http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/07/150720145207.htm Gut worms protect babies' brains from inflammation] Science Daily
 
* 2015 Jul 15 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26188364 Enteric nematodes and the path to up-regulation of type 2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13] (Includes mention of increased cell turnover to maintain an effective gut barrier in the presence of helminths.)
 
* 2015 Jul 15 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26188364 Enteric nematodes and the path to up-regulation of type 2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13] (Includes mention of increased cell turnover to maintain an effective gut barrier in the presence of helminths.)
 
* 2015 Jul 7 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26162711 Got Worms? Perinatal Exposure to Helminths Prevents Persistent Immune Sensitization and Cognitive Dysfunction Induced by Early-Life Infection]
 
* 2015 Jul 7 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26162711 Got Worms? Perinatal Exposure to Helminths Prevents Persistent Immune Sensitization and Cognitive Dysfunction Induced by Early-Life Infection]
 +
* 2015 Jul 6 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26148848 Epigenetic Modulation of Microglial Inflammatory Gene Loci in Helminth-Induced Immune Suppression: Implications for Immune Regulation in Neurocysticercosis] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4552224/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4552224/pdf/10.1177_1759091415592126.pdf PDF]
 
* 2015 Jul 6 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26150662 Suppression of inflammation by helminths: a role for the gut microbiota?] -- [http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/370/1675/20140296 Full text] | [http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/royptb/370/1675/20140296.full.pdf PDF]
 
* 2015 Jul 6 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26150662 Suppression of inflammation by helminths: a role for the gut microbiota?] -- [http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/370/1675/20140296 Full text] | [http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/royptb/370/1675/20140296.full.pdf PDF]
 
* 2015 Jul 3 [http://evmedreview.com/?p=2767%23_ENREF_4 Progress on reconstituting the depleted biome to prevent immune disorders] Parker and Morey, The Evolution and Medicine Review
 
* 2015 Jul 3 [http://evmedreview.com/?p=2767%23_ENREF_4 Progress on reconstituting the depleted biome to prevent immune disorders] Parker and Morey, The Evolution and Medicine Review
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* 2015 Jul [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=25852044 Chronic helminth infection and helminth-derived egg antigens promote adipose tissue M2 macrophages and improve insulin sensitivity in obese mice]
 
* 2015 Jul [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=25852044 Chronic helminth infection and helminth-derived egg antigens promote adipose tissue M2 macrophages and improve insulin sensitivity in obese mice]
 
* 2015 Jul [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25809087 The potential long-term effect of previous schistosome infection reduces the risk of metabolic syndrome among Chinese men]
 
* 2015 Jul [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25809087 The potential long-term effect of previous schistosome infection reduces the risk of metabolic syndrome among Chinese men]
 +
* 2015 Jul [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26145982 The allergy epidemics: 1870-2010] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4617537/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4617537/pdf/nihms697397.pdf PDF] This historical analysis of the allergy epidemic highlights the role of helminth control as one of the explanations for the trends from 1870 to 2010.
 
* 2015 Jun 27 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26139475 Atopy and Asthma in Migrants: The Function of Parasites]
 
* 2015 Jun 27 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26139475 Atopy and Asthma in Migrants: The Function of Parasites]
 
* 2015 Jun 25 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26119261 Parasitic helminths and their beneficial impact on type 1 and type 2 diabetes]
 
* 2015 Jun 25 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26119261 Parasitic helminths and their beneficial impact on type 1 and type 2 diabetes]
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* 2015 Jun [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25869420 Helminths and the microbiota: parts of the hygiene hypothesis] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4428757/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4428757/pdf/nihms684423.pdf PDF]
 
* 2015 Jun [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25869420 Helminths and the microbiota: parts of the hygiene hypothesis] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4428757/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4428757/pdf/nihms684423.pdf PDF]
 
* 2015 Jun [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26057788 The structure of hookworm platelet inhibitor (HPI), a CAP superfamily member from Ancylostoma caninum] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4461323/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4461323/pdf/f-71-00643.pdf PDF]
 
* 2015 Jun [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26057788 The structure of hookworm platelet inhibitor (HPI), a CAP superfamily member from Ancylostoma caninum] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4461323/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4461323/pdf/f-71-00643.pdf PDF]
* 2015 May 21 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25996526 Trichuris suis soluble products induce Rab7b expression and limit TLR4 responses in human dendritic cells]
+
* 2015 May 21 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25996526 Trichuris suis soluble products induce Rab7b expression and limit TLR4 responses in human dendritic cells] (TSO)
 
* 2015 May 20 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25989836 Immune responses in children infected with the pinworm Enterobius vermicularis in central Greece]
 
* 2015 May 20 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25989836 Immune responses in children infected with the pinworm Enterobius vermicularis in central Greece]
 
* 2015 May 16 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25991556 A worm of one's own: how helminths modulate host adipose tissue function and metabolism] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4567404/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4567404/pdf/nihms684209.pdf PDF]
 
* 2015 May 16 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25991556 A worm of one's own: how helminths modulate host adipose tissue function and metabolism] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4567404/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4567404/pdf/nihms684209.pdf PDF]
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* 2015 May 7 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25403350 Not all parasites are protective] -- [http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/pim.12160/full Full text] | [http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/pim.12160/epdf PDF]
 
* 2015 May 7 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25403350 Not all parasites are protective] -- [http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/pim.12160/full Full text] | [http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/pim.12160/epdf PDF]
 
* 2015 May 7 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25956237 Approaches to studying and manipulating the enteric microbiome to improve autism symptoms] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4425814/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4425814/pdf/MEHD-26-26878.pdf PDF]
 
* 2015 May 7 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25956237 Approaches to studying and manipulating the enteric microbiome to improve autism symptoms] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4425814/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4425814/pdf/MEHD-26-26878.pdf PDF]
* 2015 May 5 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25942385 Alteration of the rat cecal microbiome during colonization with the helminth Hymenolepis dimunita] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4615828/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4615828/pdf/kgmi-06-03-1047128.pdf PDF]
+
* 2015 May 5 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25942385 Alteration of the rat cecal microbiome during colonization with the helminth Hymenolepis dimunita] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4615828/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4615828/pdf/kgmi-06-03-1047128.pdf PDF] (HDC)
 
* 2015 May 4 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25938477 Chronic Trichuris muris Infection in C57BL/6 Mice Causes Significant Changes in Host Microbiota and Metabolome: Effects Reversed by Pathogen Clearance] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4418675/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4418675/pdf/pone.0125945.pdf PDF]
 
* 2015 May 4 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25938477 Chronic Trichuris muris Infection in C57BL/6 Mice Causes Significant Changes in Host Microbiota and Metabolome: Effects Reversed by Pathogen Clearance] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4418675/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4418675/pdf/pone.0125945.pdf PDF]
 
* 2015 Apr 28 [http://www.nature.com/nrendo/journal/v11/n6/full/nrendo.2015.68.html Helminths improve insulin sensitivity and enhance M2 macrophage numbers in WAT of obese mice] (No abstract)
 
* 2015 Apr 28 [http://www.nature.com/nrendo/journal/v11/n6/full/nrendo.2015.68.html Helminths improve insulin sensitivity and enhance M2 macrophage numbers in WAT of obese mice] (No abstract)
 
* 2015 Apr 19 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25941654 Type 1 diabetes pathogenesis - Prevention???] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4413393/ Full text]
 
* 2015 Apr 19 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25941654 Type 1 diabetes pathogenesis - Prevention???] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4413393/ Full text]
 +
* ✅⚡2015 Apr 18 [http://www.yourwildlife.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/galley-proof-v2.pdf Overcoming Evolutionary Mismatch by Self-Treatment with Helminths: Current Practices and Experience] (PDF) The first study to probe the methods and outcomes reported by individuals self-treating with helminths.
 
* 2015 Apr 17 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26040054 Helminths and autoimmunity: the good, the bad and the ugly] -- [https://www.ima.org.il/FilesUpload/IMAJ/0/142/71371.pdf PDF]
 
* 2015 Apr 17 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26040054 Helminths and autoimmunity: the good, the bad and the ugly] -- [https://www.ima.org.il/FilesUpload/IMAJ/0/142/71371.pdf PDF]
 
* 2015 Apr 13 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25879741 Unraveling the Hygiene Hypothesis of helminthes and autoimmunity: origins, pathophysiology, and clinical applications] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4396177/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4396177/pdf/12916_2015_Article_306.pdf PDF]
 
* 2015 Apr 13 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25879741 Unraveling the Hygiene Hypothesis of helminthes and autoimmunity: origins, pathophysiology, and clinical applications] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4396177/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4396177/pdf/12916_2015_Article_306.pdf PDF]
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* 2015 Apr [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25712154 Exosome-transported microRNAs of helminth origin: new tools for allergic and autoimmune diseases therapy?]
 
* 2015 Apr [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25712154 Exosome-transported microRNAs of helminth origin: new tools for allergic and autoimmune diseases therapy?]
 
* 2015 Apr [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25801883 From the worm to the pill, the parasitic worm product ES-62 raises new horizons in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis] -- [http://lup.sagepub.com/content/24/4-5/400.full Full text] | [http://lup.sagepub.com/content/24/4-5/400.full.pdf PDF]
 
* 2015 Apr [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25801883 From the worm to the pill, the parasitic worm product ES-62 raises new horizons in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis] -- [http://lup.sagepub.com/content/24/4-5/400.full Full text] | [http://lup.sagepub.com/content/24/4-5/400.full.pdf PDF]
* 2015 Apr [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25683374 Potential long-term effects of previous schistosome infection may reduce the atherogenic index of plasma in Chinese men]
+
* 2015 Apr [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25683374 Potential long-term effects of previous schistosome infection may reduce the atherogenic index of plasma in Chinese men]  
 
* 2015 Mar 26 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25884706 Human helminth therapy to treat inflammatory disorders - where do we stand?] -- [http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2172/16/12 Full text] | [http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/s12865-015-0074-3.pdf PDF]
 
* 2015 Mar 26 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25884706 Human helminth therapy to treat inflammatory disorders - where do we stand?] -- [http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2172/16/12 Full text] | [http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/s12865-015-0074-3.pdf PDF]
 
* 2015 Mar 25 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25806513 Immune Antibodies and Helminth Products Drive CXCR2-Dependent Macrophage-Myofibroblast Crosstalk to Promote Intestinal Repair] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4373753/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4373753/pdf/ppat.1004778.pdf PDF]
 
* 2015 Mar 25 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25806513 Immune Antibodies and Helminth Products Drive CXCR2-Dependent Macrophage-Myofibroblast Crosstalk to Promote Intestinal Repair] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4373753/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4373753/pdf/ppat.1004778.pdf PDF]
 
* 2015 Mar [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25624401 Epidemiological study of the association between malaria and helminth infections in Nigeria] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4350553/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4350553/pdf/tropmed-92-578.pdf PDF]
 
* 2015 Mar [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25624401 Epidemiological study of the association between malaria and helminth infections in Nigeria] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4350553/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4350553/pdf/tropmed-92-578.pdf PDF]
 
* ⚡ 2015 Mar 11 Overcoming Evolutionary Mismatch by Self-Treatment with Helminths: Current Practices and Experience -- ([http://www.yourwildlife.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/galley-proof-v2.pdf PDF]) The first study to probe the methods and outcomes reported by individuals self-treating with helminths.
 
 
* 2015 Mar [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25656764 Does Strongyloides stercoralis infection protect against type 2 diabetes in humans? Evidence from Australian Aboriginal adults]
 
* 2015 Mar [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25656764 Does Strongyloides stercoralis infection protect against type 2 diabetes in humans? Evidence from Australian Aboriginal adults]
 
* 2015 Mar [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25666929 The immunomodulatory parasitic worm product ES-62 reduces lupus-associated accelerated atherosclerosis in a mouse model] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4355381/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4355381/pdf/nihms662074.pdf PDF]
 
* 2015 Mar [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25666929 The immunomodulatory parasitic worm product ES-62 reduces lupus-associated accelerated atherosclerosis in a mouse model] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4355381/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4355381/pdf/nihms662074.pdf PDF]
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* 2015 Feb [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25547076 Helminthes and insects: maladies or therapies]
 
* 2015 Feb [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25547076 Helminthes and insects: maladies or therapies]
 
* 2015 Feb [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25248819 Experimental hookworm infection and gluten microchallenge promote tolerance in celiac disease] -- [http://www.jacionline.org/article/S0091-6749(14)01010-0/fulltext Full text] | [http://www.jacionline.org/article/S0091-6749(14)01010-0/pdf PDF] (Also reported by EurekAlert and ABC Austrailia. [https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2014-09/jcu-aws092414.php] [http://www.abc.net.au/news/2014-09-25/hookworms-coeliac-disease-research/5768732])
 
* 2015 Feb [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25248819 Experimental hookworm infection and gluten microchallenge promote tolerance in celiac disease] -- [http://www.jacionline.org/article/S0091-6749(14)01010-0/fulltext Full text] | [http://www.jacionline.org/article/S0091-6749(14)01010-0/pdf PDF] (Also reported by EurekAlert and ABC Austrailia. [https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2014-09/jcu-aws092414.php] [http://www.abc.net.au/news/2014-09-25/hookworms-coeliac-disease-research/5768732])
 +
* 2015 Feb [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25174866 Worms as therapeutic agents for allergy and asthma: understanding why benefits in animal studies have not translated into clinical success] -- [https://www.jacionline.org/article/S0091-6749%2814%2900960-9/fulltext Full text] | [https://www.jacionline.org/article/S0091-6749(14)00960-9/pdf PDF] 
 
* 2015 Feb [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25459578 Potential Treatments for Food Allergy]
 
* 2015 Feb [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25459578 Potential Treatments for Food Allergy]
 
* 2015 Feb [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25449677 The mechanisms behind helminth's immunomodulation in autoimmunity]
 
* 2015 Feb [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25449677 The mechanisms behind helminth's immunomodulation in autoimmunity]
 
* 2015 Jan 28 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25634608 A model for the induction of autism in the ecosystem of the human body: the anatomy of a modern pandemic?] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4310853/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4310853/pdf/MEHD-26-26253.pdf PDF]
 
* 2015 Jan 28 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25634608 A model for the induction of autism in the ecosystem of the human body: the anatomy of a modern pandemic?] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4310853/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4310853/pdf/MEHD-26-26253.pdf PDF]
 
* 2015 Jan 22 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25611587 Chronic filarial infection provides protection against bacterial sepsis by functionally reprogramming macrophages] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4303312/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4303312/pdf/ppat.1004616.pdf PDF]
 
* 2015 Jan 22 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25611587 Chronic filarial infection provides protection against bacterial sepsis by functionally reprogramming macrophages] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4303312/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4303312/pdf/ppat.1004616.pdf PDF]
* 2015 Jan 1 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25452561 Splenic B cells from Hymenolepis diminuta-infected mice ameliorate colitis independent of T cells and via cooperation with macrophages]
+
* 2015 Jan 1 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25452561 Splenic B cells from Hymenolepis diminuta-infected mice ameliorate colitis independent of T cells and via cooperation with macrophages] -- [http://www.jimmunol.org/content/194/1/364.long Full text] | [http://www.jimmunol.org/content/jimmunol/194/1/364.full.pdf PDF] (HDC)
 
* 2015 Jan [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25437821 Treatment with egg antigens of Schistosoma mansoni ameliorates experimental colitis in mice through a colonic T-cell-dependent mechanism]
 
* 2015 Jan [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25437821 Treatment with egg antigens of Schistosoma mansoni ameliorates experimental colitis in mice through a colonic T-cell-dependent mechanism]
 
* 2015 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26046559 Multiple sclerosis and environmental factors: the role of vitamin D, parasites, and Epstein-Barr virus infection]
 
* 2015 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26046559 Multiple sclerosis and environmental factors: the role of vitamin D, parasites, and Epstein-Barr virus infection]
 +
* 2015 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25942385 Alteration of the rat cecal microbiome during colonization with the helminth Hymenolepis diminuta] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4615828/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4615828/pdf/kgmi-06-03-1047128.pdf PDF] (HDC)
  
 
=== 2014 ===
 
=== 2014 ===
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* 2014 Dec [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24975567 Reduced asthma morbidity in endemic areas for helminth infections: a longitudinal ecological study in Brazil]
 
* 2014 Dec [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24975567 Reduced asthma morbidity in endemic areas for helminth infections: a longitudinal ecological study in Brazil]
 
* 2014 Dec [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25441298 In utero priming by worms protects against respiratory allergies]
 
* 2014 Dec [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25441298 In utero priming by worms protects against respiratory allergies]
* 2014 Dec [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25554978 The emerging role of helminths in treatment of the inflammatory bowel disorders] -- [http://www.jpp.krakow.pl/journal/archive/12_14/pdf/741_12_14_article.pdf PDF]
+
* 2014 Dec [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25554978 The emerging role of helminths in treatment of the inflammatory bowel disorders] -- [http://www.jpp.krakow.pl/journal/archive/12_14/pdf/741_12_14_article.pdf PDF] (IBD)
 
* 2014 Dec [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25042744 Maternal immune response to helminth infection during pregnancy determines offspring susceptibility to allergic airway inflammation]
 
* 2014 Dec [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25042744 Maternal immune response to helminth infection during pregnancy determines offspring susceptibility to allergic airway inflammation]
* 2014 Winter [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25436093 Potential treatment of inflammatory bowel disease: a review of helminths therapy] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4017549/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4017549/pdf/GHFBB-7-009.pdf PDF]
+
* 2014 Winter [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25436093 Potential treatment of inflammatory bowel disease: a review of helminths therapy] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4017549/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4017549/pdf/GHFBB-7-009.pdf PDF] (IBD)
 
* 2014 Nov 6 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25375117 Coincident helminth infection modulates systemic inflammation and immune activation in active pulmonary tuberculosis] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4222842/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4222842/pdf/pntd.0003289.pdf PDF]
 
* 2014 Nov 6 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25375117 Coincident helminth infection modulates systemic inflammation and immune activation in active pulmonary tuberculosis] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4222842/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4222842/pdf/pntd.0003289.pdf PDF]
 
* 2014 Nov 1 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24795483 Impact of experimental hookworm infection on the human gut microbiota] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4195438/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4195438/pdf/jiu256.pdf PDF]
 
* 2014 Nov 1 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24795483 Impact of experimental hookworm infection on the human gut microbiota] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4195438/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4195438/pdf/jiu256.pdf PDF]
* 2014 Nov [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25069662?dopt=Abstract Therapeutic potential of larval excretory/secretory proteins of the pig whipworm Trichuris suis in allergic disease]
+
* 2014 Nov [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25069662?dopt=Abstract Therapeutic potential of larval excretory/secretory proteins of the pig whipworm Trichuris suis in allergic disease] (TSO)
 
* 2014 Nov [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24981042 Helminth therapy or elimination: epidemiological, immunological, and clinical considerations]
 
* 2014 Nov [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24981042 Helminth therapy or elimination: epidemiological, immunological, and clinical considerations]
 
* 2014 Oct 20 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25368615 Priming dendritic cells for th2 polarization: lessons learned from helminths and implications for metabolic disorders] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4202775/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4202775/pdf/fimmu-05-00499.pdf PDF]
 
* 2014 Oct 20 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25368615 Priming dendritic cells for th2 polarization: lessons learned from helminths and implications for metabolic disorders] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4202775/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4202775/pdf/fimmu-05-00499.pdf PDF]
 +
* 2014 Oct 15 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24782451 Suppression of basophil histamine release and other IgE-dependent responses in childhood Schistosoma mansoni/hookworm coinfection] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4176447/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4176447/pdf/jiu234.pdf PDF]
 
* 2014 Oct 1 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25240019 Helminth infections decrease host susceptibility to immune-mediated diseases] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4244645/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4244645/pdf/nihms616872.pdf PDF]
 
* 2014 Oct 1 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25240019 Helminth infections decrease host susceptibility to immune-mediated diseases] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4244645/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4244645/pdf/nihms616872.pdf PDF]
* 2014 Oct Treating Inflammatory Bowel disease: from Helminths to ova == [http://www.ima.org.il/FilesUpload/IMAJ/0/95/47594.pdf PDF]
+
* 2014 Oct Treating Inflammatory Bowel disease: from Helminths to ova -- [http://www.ima.org.il/FilesUpload/IMAJ/0/95/47594.pdf PDF] (IBD)
 
* 2014 Oct [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25281198 Allergy and worms: let's bring back old friends]
 
* 2014 Oct [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25281198 Allergy and worms: let's bring back old friends]
 
* 2014 Sept [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24901211 The microbiota and helminths: sharing the same niche in the human host]
 
* 2014 Sept [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24901211 The microbiota and helminths: sharing the same niche in the human host]
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* 2014 Aug 28 Parasitic infection and immunomodulation: A possible explanation for the hygiene hypothesis in autoimmune and allergic disease -- [http://www.slideshare.net/Apollo_Hospitals/final-8-38449965 Full text]
 
* 2014 Aug 28 Parasitic infection and immunomodulation: A possible explanation for the hygiene hypothesis in autoimmune and allergic disease -- [http://www.slideshare.net/Apollo_Hospitals/final-8-38449965 Full text]
 
* 2014 Aug 26 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25161287 The "hygiene hypothesis" for allergic disease is a misnomer] (No abstract)
 
* 2014 Aug 26 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25161287 The "hygiene hypothesis" for allergic disease is a misnomer] (No abstract)
 +
* 2014 Aug 24 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25210492 Extraintestinal helminth infection reduces the development of colitis-associated tumorigenesis] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4159685/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4159685/pdf/ijbsv10p0948.pdf PDF] (IBD) (Cancer)
 +
* 2014 Aug [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25171741 Maternal hookworm modifies risk factors for childhood eczema: results from a birth cohort in Uganda] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4312885/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4312885/pdf/pai0025-0481.pdf PDF]
 
* 2014 Aug [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24471654 Pregnancy and helminth infections] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4260141/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4260141/pdf/pim0036-0328.pdf PDF]
 
* 2014 Aug [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24471654 Pregnancy and helminth infections] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4260141/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4260141/pdf/pim0036-0328.pdf PDF]
 
* 2014 Aug [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25033775 (Self-) infections with parasites: re-interpretations for the present]
 
* 2014 Aug [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25033775 (Self-) infections with parasites: re-interpretations for the present]
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* 2014 May [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24325393 Parasitic worms and allergies in childhood: insights from population studies 2008-2013]
 
* 2014 May [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24325393 Parasitic worms and allergies in childhood: insights from population studies 2008-2013]
 
* 2014 Apr 29 [http://www.neurology.org/content/82/10_Supplement/P3.149 Clinical Trial of Helminth-induced Immunomodulatory Therapy (HINT 2) in Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis (P3.149)] (TSO)
 
* 2014 Apr 29 [http://www.neurology.org/content/82/10_Supplement/P3.149 Clinical Trial of Helminth-induced Immunomodulatory Therapy (HINT 2) in Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis (P3.149)] (TSO)
 +
* 2014 Mar [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24441737 Genome of the human hookworm Necator americanus] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3978129/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3978129/pdf/nihms-551116.pdf PDF] (NA)
 
* 2014 Mar [http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=43790 Intestinal Helminthic Infection Increases Serum Levels of IL-2 and Decreases Serum TGF-Beta Levels in Nigerian Asthmatic Patients] -- [http://file.scirp.org/Html/1-1410098_43790.htm Full text] | [http://file.scirp.org/pdf/OJI_2014031415322712.pdf PDF]
 
* 2014 Mar [http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=43790 Intestinal Helminthic Infection Increases Serum Levels of IL-2 and Decreases Serum TGF-Beta Levels in Nigerian Asthmatic Patients] -- [http://file.scirp.org/Html/1-1410098_43790.htm Full text] | [http://file.scirp.org/pdf/OJI_2014031415322712.pdf PDF]
 
* 2014 Feb 14 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24592267 Helminth Allergens, Parasite-Specific IgE, and Its Protective Role in Human Immunity] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3924148/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3924148/pdf/fimmu-05-00061.pdf PDF]
 
* 2014 Feb 14 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24592267 Helminth Allergens, Parasite-Specific IgE, and Its Protective Role in Human Immunity] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3924148/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3924148/pdf/fimmu-05-00061.pdf PDF]
 
* 2014 Feb [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24355423 A multimodal Darwinian strategy for alleviating the atherosclerosis pandemic]
 
* 2014 Feb [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24355423 A multimodal Darwinian strategy for alleviating the atherosclerosis pandemic]
 
* 2014 Jan 21 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24466007 Secreted proteins from the helminth Fasciola hepatica inhibit the initiation of autoreactive T cell responses and prevent diabetes in the NOD mouse] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3897667/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3897667/pdf/pone.0086289.pdf PDF]
 
* 2014 Jan 21 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24466007 Secreted proteins from the helminth Fasciola hepatica inhibit the initiation of autoreactive T cell responses and prevent diabetes in the NOD mouse] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3897667/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3897667/pdf/pone.0086289.pdf PDF]
* 2014 Jan 20 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24442917 Helminth therapy (worms) for induction of remission in inflammatory bowel disease]
+
* 2014 Jan 20 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24442917 Helminth therapy (worms) for induction of remission in inflammatory bowel disease] (IBD)
 
* 2014 Jan [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24043262 Reprogramming macrophages to an anti-inflammatory phenotype by helminth antigens reduces murine atherosclerosis] -- [http://www.fasebj.org/content/28/1/288.long Full text] | [http://www.fasebj.org/content/28/1/288.full.pdf PDF]
 
* 2014 Jan [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24043262 Reprogramming macrophages to an anti-inflammatory phenotype by helminth antigens reduces murine atherosclerosis] -- [http://www.fasebj.org/content/28/1/288.long Full text] | [http://www.fasebj.org/content/28/1/288.full.pdf PDF]
 
* 2014 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24997041 Microbiota, immunoregulatory old friends and psychiatric disorders]
 
* 2014 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24997041 Microbiota, immunoregulatory old friends and psychiatric disorders]
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=== 2013 ===
 
=== 2013 ===
 +
* 2013 Dec 19 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24351232 Serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BNDF) in multiple sclerosis patients with Trichuris suis ova therapy] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3866952/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3866952/pdf/parasite-20-55.pdf PDF] (TSO)
 
* 2013 Dec 12 [http://globenewswire.com/news-release/2013/12/12/596603/10061345/en/Coronado-Biosciences-Announces-Presentation-of-Interim-Data-From-Autism-Study-at-Neuropsychopharmacology-Meeting.html Presentation of Interim Data From Autism Study at Neuropsychopharmacology Meeting]
 
* 2013 Dec 12 [http://globenewswire.com/news-release/2013/12/12/596603/10061345/en/Coronado-Biosciences-Announces-Presentation-of-Interim-Data-From-Autism-Study-at-Neuropsychopharmacology-Meeting.html Presentation of Interim Data From Autism Study at Neuropsychopharmacology Meeting]
 
* 2013 Nov 12 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24154724 Regulation of the immune system by biodiversity from the natural environment: an ecosystem service essential to health] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3831972/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3831972/pdf/pnas.201313731.pdf PDF]
 
* 2013 Nov 12 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24154724 Regulation of the immune system by biodiversity from the natural environment: an ecosystem service essential to health] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3831972/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3831972/pdf/pnas.201313731.pdf PDF]
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* 2013 Aug 20 Parasitic Helminths: A Useful Resource for Inflammatory and Autoimmune Disease Therapy -- [http://www.omicsonline.org/parasitic-helminths-a-useful-resource-for-inflammatory-and-autoimmune-disease-therapy-1948-593X.1000084.php?aid=16479 Full text] | [http://www.omicsonline.org/parasitic-helminths-a-useful-resource-for-inflammatory-and-autoimmune-disease-therapy-1948-593X.1000084.pdf PDF]
 
* 2013 Aug 20 Parasitic Helminths: A Useful Resource for Inflammatory and Autoimmune Disease Therapy -- [http://www.omicsonline.org/parasitic-helminths-a-useful-resource-for-inflammatory-and-autoimmune-disease-therapy-1948-593X.1000084.php?aid=16479 Full text] | [http://www.omicsonline.org/parasitic-helminths-a-useful-resource-for-inflammatory-and-autoimmune-disease-therapy-1948-593X.1000084.pdf PDF]
 
* 2013 Aug 15 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23967364 Schistosoma mansoni-mediated suppression of allergic airway inflammation requires patency and Foxp3+ Treg cells] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3744427/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3744427/pdf/pntd.0002379.pdf PDF]
 
* 2013 Aug 15 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23967364 Schistosoma mansoni-mediated suppression of allergic airway inflammation requires patency and Foxp3+ Treg cells] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3744427/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3744427/pdf/pntd.0002379.pdf PDF]
* 2013 Aug [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23730956 Randomised clinical trial: the safety and tolerability of Trichuris suis ova in patients with Crohn's disease] -- [http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/apt.12366/full Full text] | [http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/apt.12366/epdf PDF]
+
* 2013 Aug [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23730956 Randomised clinical trial: the safety and tolerability of Trichuris suis ova in patients with Crohn's disease] -- [http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/apt.12366/full Full text] | [http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/apt.12366/epdf PDF] (TSO)
* 2013 Jul [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23597946 Possible use of Trichuris suis ova in autism spectrum disorders therapy]
+
* 2013 Aug [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23827958 Type 2 immunity and wound healing: evolutionary refinement of adaptive immunity by helminths] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3789590/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3789590/pdf/nihms516840.pdf PDF]
 +
* 2013 Jul [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23597946 Possible use of Trichuris suis ova in autism spectrum disorders therapy] (TSO)
 
* 2013 Jun [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23273955 Coassociations between IL10 polymorphisms, IL-10 production, helminth infection, and asthma/ wheeze in an urban tropical population in Brazil]
 
* 2013 Jun [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23273955 Coassociations between IL10 polymorphisms, IL-10 production, helminth infection, and asthma/ wheeze in an urban tropical population in Brazil]
 
* 2013 Jun [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23545299 Hookworm excretory/secretory products induce interleukin-4 (IL-4)+ IL-10+ CD4+ T cell responses and suppress pathology in a mouse model of colitis] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3676036/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3676036/pdf/zii2104.pdf PDF]
 
* 2013 Jun [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23545299 Hookworm excretory/secretory products induce interleukin-4 (IL-4)+ IL-10+ CD4+ T cell responses and suppress pathology in a mouse model of colitis] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3676036/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3676036/pdf/zii2104.pdf PDF]
 
* 2013 Jun [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23509143 Parasitic nematode-induced modulation of body weight and associated metabolic dysfunction in mouse models of obesity] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3676010/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3676010/pdf/zii1905.pdf PDF]
 
* 2013 Jun [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23509143 Parasitic nematode-induced modulation of body weight and associated metabolic dysfunction in mouse models of obesity] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3676010/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3676010/pdf/zii1905.pdf PDF]
 
* 2013 Jun [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23523576 Previous contact with Strongyloides venezuelensis contributed to prevent insulitis in MLD-STZ diabetes] -- [http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0014489413000775 Full text] (includes a PDF download link)
 
* 2013 Jun [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23523576 Previous contact with Strongyloides venezuelensis contributed to prevent insulitis in MLD-STZ diabetes] -- [http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0014489413000775 Full text] (includes a PDF download link)
* 2013 April 25 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23782752 Trichuris suis ova in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis and clinically isolated syndrome (TRIOMS): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3680966/ Full text] [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3680966/pdf/1745-6215-14-112.pdf PDF]
+
* 2013 April 25 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23782752 Trichuris suis ova in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis and clinically isolated syndrome (TRIOMS): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3680966/ Full text] [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3680966/pdf/1745-6215-14-112.pdf PDF] (TSO)
 
* 2013 Apr 8 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23566643 The development of TH2 responses from infancy to 4 years of age and atopic sensitization in areas endemic for helminth infections] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3635885/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3635885/pdf/1710-1492-9-13.pdf PDF]
 
* 2013 Apr 8 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23566643 The development of TH2 responses from infancy to 4 years of age and atopic sensitization in areas endemic for helminth infections] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3635885/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3635885/pdf/1710-1492-9-13.pdf PDF]
 
* 2013 Mar [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23178750 A role for IL-22 in the relationship between intestinal helminths, gut microbiota and mucosal immunity] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3955947/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3955947/pdf/nihms423088.pdf PDF]
 
* 2013 Mar [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23178750 A role for IL-22 in the relationship between intestinal helminths, gut microbiota and mucosal immunity] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3955947/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3955947/pdf/nihms423088.pdf PDF]
* 2013 Mar [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23291460 Changed gluten immunity in celiac disease by Necator americanus provides new insights into autoimmunity]
+
* 2013 Mar [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23291460 Changed gluten immunity in celiac disease by Necator americanus provides new insights into autoimmunity] (NA)
 
* 2013 Mar [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23291461 The helminth product, ES-62, protects against airway inflammation by resetting the Th cell phenotype] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3584281/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3584281/pdf/main.pdf PDF]
 
* 2013 Mar [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23291461 The helminth product, ES-62, protects against airway inflammation by resetting the Th cell phenotype] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3584281/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3584281/pdf/main.pdf PDF]
 
* 2013 Mar [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23174104 A nematode immunomodulator suppresses grass pollen-specific allergic responses by controlling excessive Th2 inflammation]
 
* 2013 Mar [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23174104 A nematode immunomodulator suppresses grass pollen-specific allergic responses by controlling excessive Th2 inflammation]
 
* 2013 Mar [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23298637 Helminth therapy and multiple sclerosis] -- [http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0020751912003153 Full text]
 
* 2013 Mar [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23298637 Helminth therapy and multiple sclerosis] -- [http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0020751912003153 Full text]
* 2013 Mar [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23380935 Childhood helminth exposure is protective against inflammatory bowel disease: a case control study in South Africa]
+
* 2013 Mar [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23380935 Childhood helminth exposure is protective against inflammatory bowel disease: a case control study in South Africa] (IBD)
 
* 2013 Mar [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22806101 Prevention of type 1 diabetes through infection with an intestinal nematode parasite requires IL-10 in the absence of a Th2-type response]
 
* 2013 Mar [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22806101 Prevention of type 1 diabetes through infection with an intestinal nematode parasite requires IL-10 in the absence of a Th2-type response]
 
* 2013 Mar [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23291464 Helminth mediated modulation of Type 1 diabetes (T1D)] -- [http://ac.els-cdn.com/S0020751912003207/1-s2.0-S0020751912003207-main.pdf?_tid=19b5e4f6-2a02-11e6-9497-00000aacb35f&acdnat=1465010099_5f4a8a201e2c6193b121094df3e7d073 PDF]
 
* 2013 Mar [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23291464 Helminth mediated modulation of Type 1 diabetes (T1D)] -- [http://ac.els-cdn.com/S0020751912003207/1-s2.0-S0020751912003207-main.pdf?_tid=19b5e4f6-2a02-11e6-9497-00000aacb35f&acdnat=1465010099_5f4a8a201e2c6193b121094df3e7d073 PDF]
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* ✅ 2013 Jan 10 [http://www.readcube.com/articles/10.1038/493163c Patients self-treat with parasitic worms] In this letter to the journal, Nature, two researchers called on the scientific community to adopt a different approach to helminth therapeutics that would recognise and utilise the insights and evidence being gained by patients treating themselves with helminths.
 
* ✅ 2013 Jan 10 [http://www.readcube.com/articles/10.1038/493163c Patients self-treat with parasitic worms] In this letter to the journal, Nature, two researchers called on the scientific community to adopt a different approach to helminth therapeutics that would recognise and utilise the insights and evidence being gained by patients treating themselves with helminths.
 
* 2013 Jan 8 [https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/01/130108112451.htm Parasitic worms may help treat diseases associated with obesity Science Daily]
 
* 2013 Jan 8 [https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/01/130108112451.htm Parasitic worms may help treat diseases associated with obesity Science Daily]
 +
* 2013 Jan [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23302848 Autoimmune disease: Patients self-treat with parasitic worms] (Comment on [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23135449 Autoimmunity: The worm returns].)
 
* 2013 Jan [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24481186 Microbial 'Old Friends', immunoregulation and stress resilience] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3868387/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3868387/pdf/eot004.pdf PDF]
 
* 2013 Jan [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24481186 Microbial 'Old Friends', immunoregulation and stress resilience] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3868387/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3868387/pdf/eot004.pdf PDF]
 
* ⚡ 2013 Jan [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24481190 Evolutionary biology and anthropology suggest biome reconstitution as a necessary approach toward dealing with immune disorders] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3868394/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3868394/pdf/eot008.pdf PDF] This paper explains how the modern pandemics of autoimmune, inflammatory and allergic disease are due to the loss of species, especially helminths, from the human ecosystem.
 
* ⚡ 2013 Jan [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24481190 Evolutionary biology and anthropology suggest biome reconstitution as a necessary approach toward dealing with immune disorders] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3868394/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3868394/pdf/eot008.pdf PDF] This paper explains how the modern pandemics of autoimmune, inflammatory and allergic disease are due to the loss of species, especially helminths, from the human ecosystem.
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* 2012 Nov 15 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23166490 Therapeutic helminth infection of macaques with idiopathic chronic diarrhea alters the inflammatory signature and mucosal microbiota of the colon] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3499566/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3499566/pdf/ppat.1003000.pdf PDF]
 
* 2012 Nov 15 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23166490 Therapeutic helminth infection of macaques with idiopathic chronic diarrhea alters the inflammatory signature and mucosal microbiota of the colon] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3499566/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3499566/pdf/ppat.1003000.pdf PDF]
 
* 2012 Nov 15 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23221477 How helminths use excretory secretory fractions to modulate dendritic cells] [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3545949/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3545949/pdf/viru-3-668.pdf PDF]
 
* 2012 Nov 15 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23221477 How helminths use excretory secretory fractions to modulate dendritic cells] [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3545949/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3545949/pdf/viru-3-668.pdf PDF]
* 2012 Nov 8 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23135449 The worm returns] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3744107/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3744107/pdf/nihms-492926.pdf PDF]
+
* 2012 Nov 8 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23135449 Autoimmunity: The worm returns] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3744107/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3744107/pdf/nihms-492926.pdf PDF]
 
* 2012 Nov 6 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23129304 Helminth infection in populations undergoing epidemiological transition: a friend or foe?] -- [http://staff.ui.ac.id/system/files/users/aprilianto.eddy/publication/wiria2012helminthinpopulationsundergoingepidemiologicaltransition.pdf Author’s personal full text copy]
 
* 2012 Nov 6 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23129304 Helminth infection in populations undergoing epidemiological transition: a friend or foe?] -- [http://staff.ui.ac.id/system/files/users/aprilianto.eddy/publication/wiria2012helminthinpopulationsundergoingepidemiologicaltransition.pdf Author’s personal full text copy]
 
* 2012 Nov [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23079675 Where are we on worms?] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3744105/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3744105/pdf/nihms492925.pdf PDF]
 
* 2012 Nov [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23079675 Where are we on worms?] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3744105/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3744105/pdf/nihms492925.pdf PDF]
* 2012 Oct [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22086188 Nematode modulation of inflammatory bowel disease] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3459088/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3459088/pdf/709_2011_Article_342.pdf PDF]
+
* 2012 Oct [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22086188 Nematode modulation of inflammatory bowel disease] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3459088/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3459088/pdf/709_2011_Article_342.pdf PDF] (IBD)
* 2012 Oct [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22886766 Worming their way into the pharmacy: use of worms and worm products to treat inflammatory diseases] -- [http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/store/10.1002/art.34635/asset/34635_ftp.pdf?v=1&t=j1nnzngg&s=d1cc7602c9c816de3be56547a674f83747dd384f PDF]
+
* 2012 Oct [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22886766 Worming their way into the pharmacy: use of worms and worm products to treat inflammatory diseases] -- [http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/store/10.1002/art.34635/asset/34635_ftp.pdf?v=1&t=j1nnzngg&s=d1cc7602c9c816de3be56547a674f83747dd384f PDF]  
 
* 2012 Oct [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22898371 Heligmosomoides polygyrus: EAE remission is correlated with different systemic cytokine profiles provoked by L4 and adult nematodes] (Multiple sclerosis)
 
* 2012 Oct [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22898371 Heligmosomoides polygyrus: EAE remission is correlated with different systemic cytokine profiles provoked by L4 and adult nematodes] (Multiple sclerosis)
 
* 2012 Sept 27 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22729944 The parasitic helminth product ES-62 suppresses pathogenesis in collagen-induced arthritis by targeting the interleukin-17-producing cellular network at multiple sites] -- [http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/art.34581/full Full text] | [http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/art.34581/epdf PDF]
 
* 2012 Sept 27 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22729944 The parasitic helminth product ES-62 suppresses pathogenesis in collagen-induced arthritis by targeting the interleukin-17-producing cellular network at multiple sites] -- [http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/art.34581/full Full text] | [http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/art.34581/epdf PDF]
 
* 2012 Sept 21 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23021370 Advances in immunotherapy for food allergy] -- [http://www.discoverymedicine.com/Yamini-V-Virkud/2012/09/21/advances-in-immunotherapy-for-food-allergy/ Full text] Yamini Virkud and Brian Vickery, Discovery Magazine
 
* 2012 Sept 21 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23021370 Advances in immunotherapy for food allergy] -- [http://www.discoverymedicine.com/Yamini-V-Virkud/2012/09/21/advances-in-immunotherapy-for-food-allergy/ Full text] Yamini Virkud and Brian Vickery, Discovery Magazine
* 2012 Sept [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21838960 Immune monitoring of Trichuris suis egg therapy in multiple sclerosis patients]
+
* 2012 Sept [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21838960 Immune monitoring of Trichuris suis egg therapy in multiple sclerosis patients] (TSO in Secondary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis (SPMS))
 
* 2012 Sept The Hygiene Hypothesis and its implications for home hygiene, lifestyle and public health -- [http://www.naturaleater.com/science-articles/Hygiene-old-friends-ISFHH-2012.pdf PDF]
 
* 2012 Sept The Hygiene Hypothesis and its implications for home hygiene, lifestyle and public health -- [http://www.naturaleater.com/science-articles/Hygiene-old-friends-ISFHH-2012.pdf PDF]
 
* 2012 Aug 24 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22937527 Does helminth activation of toll-like receptors modulate immune response in multiple sclerosis patients?] [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3426839/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3426839/pdf/fcimb-02-00112.pdf PDF]
 
* 2012 Aug 24 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22937527 Does helminth activation of toll-like receptors modulate immune response in multiple sclerosis patients?] [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3426839/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3426839/pdf/fcimb-02-00112.pdf PDF]
* 2012 Jul [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22742834 Trichuris suis ova: testing a helminth-based therapy as an extension of the hygiene hypothesis] -- [https://parasitology.cvm.ncsu.edu/vmp930/supplement/trichuris_treatment_allergies.pdf PDF]
+
* 2012 Jul [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22742834 Trichuris suis ova: testing a helminth-based therapy as an extension of the hygiene hypothesis] -- [https://parasitology.cvm.ncsu.edu/vmp930/supplement/trichuris_treatment_allergies.pdf PDF] (TSO)
 
* 2012 Jul [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22608572 Helminth infection is associated with decreased basophil responsiveness in human beings] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3387338/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3387338/pdf/nihms372243.pdf PDF]
 
* 2012 Jul [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22608572 Helminth infection is associated with decreased basophil responsiveness in human beings] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3387338/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3387338/pdf/nihms372243.pdf PDF]
 
* 2012 Jul [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22612580 A prescription for clinical immunology: the pills are available and ready for testing. A review]
 
* 2012 Jul [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22612580 A prescription for clinical immunology: the pills are available and ready for testing. A review]
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* 2012 Feb [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22355800 The hygiene hypothesis: an explanation for the increased frequency of insulin-dependent diabetes] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3281594/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3281594/pdf/cshperspectmed-DIA-a007799.pdf PDF]
 
* 2012 Feb [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22355800 The hygiene hypothesis: an explanation for the increased frequency of insulin-dependent diabetes] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3281594/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3281594/pdf/cshperspectmed-DIA-a007799.pdf PDF]
 
* 2012 Feb [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22346753 Characterising the mucosal and systemic immune responses to experimental human hookworm infection] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3276555/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3276555/pdf/ppat.1002520.pdf PDF]
 
* 2012 Feb [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22346753 Characterising the mucosal and systemic immune responses to experimental human hookworm infection] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3276555/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3276555/pdf/ppat.1002520.pdf PDF]
 +
* 2012 Feb [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22245779 An essential role for the Th2-type response in limiting tissue damage during helminth infection] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3274634/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3274634/pdf/nihms341991.pdf PDF] (Wound healing)
 
* ⚡ 2012 Jan [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22239614 Helminth-host immunological interactions: prevention and control of immune-mediated diseases] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3744090/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3744090/pdf/nihms492922.pdf PDF] Summarises the science underpinning helminthic therapy.
 
* ⚡ 2012 Jan [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22239614 Helminth-host immunological interactions: prevention and control of immune-mediated diseases] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3744090/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3744090/pdf/nihms492922.pdf PDF] Summarises the science underpinning helminthic therapy.
 
* 2012 Jan [http://www.asmscience.org/content/journal/microbe/10.1128/microbe.7.173.1 A Darwinian View of the Hygiene or “Old Friends” Hypothesis] Graham A. W. Rook, Microbe Magazine
 
* 2012 Jan [http://www.asmscience.org/content/journal/microbe/10.1128/microbe.7.173.1 A Darwinian View of the Hygiene or “Old Friends” Hypothesis] Graham A. W. Rook, Microbe Magazine
 
* 2012 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22848374 Helminth antigens enable CpG-activated dendritic cells to inhibit the symptoms of collagen-induced arthritis through Foxp3+ regulatory T cells] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3405066/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3405066/pdf/pone.0040356.pdf PDF]
 
* 2012 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22848374 Helminth antigens enable CpG-activated dendritic cells to inhibit the symptoms of collagen-induced arthritis through Foxp3+ regulatory T cells] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3405066/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3405066/pdf/pone.0040356.pdf PDF]
* 2012 [http://eprints.nottingham.ac.uk/12411/ Asthma and allergic disease: their relation with Necator americanus and other helminth infections] Johanna Feary, PhD Thesis -- [http://eprints.nottingham.ac.uk/12411/1/JRF_Thesis_appendix_A_removed.pdf PDF]
+
* 2012 [http://eprints.nottingham.ac.uk/12411/ Asthma and allergic disease: their relation with Necator americanus and other helminth infections] Johanna Feary, PhD Thesis -- [http://eprints.nottingham.ac.uk/12411/1/JRF_Thesis_appendix_A_removed.pdf PDF] (NA)
 +
* 2012 [https://webshares.northseattle.edu/jgward/Microbe%20paper.pdf A Darwinian View of the Hygiene or “Old Friends” Hypothesis] (PDF)
  
 
=== 2011 ===
 
=== 2011 ===
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* 2011 Oct [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21684587 Regulatory B-cell induction by helminths: implications for allergic disease]
 
* 2011 Oct [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21684587 Regulatory B-cell induction by helminths: implications for allergic disease]
 
* 2011 Oct [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21848628 Exposure to hookworms in patients with Crohn's disease: a case-control study] -- [http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2036.2011.04824.x/full Full text] | [http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2036.2011.04824.x/epdf PDF]
 
* 2011 Oct [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21848628 Exposure to hookworms in patients with Crohn's disease: a case-control study] -- [http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2036.2011.04824.x/full Full text] | [http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2036.2011.04824.x/epdf PDF]
* 2011 Sept 27 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21943110 Toll-like receptor activation by helminths or helminth products to alleviate inflammatory bowel disease] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3199248/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3199248/pdf/1756-3305-4-186.pdf PDF]
+
* 2011 Sept 27 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21943110 Toll-like receptor activation by helminths or helminth products to alleviate inflammatory bowel disease] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3199248/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3199248/pdf/1756-3305-4-186.pdf PDF] (IBD)
 
* 2011 Sept 16 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21949691 Suppression of inflammatory immune responses in celiac disease by experimental hookworm infection] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3174943/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3174943/pdf/pone.0024092.pdf PDF]
 
* 2011 Sept 16 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21949691 Suppression of inflammatory immune responses in celiac disease by experimental hookworm infection] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3174943/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3174943/pdf/pone.0024092.pdf PDF]
 
* 2011 Sept [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22072824 Parasitic helminth cystatin inhibits DSS-induced intestinal inflammation via IL-10(+)F4/80(+) macrophage recruitment] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3210841/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3210841/pdf/kjp-49-245.pdf PDF]
 
* 2011 Sept [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22072824 Parasitic helminth cystatin inhibits DSS-induced intestinal inflammation via IL-10(+)F4/80(+) macrophage recruitment] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3210841/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3210841/pdf/kjp-49-245.pdf PDF]
 
* 2011 Aug 8 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21858123 Impact of Schistosoma japonicum infection on collagen-induced arthritis in DBA/1 mice: a murine model of human rheumatoid arthritis] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3152573/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3152573/pdf/pone.0023453.pdf PDF]
 
* 2011 Aug 8 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21858123 Impact of Schistosoma japonicum infection on collagen-induced arthritis in DBA/1 mice: a murine model of human rheumatoid arthritis] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3152573/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3152573/pdf/pone.0023453.pdf PDF]
 +
* 2011 Aug 2 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21829616 Symptoms after Ingestion of Pig Whipworm Trichuris suis Eggs in a Randomized Placebo-Controlled Double-Blind Clinical Trial] --  [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3149054/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3149054/pdf/pone.0022346.pdf PDF] (TSO)
 
* 2011 Jul 25 The neuroimmunoendocrine network during worm helminth infections -- [http://www.isj.unimo.it/articoli/ISJ242.pdf PDF]
 
* 2011 Jul 25 The neuroimmunoendocrine network during worm helminth infections -- [http://www.isj.unimo.it/articoli/ISJ242.pdf PDF]
 
* 2011 Jul 18 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21785696 Parasites or cohabitants: cruel omnipresent usurpers or creative "éminences grises"?] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3140032/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3140032/pdf/JPR2011-214174.pdf PDF]
 
* 2011 Jul 18 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21785696 Parasites or cohabitants: cruel omnipresent usurpers or creative "éminences grises"?] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3140032/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3140032/pdf/JPR2011-214174.pdf PDF]
* 2011 Jun 9 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21772981 Excretory-Secretory Products from Hookworm L3 and Adult Worms Suppress Proinflammatory Cytokines in Infected Individuals] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3135091/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3135091/pdf/JPR2011-512154.pdf PDF]
+
* 2011 Jun 9 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21772981 Excretory-secretory products from hookworm l(3) and adult worms suppress proinflammatory cytokines in infected individuals] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3135091/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3135091/pdf/JPR2011-512154.pdf PDF]
 
* 2011 Jun [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21610741 Diversity and dialogue in immunity to helminths]
 
* 2011 Jun [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21610741 Diversity and dialogue in immunity to helminths]
 +
* 2011 Jun [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21372112 Probiotic helminth administration in relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis: a phase 1 study] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3894910/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3894910/pdf/nihms536054.pdf PDF]
 
* 2011 May 12 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21576944 Atopic dermatitis and the hygiene hypothesis revisited]
 
* 2011 May 12 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21576944 Atopic dermatitis and the hygiene hypothesis revisited]
 
* 2011 May 6 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21573157 Schistosome infection intensity is inversely related to auto-reactive antibody levels] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3089602/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3089602/pdf/pone.0019149.pdf PDF]
 
* 2011 May 6 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21573157 Schistosome infection intensity is inversely related to auto-reactive antibody levels] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3089602/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3089602/pdf/pone.0019149.pdf PDF]
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* 2011 Apr [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21295861 Helminths and multiple sclerosis: will old friends give us new treatments for MS?] (No abstract)
 
* 2011 Apr [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21295861 Helminths and multiple sclerosis: will old friends give us new treatments for MS?] (No abstract)
 
* 2011 Mar 8 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21408161 Effect of hookworm infection on wheat challenge in celiac disease - a randomised double-blinded placebo controlled trial] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3050888/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3050888/pdf/pone.0017366.pdf PDF]
 
* 2011 Mar 8 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21408161 Effect of hookworm infection on wheat challenge in celiac disease - a randomised double-blinded placebo controlled trial] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3050888/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3050888/pdf/pone.0017366.pdf PDF]
* 2011 Mar 3 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21372112 Probiotic helminth administration in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: a phase 1 study] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3894910/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3894910/pdf/nihms536054.pdf PDF]
+
* 2011 Mar 3 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21372112 Probiotic helminth administration in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: a phase 1 study] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3894910/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3894910/pdf/nihms536054.pdf PDF] (TSO)
 
* 2011 Apr 22 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21440530 Clonorchis sinensis-derived total protein attenuates airway inflammation in murine asthma model by inducing regulatory T cells and modulating dendritic cell functions]
 
* 2011 Apr 22 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21440530 Clonorchis sinensis-derived total protein attenuates airway inflammation in murine asthma model by inducing regulatory T cells and modulating dendritic cell functions]
 
* 2011 Apr 18 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21584243 Helminth parasites and the modulation of joint inflammation] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3092582/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3092582/pdf/JPR2011-942616.pdf PDF]
 
* 2011 Apr 18 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21584243 Helminth parasites and the modulation of joint inflammation] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3092582/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3092582/pdf/JPR2011-942616.pdf PDF]
* 2011 Feb [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20967852 Infection with an intestinal helminth parasite reduces Freund's complete adjuvant-induced monoarthritis in mice] -- [http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/art.30098/full Full text] | [http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/art.30098/epdf PDF]
+
* 2011 Feb [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20967852 Infection with an intestinal helminth parasite reduces Freund's complete adjuvant-induced monoarthritis in mice] -- [http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/art.30098/full Full text] | [http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/art.30098/epdf PDF] (HDC)
 
* 2011 Feb [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21044628 Trichinella spiralis: infection reduces airway allergic inflammation in mice]
 
* 2011 Feb [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21044628 Trichinella spiralis: infection reduces airway allergic inflammation in mice]
* 2011 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21887281 The transcriptome of Trichuris suis -- first molecular insights into a parasite with curative properties for key immune diseases of humans] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3160910/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3160910/pdf/pone.0023590.pdf PDF]
+
* 2011 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21887281 The transcriptome of Trichuris suis -- first molecular insights into a parasite with curative properties for key immune diseases of humans] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3160910/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3160910/pdf/pone.0023590.pdf PDF] (TSO)
 
 
 
* 2011 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21858123 Impact of Schistosoma japonicum infection on collagen-induced arthritis in DBA/1 mice: a murine model of human rheumatoid arthritis] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3152573/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3152573/pdf/pone.0023453.pdf PDF]
 
* 2011 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21858123 Impact of Schistosoma japonicum infection on collagen-induced arthritis in DBA/1 mice: a murine model of human rheumatoid arthritis] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3152573/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3152573/pdf/pone.0023453.pdf PDF]
  
 
=== 2010 ===
 
=== 2010 ===
* 2010 Dec 1 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21123809 IL-22+ CD4+ T cells are associated with therapeutic trichuris trichiura infection in an ulcerative colitis patient] -- [https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Png_Loke/publication/49650965_IL-22_CD4_T_Cells_Are_Associated_with_Therapeutic_Trichuris_trichiura_Infection_in_an_Ulcerative_Colitis_Patient/links/00b7d535585b829413000000.pdf PDF]
+
* 2010 Dec 1 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21123809 IL-22+ CD4+ T cells are associated with therapeutic trichuris trichiura infection in an ulcerative colitis patient] -- [https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Png_Loke/publication/49650965_IL-22_CD4_T_Cells_Are_Associated_with_Therapeutic_Trichuris_trichiura_Infection_in_an_Ulcerative_Colitis_Patient/links/00b7d535585b829413000000.pdf PDF] (TTO)
 
* 2010 Nov [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20848461 Alteration of the murine gut microbiota during infection with the parasitic helminth Heligmosomoides polygyrus] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2959136/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2959136/pdf/nihms220920.pdf PDF]
 
* 2010 Nov [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20848461 Alteration of the murine gut microbiota during infection with the parasitic helminth Heligmosomoides polygyrus] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2959136/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2959136/pdf/nihms220920.pdf PDF]
 
* 2010 Nov [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21039971 Long-term periodic anthelmintic treatments are associated with increased allergen skin reactivity] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3034193/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3034193/pdf/cea0040-1669.pdf PDF]
 
* 2010 Nov [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21039971 Long-term periodic anthelmintic treatments are associated with increased allergen skin reactivity] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3034193/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3034193/pdf/cea0040-1669.pdf PDF]
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* 2010 Apr [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20415854 99th Dahlem conference on infection, inflammation and chronic inflammatory disorders: darwinian medicine and the 'hygiene' or 'old friends' hypothesis] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2841838/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2841838/pdf/cei0160-0070.pdf PDF]
 
* 2010 Apr [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20415854 99th Dahlem conference on infection, inflammation and chronic inflammatory disorders: darwinian medicine and the 'hygiene' or 'old friends' hypothesis] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2841838/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2841838/pdf/cei0160-0070.pdf PDF]
 
* 2010 Apr [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23105895 Immunomodulators of helminthes: Promising therapeutics for autoimmune disorders and allergic diseases] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3453099/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3453099/pdf/12291_2010_Article_21.pdf PDF]
 
* 2010 Apr [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23105895 Immunomodulators of helminthes: Promising therapeutics for autoimmune disorders and allergic diseases] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3453099/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3453099/pdf/12291_2010_Article_21.pdf PDF]
* 2010 Apr [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20044996 In vitro-derived alternatively activated macrophages reduce colonic inflammation in mice] (Colitis)
+
* 2010 Apr [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20044996 In vitro-derived alternatively activated macrophages reduce colonic inflammation in mice] (Colitis) (HDC)
* 2010 Mar [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20028812 Extracts of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta, suppress macrophage activation in vitro and alleviate chemically induced colitis in mice] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2825920/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2825920/pdf/1349-08.pdf PDF]
+
* 2010 Apr [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20224568 Helminth-derived immunomodulators: can understanding the worm produce the pill?]
* 2010 Mar [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19691904 The immune response to and immunomodulation by Hymenolepis diminuta]
+
* 2010 Mar [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20028812 Extracts of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta, suppress macrophage activation in vitro and alleviate chemically induced colitis in mice] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2825920/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2825920/pdf/1349-08.pdf PDF] (HDC)
 +
* 2010 Mar [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19691904 The immune response to and immunomodulation by Hymenolepis diminuta] (HDC)
 
* 2010 Feb 10 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20169100 Parasitic helminths: new weapons against immunological disorders] (Diabetes) -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2821776/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2821776/pdf/JBB2010-743758.pdf PDF]
 
* 2010 Feb 10 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20169100 Parasitic helminths: new weapons against immunological disorders] (Diabetes) -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2821776/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2821776/pdf/JBB2010-743758.pdf PDF]
 
* 2010 Jan 25 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20101628 Worms to the rescue: can worm glycans protect from autoimmune diseases?] [http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/iub.304/full Full text] | [http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/iub.304/epdf PDF]
 
* 2010 Jan 25 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20101628 Worms to the rescue: can worm glycans protect from autoimmune diseases?] [http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/iub.304/full Full text] | [http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/iub.304/epdf PDF]
 
* 2010 Jan 4 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20069130 Taenia crassiceps infection attenuates multiple low-dose streptozotocin-induced diabetes] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2804118/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2804118/pdf/JBB2010-850541.pdf PDF]
 
* 2010 Jan 4 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20069130 Taenia crassiceps infection attenuates multiple low-dose streptozotocin-induced diabetes] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2804118/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2804118/pdf/JBB2010-850541.pdf PDF]
* 2010 Jan [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19800680 Trichuris suis ova therapy for allergic rhinitis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial] -- [https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Lars_Poulsen/publication/26866959_Trichuris_suis_ova_therapy_for_allergic_rhinitis_a_randomized_double-blind_placebo-controlled_clinical_trial/links/00b4952a7f6c89aaa2000000.pdf PDF]
+
* 2010 Jan [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19800680 Trichuris suis ova therapy for allergic rhinitis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial] -- [https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Lars_Poulsen/publication/26866959_Trichuris_suis_ova_therapy_for_allergic_rhinitis_a_randomized_double-blind_placebo-controlled_clinical_trial/links/00b4952a7f6c89aaa2000000.pdf PDF] (TSO)
 
* 2010 Jan [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19758373 Reduced helminth burden increases allergen skin sensitization but not clinical allergy: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in Vietnam]
 
* 2010 Jan [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19758373 Reduced helminth burden increases allergen skin sensitization but not clinical allergy: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in Vietnam]
 
* 2010 Jan [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19844667 Regulation of type 1 diabetes, tuberculosis, and asthma by parasites] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2863045/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2863045/pdf/nihms182968.pdf PDF]
 
* 2010 Jan [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19844667 Regulation of type 1 diabetes, tuberculosis, and asthma by parasites] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2863045/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2863045/pdf/nihms182968.pdf PDF]
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* 2009 Sept 29 [http://www.news-medical.net/news/20090929/Hookworms-can-prevent-asthma.aspx Hookworms can prevent asthma] News Medical
 
* 2009 Sept 29 [http://www.news-medical.net/news/20090929/Hookworms-can-prevent-asthma.aspx Hookworms can prevent asthma] News Medical
 
* 2009 Sept 24 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19786773 Prebiotics, probiotics and helminths: the 'natural' solution?]
 
* 2009 Sept 24 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19786773 Prebiotics, probiotics and helminths: the 'natural' solution?]
* 2009 Sept 16 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=20011066 Infection with Hymenolepis diminuta Is More Effective than Daily Corticosteroids in Blocking Chemically Induced Colitis in Mice] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2789531/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2789531/pdf/JBB2010-384523.pdf PDF]
+
* 2009 Sept 16 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=20011066 Infection with Hymenolepis diminuta Is More Effective than Daily Corticosteroids in Blocking Chemically Induced Colitis in Mice] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2789531/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2789531/pdf/JBB2010-384523.pdf PDF] (HDC)
 
* 2009 Sept [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19406170 Helminth immunoregulation: the role of parasite secreted proteins in modulating host immunity] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2706953/ Full text]
 
* 2009 Sept [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19406170 Helminth immunoregulation: the role of parasite secreted proteins in modulating host immunity] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2706953/ Full text]
 
* 2009 Aug 1 [Infection with a Helminth Parasite Attenuates Autoimmunity through TGF-β-Mediated Suppression of Th17 and Th1 Responses] -- [http://www.jimmunol.org/content/183/3/1577.long Full text] | [http://www.jimmunol.org/content/183/3/1577.full.pdf PDF]
 
* 2009 Aug 1 [Infection with a Helminth Parasite Attenuates Autoimmunity through TGF-β-Mediated Suppression of Th17 and Th1 Responses] -- [http://www.jimmunol.org/content/183/3/1577.long Full text] | [http://www.jimmunol.org/content/183/3/1577.full.pdf PDF]
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* 2009 Apr 15 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19370621 Effect of administration of antihelminthics for soil transmitted helminths during pregnancy]
 
* 2009 Apr 15 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19370621 Effect of administration of antihelminthics for soil transmitted helminths during pregnancy]
 
* 2009 Apr [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19291704 Schistosoma mansoni egg antigens induce Treg that participate in diabetes prevention in NOD mice] -- [http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/eji.200838871/full Full text] | [http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/eji.200838871/epdf PDF]
 
* 2009 Apr [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19291704 Schistosoma mansoni egg antigens induce Treg that participate in diabetes prevention in NOD mice] -- [http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/eji.200838871/full Full text] | [http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/eji.200838871/epdf PDF]
* 2009 Mar 24 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19308259 Necator americanus infection: a possible cause of altered dendritic cell differentiation and eosinophil profile in chronically infected individuals] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2654967/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2654967/pdf/pntd.0000399.pdf PDF]
+
* 2009 Mar 24 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19308259 Necator americanus infection: a possible cause of altered dendritic cell differentiation and eosinophil profile in chronically infected individuals] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2654967/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2654967/pdf/pntd.0000399.pdf PDF] (NA)
* ✅ 2009 Mar 5 [https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01470521?term=WIRMS&rank=1 Worms for Immune Regulation of Multiple Sclerosis (WIRMS)] Proposal for the first Phase 2 trial using a controlled number of Necator americanus in the treatment of Multiple Sclerosis. (Also reported by Science Daily and the Mail Online. [https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/03/090304091818.htm] [http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-2108228/Parasitic-worms-offer-hope-cure-multiple-sclerosis.html?ito=feeds-newsxml])
+
* ✅ 2009 Mar 5 [https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01470521?term=WIRMS&rank=1 Worms for Immune Regulation of Multiple Sclerosis (WIRMS)] Proposal for the first Phase 2 trial using a controlled number of Necator americanus in the treatment of Multiple Sclerosis. (Also reported by Science Daily and the Mail Online. [https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/03/090304091818.htm] [http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-2108228/Parasitic-worms-offer-hope-cure-multiple-sclerosis.html?ito=feeds-newsxml]) (NA)
 
* 2009 Mar [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19167926 The therapeutic helminth?]
 
* 2009 Mar [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19167926 The therapeutic helminth?]
 
* 2009 Mar [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18835272 Schistosoma mansoni infection reduces severity of collagen-induced arthritis via down-regulation of pro-inflammatory mediators]
 
* 2009 Mar [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18835272 Schistosoma mansoni infection reduces severity of collagen-induced arthritis via down-regulation of pro-inflammatory mediators]
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* 2009 Jan [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19016806 Helminth antigen-based strategy to ameliorate inflammation in an experimental model of colitis] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2665684/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2665684/pdf/cei0155-0088.pdf PDF]
 
* 2009 Jan [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19016806 Helminth antigen-based strategy to ameliorate inflammation in an experimental model of colitis] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2665684/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2665684/pdf/cei0155-0088.pdf PDF]
 
* 2009 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20054982 Helminthic therapy: using worms to treat immune-mediated disease]
 
* 2009 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20054982 Helminthic therapy: using worms to treat immune-mediated disease]
 +
* 2009 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19436745 Early exposure of infants to GI nematodes induces Th2 dominant immune responses which are unaffected by periodic anthelminthic treatment] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2677666/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2677666/pdf/pntd.0000433.pdf PDF]
  
 
=== 2008 ===
 
=== 2008 ===
* 2008 Nov [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18547322 Early infection with Trichuris trichiura and allergen skin test reactivity in later childhood]
+
* 2008 Nov [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18547322 Early infection with Trichuris trichiura and allergen skin test reactivity in later childhood] (TTO)
 
* 2008 Oct [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18654798 Schistosoma japonicum infection modulates the development of allergen-induced airway inflammation in mice]
 
* 2008 Oct [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18654798 Schistosoma japonicum infection modulates the development of allergen-induced airway inflammation in mice]
 
* 2008 Sept 15 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20525133 The changing microbial environment and chronic inflammatory disorders] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2868866/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2868866/pdf/1710-1492-4-3-117.pdf PDF]
 
* 2008 Sept 15 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20525133 The changing microbial environment and chronic inflammatory disorders] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2868866/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2868866/pdf/1710-1492-4-3-117.pdf PDF]
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* 2008 Aug [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18509678 Decreased basal non-insulin-stimulated glucose uptake by diaphragm in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni]
 
* 2008 Aug [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18509678 Decreased basal non-insulin-stimulated glucose uptake by diaphragm in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni]
 
* 2008 Jul [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18578001 The role of regulatory T cells in multiple sclerosis]
 
* 2008 Jul [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18578001 The role of regulatory T cells in multiple sclerosis]
* 2008 May 21 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18509490 Worms and the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease: are molecules the answer?] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2396220/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2396220/pdf/CDI2008-567314.pdf PDF]
+
* 2008 May 21 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18509490 Worms and the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease: are molecules the answer?] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2396220/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2396220/pdf/CDI2008-567314.pdf PDF] (IBD)
 +
* 2008 Apr 15 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18462167 Intensity of intestinal infection with multiple worm species is related to regulatory cytokine output and immune hyporesponsiveness]
 
* 2008 Mar 15 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18322239 A helminth immunomodulator reduces allergic and inflammatory responses by induction of IL-10- producing macrophages] -- [http://www.jimmunol.org/content/180/6/4265.long Full text] | [http://www.jimmunol.org/content/180/6/4265.full.pdf PDF]
 
* 2008 Mar 15 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18322239 A helminth immunomodulator reduces allergic and inflammatory responses by induction of IL-10- producing macrophages] -- [http://www.jimmunol.org/content/180/6/4265.long Full text] | [http://www.jimmunol.org/content/180/6/4265.full.pdf PDF]
 
* 2008 Feb 1 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18209076 Helminth infection with Litomosoides sigmodontis induces regulatory T cells and inhibits allergic sensitization, airway inflammation, and hyperreactivity in a murine asthma model] -- [http://www.jimmunol.org/content/180/3/1792.long Full text] | [http://www.jimmunol.org/content/180/3/1792.full.pdf PDF]
 
* 2008 Feb 1 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18209076 Helminth infection with Litomosoides sigmodontis induces regulatory T cells and inhibits allergic sensitization, airway inflammation, and hyperreactivity in a murine asthma model] -- [http://www.jimmunol.org/content/180/3/1792.long Full text] | [http://www.jimmunol.org/content/180/3/1792.full.pdf PDF]
 
* 2008 Feb [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18207251 Soluble egg antigen from Schistosoma japonicum modulates the progression of chronic progressive experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis via Th2-shift response]
 
* 2008 Feb [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18207251 Soluble egg antigen from Schistosoma japonicum modulates the progression of chronic progressive experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis via Th2-shift response]
* 2008 Jan 14 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18186549 Hygiene hypothesis in inflammatory bowel disease: a critical review of the literature] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2675108/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2675108/pdf/WJG-14-165.pdf PDF]
+
* 2008 Jan 14 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18186549 Hygiene hypothesis in inflammatory bowel disease: a critical review of the literature] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2675108/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2675108/pdf/WJG-14-165.pdf PDF] (IBD)
 +
 
 
=== 2007 ===
 
=== 2007 ===
 +
 +
* 2007 Dec [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18007680 Protective immune mechanisms in helminth infection] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2258092/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2258092/pdf/nihms40971.pdf PDF]
 
* 2007 Nov [http://www.nature.com/nm/journal/v13/n11/full/nm1107-1288.html Worms tame mast cells]
 
* 2007 Nov [http://www.nature.com/nm/journal/v13/n11/full/nm1107-1288.html Worms tame mast cells]
 
+
* 2007 Nov [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17952092 Inhibition of Fc epsilon RI-mediated mast cell responses by ES-62, a product of parasitic filarial nematodes]
 
* 2007 Nov [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17619029 The hygiene hypothesis and the increasing prevalence of chronic inflammatory disorders]
 
* 2007 Nov [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17619029 The hygiene hypothesis and the increasing prevalence of chronic inflammatory disorders]
 
* 2007 Aug [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17433300 Schistosoma japonicum eggs modulate the activity of CD4+ CD25+ Tregs and prevent development of colitis in mice]
 
* 2007 Aug [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17433300 Schistosoma japonicum eggs modulate the activity of CD4+ CD25+ Tregs and prevent development of colitis in mice]
* 2007 Jul [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17576364 Stage-specific immune responses in human Necator americanus infection] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1976388/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1976388/pdf/pim0029-0347.pdf PDF]
+
* 2007 Jul [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17576364 Stage-specific immune responses in human Necator americanus infection] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1976388/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1976388/pdf/pim0029-0347.pdf PDF] (NA)
 
* 2007 May-Jun [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17906796 Interrelationship among asthma, atopy, and helminth infections] -- [http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1806-37132007000300016&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Full text] | [http://www.scielo.br/pdf/jbpneu/v33n3/en_14.pdf PDF]
 
* 2007 May-Jun [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17906796 Interrelationship among asthma, atopy, and helminth infections] -- [http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1806-37132007000300016&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Full text] | [http://www.scielo.br/pdf/jbpneu/v33n3/en_14.pdf PDF]
 
* 2007 May [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17488925 An inverse relationship between autoimmune liver diseases and Strongyloides stercoralis infection] -- [http://www.ajtmh.org/content/76/5/972.long Full text] | [http://www.ajtmh.org/content/76/5/972.full.pdf PDF]
 
* 2007 May [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17488925 An inverse relationship between autoimmune liver diseases and Strongyloides stercoralis infection] -- [http://www.ajtmh.org/content/76/5/972.long Full text] | [http://www.ajtmh.org/content/76/5/972.full.pdf PDF]
 
* 2007 May [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17447233 Helminths, allergic disorders and IgE-mediated immune responses: where do we stand?] -- [http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/eji.200737314/full Full text] | [http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/eji.200737314/epdf PDF]
 
* 2007 May [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17447233 Helminths, allergic disorders and IgE-mediated immune responses: where do we stand?] -- [http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/eji.200737314/full Full text] | [http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/eji.200737314/epdf PDF]
 
* 2007 Apr 1 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17372014 Infection with a helminth parasite prevents experimental colitis via a macrophage-mediated mechanism] -- [http://www.jimmunol.org/content/178/7/4557.long Full text] | [http://www.jimmunol.org/content/178/7/4557.full.pdf PDF]
 
* 2007 Apr 1 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17372014 Infection with a helminth parasite prevents experimental colitis via a macrophage-mediated mechanism] -- [http://www.jimmunol.org/content/178/7/4557.long Full text] | [http://www.jimmunol.org/content/178/7/4557.full.pdf PDF]
* 2007 Apr [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17206504 The use of Trichuris suis and other helminth therapies to treat Crohn's disease]
+
* 2007 Apr [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17206504 The use of Trichuris suis and other helminth therapies to treat Crohn's disease] (TSO)
 
* 2007 Apr [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17313951 Helminths as governors of immune-mediated inflammation]
 
* 2007 Apr [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17313951 Helminths as governors of immune-mediated inflammation]
 
* 2007 Apr [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17504662 Modulation of anaphylaxis by helminth-derived products in animal models]
 
* 2007 Apr [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17504662 Modulation of anaphylaxis by helminth-derived products in animal models]
 
* 2007 Apr [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17408663 Helminth infection enhances disease in a murine TH2 model of colitis]
 
* 2007 Apr [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17408663 Helminth infection enhances disease in a murine TH2 model of colitis]
 +
* 2007 Mar [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17360880 Helicobacter pylori and intestinal parasites are not detrimental to the nutritional status of Amerindians] -- [https://www.researchgate.net/publication/6446118_Helicobacter_pylori_and_intestinal_parasites_are_not_detrimental_to_the_nutritional_status_of_Amerindians Full text (PDF)]
 
* 2007 Feb 15 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17122383 Helminth-derived products inhibit the development of allergic responses in mice]
 
* 2007 Feb 15 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17122383 Helminth-derived products inhibit the development of allergic responses in mice]
* ✅⚡2007 Feb [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17230481 Association between parasite infection and immune responses in multiple sclerosis] (Also reported by Science Daily and the BBC. [https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/01/070117091058.htm] [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/health/6268585.stm]) This was the first study to explore the effect of helminth infection on immune response and the natural course of Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis. It showed that MS progressed much more slower in patients who hosted intestinal worms.
+
* ✅⚡2007 Feb [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17230481 Association between parasite infection and immune responses in multiple sclerosis] -- [https://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/images/e/ec/Association_Between_Parasite_Infection_and_Immune_Responses_in_Multiple_Sclerosis_.pdf PDF] (Also reported by Science Daily and the BBC. [https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/01/070117091058.htm] [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/health/6268585.stm]) This was the first study to explore the effect of helminth infection on immune response and the natural course of Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis. It showed that MS progressed much more slowly in patients who hosted intestinal worms.
* 2007 Feb [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17284099 Iatrogenic Trichuris suis infection]
+
* 2007 Feb [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17284099 Iatrogenic Trichuris suis infection] (TSO)
 
* 2007 Jan [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17043101 Inhibition of autoimmune type 1 diabetes by gastrointestinal helminth infection] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1828378/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1828378/pdf/0664-06.pdf PDF]
 
* 2007 Jan [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17043101 Inhibition of autoimmune type 1 diabetes by gastrointestinal helminth infection] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1828378/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1828378/pdf/0664-06.pdf PDF]
 
* 2007 Jan [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17042799 Schistosoma japonicum egg antigens stimulate CD4 CD25 T cells and modulate airway inflammation in a murine model of asthma] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1890919/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1890919/pdf/imm0120-0008.pdf PDF]
 
* 2007 Jan [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17042799 Schistosoma japonicum egg antigens stimulate CD4 CD25 T cells and modulate airway inflammation in a murine model of asthma] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1890919/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1890919/pdf/imm0120-0008.pdf PDF]
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* 2006 Dec [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17157661 Poor sanitation and helminth infection protect against skin sensitization in Vietnamese children: A cross-sectional study]
 
* 2006 Dec [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17157661 Poor sanitation and helminth infection protect against skin sensitization in Vietnamese children: A cross-sectional study]
 
* 2006 Nov [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17042933 Helminths and HIV infection: epidemiological observations on immunological hypotheses] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1636684/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1636684/pdf/pim0028-0613.pdf PDF]
 
* 2006 Nov [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17042933 Helminths and HIV infection: epidemiological observations on immunological hypotheses] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1636684/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1636684/pdf/pim0028-0613.pdf PDF]
* ✅ 2006 Nov [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17123987 Dose-ranging study for trials of therapeutic infection with Necator americanus in humans] -- [http://www.ajtmh.org/content/75/5/914.long Full text] | [http://www.ajtmh.org/content/75/5/914.full.pdf PDF] This study explored the dose of hookworms that would be required to have a therapeutic effect on asthma.
+
* ✅ 2006 Nov [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17123987 Dose-ranging study for trials of therapeutic infection with Necator americanus in humans] -- [http://www.ajtmh.org/content/75/5/914.long Full text] | [http://www.ajtmh.org/content/75/5/914.full.pdf PDF] This study explored the dose of hookworms that would be required to have a therapeutic effect on asthma. (NA)
 
* 2006 Nov [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17042933 Helminths and HIV infection: epidemiological observations on immunological hypotheses] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1636684/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1636684/pdf/pim0028-0613.pdf PDF]
 
* 2006 Nov [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17042933 Helminths and HIV infection: epidemiological observations on immunological hypotheses] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1636684/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1636684/pdf/pim0028-0613.pdf PDF]
* 2006 Oct-Dec [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17343086 Intestinal helminths: a clue explaining the low incidence of inflammatory bowel diseases in Subsaharan Africa? Potential benefits and hazards of helminth therapy]
+
* 2006 Oct-Dec [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17343086 Intestinal helminths: a clue explaining the low incidence of inflammatory bowel diseases in Subsaharan Africa? Potential benefits and hazards of helminth therapy] (IBD)
* 2006 Oct-Dec [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17343085 The hygiene hypothesis and inflammatory bowel diseases: role of helminths]
+
* 2006 Oct-Dec [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17343085 The hygiene hypothesis and inflammatory bowel diseases: role of helminths] (IBD)
 
* 2006 Oct [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16965287 Parasitic worms and inflammatory diseases] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1618732/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1618732/pdf/pim0028-0515.pdf PDF]
 
* 2006 Oct [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16965287 Parasitic worms and inflammatory diseases] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1618732/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1618732/pdf/pim0028-0515.pdf PDF]
 
 
* 2006 Oct [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17068271 What is the origin of ulcerative colitis? Still more questions than answers] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2653902/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2653902/pdf/620.pdf PDF]
 
* 2006 Oct [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17068271 What is the origin of ulcerative colitis? Still more questions than answers] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2653902/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2653902/pdf/620.pdf PDF]
 
* 2006 Oct [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16965288 Worms and allergy] -- [http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-3024.2006.00894.x/full Full text] | [http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-3024.2006.00894.x/epdf PDF]
 
* 2006 Oct [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16965288 Worms and allergy] -- [http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-3024.2006.00894.x/full Full text] | [http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-3024.2006.00894.x/epdf PDF]
 +
* 2006 Sept 8 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16965284 Immune modulation by helminthic infections: worms and viral infections]
 
* 2006 Sept 1 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16778161 Asthma and current intestinal parasite infection: systematic review and meta-analysis]
 
* 2006 Sept 1 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16778161 Asthma and current intestinal parasite infection: systematic review and meta-analysis]
 
* 2006 Sept [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17308794 Schistosoma mansoni antigen-driven interleukin-10 production in infected asthmatic individuals] -- [http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0074-02762006000900055&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Full text] | [http://www.scielo.br/pdf/mioc/v101s1/v101s1a55.pdf PDF]
 
* 2006 Sept [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17308794 Schistosoma mansoni antigen-driven interleukin-10 production in infected asthmatic individuals] -- [http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0074-02762006000900055&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Full text] | [http://www.scielo.br/pdf/mioc/v101s1/v101s1a55.pdf PDF]
 
* 2006 Aug 1 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16849471 Intestinal helminths protect in a murine model of asthma] -- [http://www.jimmunol.org/content/177/3/1628.long Full text] | [http://www.jimmunol.org/content/177/3/1628.full.pdf PDF]
 
* 2006 Aug 1 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16849471 Intestinal helminths protect in a murine model of asthma] -- [http://www.jimmunol.org/content/177/3/1628.long Full text] | [http://www.jimmunol.org/content/177/3/1628.full.pdf PDF]
* 2006 Aug [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16890593 Allergy controls the population density of Necator americanus in the small intestine]
+
* 2006 Aug [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16890593 Allergy controls the population density of Necator americanus in the small intestine] (NA)
 
* 2006 Aug [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17057216 Helminths and mucosal immune modulation]
 
* 2006 Aug [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17057216 Helminths and mucosal immune modulation]
* 2006 Jul [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16750534 A time course study of immunological responses in Trichuris suis infected pigs demonstrates induction of a local type 2 response associated with worm burden]
+
* 2006 Jul [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16750534 A time course study of immunological responses in Trichuris suis infected pigs demonstrates induction of a local type 2 response associated with worm burden] (TSO)
 
* 2006 Jun [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16689863 Prevention of psoriasis-like lesions development in fsn/fsn mice by helminth glycans]
 
* 2006 Jun [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16689863 Prevention of psoriasis-like lesions development in fsn/fsn mice by helminth glycans]
 
* 2006 May [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16630018 Regulatory T cells in human disease and their potential for therapeutic manipulation] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1782265/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1782265/pdf/imm0118-0001.pdf PDF]
 
* 2006 May [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16630018 Regulatory T cells in human disease and their potential for therapeutic manipulation] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1782265/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1782265/pdf/imm0118-0001.pdf PDF]
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* 2006 Apr [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16512800 Helminths can protect themselves against rejection inhibiting hostile respiratory allergy symptoms] -- [http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1398-9995.2006.00983.x/full Full text] | [http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1398-9995.2006.00983.x/epdf PDF]
 
* 2006 Apr [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16512800 Helminths can protect themselves against rejection inhibiting hostile respiratory allergy symptoms] -- [http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1398-9995.2006.00983.x/full Full text] | [http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1398-9995.2006.00983.x/epdf PDF]
 
* 2006 Jan [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16384780 The hygiene hypothesis and atopy: bring back the parasites?]
 
* 2006 Jan [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16384780 The hygiene hypothesis and atopy: bring back the parasites?]
* ✅ 2006 Jan [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16344586 A proof of concept study establishing Necator americanus in Crohn's patients and reservoir donors] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1856386/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1856386/pdf/136.pdf PDF] Investigated whether Crohn’s disease patients would tolerate a hookworm infection, and the practical issues associated with establishing reservoir donors for this species.
+
* ✅ 2006 Jan [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16344586 A proof of concept study establishing Necator americanus in Crohn's patients and reservoir donors] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1856386/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1856386/pdf/136.pdf PDF] Investigated whether Crohn’s disease patients would tolerate a hookworm infection, and the practical issues associated with establishing reservoir donors for this species. (NA)
 
* 2006 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16413997 Geohelminth infections: impact on allergic diseases]
 
* 2006 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16413997 Geohelminth infections: impact on allergic diseases]
 
* 2006 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16210905 Glycans modulate immune responses in helminth infections and allergy]
 
* 2006 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16210905 Glycans modulate immune responses in helminth infections and allergy]
 
* 2006 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16210899 Helminth-induced immunoregulation of an allergic response to food] (food allergy)
 
* 2006 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16210899 Helminth-induced immunoregulation of an allergic response to food] (food allergy)
 +
 
=== 2005 ===
 
=== 2005 ===
 
* 2005 Nov 7 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16275759 Suppression of allergic airway inflammation by helminth-induced regulatory T cells] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2213237/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2213237/pdf/20042572.pdf PDF]
 
* 2005 Nov 7 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16275759 Suppression of allergic airway inflammation by helminth-induced regulatory T cells] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2213237/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2213237/pdf/20042572.pdf PDF]
 
* 2005 Nov [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16232230 Immune responses following experimental human hookworm infection] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1809522/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1809522/pdf/cei0142-0398.pdf PDF]
 
* 2005 Nov [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16232230 Immune responses following experimental human hookworm infection] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1809522/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1809522/pdf/cei0142-0398.pdf PDF]
 
* ✅ 2005 Jul [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16008666 Old friends for breakfast] Suggested that a symbiotic relationship exists between humans and the fauna that have co-evolved in the human GI tract.
 
* ✅ 2005 Jul [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16008666 Old friends for breakfast] Suggested that a symbiotic relationship exists between humans and the fauna that have co-evolved in the human GI tract.
* 2005 Jun 1 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15905584 Neutralizing anti-IL-10 antibody blocks the protective effect of tapeworm infection in a murine model of chemically induced colitis] -- [http://www.jimmunol.org/content/174/11/7368.long Full text] | [http://www.jimmunol.org/content/174/11/7368.full.pdf PDF]
+
* 2005 Jun 1 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15905584 Neutralizing anti-IL-10 antibody blocks the protective effect of tapeworm infection in a murine model of chemically induced colitis] -- [http://www.jimmunol.org/content/174/11/7368.long Full text] | [http://www.jimmunol.org/content/174/11/7368.full.pdf PDF] (HDC)
* 2005 Apr [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15825065 Trichuris suis therapy for active ulcerative colitis: a randomized controlled trial] -- [http://tropicalhealthsolutions.com/documents/worms/Summers-2005.pdf PDF]
+
* 2005 Apr [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15825065 Trichuris suis therapy for active ulcerative colitis: a randomized controlled trial] -- [http://tropicalhealthsolutions.com/documents/worms/Summers-2005.pdf PDF] (TSO)
 
* 2005 Apr [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15780835 Parasite role reversal: worms on trial]
 
* 2005 Apr [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15780835 Parasite role reversal: worms on trial]
* 2005 Feb [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15677912 Gastrointestinal parasites: potential therapy for refractory inflammatory bowel diseases]
+
* 2005 Mar [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15730384 Low dose chronic Schistosoma mansoni infection increases susceptibility to Mycobacterium bovis BCG infection in mice] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1809318/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1809318/pdf/cei0139-0398.pdf PDF]
* ✅ 2005 Jan [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15591509 Trichuris suis therapy in Crohn's disease] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1774382/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1774382/pdf/gut05400087.pdf PDF] A helminth (TSO) is shown to offer a unique, safe and effective alternative treatment for Crohn's disease, and potentially protection against other immunological disorders.
+
* 2005 Feb [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15677912 Gastrointestinal parasites: potential therapy for refractory inflammatory bowel diseases] (IBD)
 +
* ✅ 2005 Jan [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15591509 Trichuris suis therapy in Crohn's disease] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1774382/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1774382/pdf/gut05400087.pdf PDF] TSO is shown to offer a unique, safe and effective alternative treatment for Crohn's disease, and potentially protection against other immunological disorders.
 
* 2005 Jan [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15591496 Will worms really cure Crohn's disease?] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1774348/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1774348/pdf/gut05400006.pdf PDF](see pages 6-8)
 
* 2005 Jan [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15591496 Will worms really cure Crohn's disease?] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1774348/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1774348/pdf/gut05400006.pdf PDF](see pages 6-8)
 +
* 2005 Jan [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15687885 Helminths and the modulation of mucosal inflammation]
 
* 2005 Jan [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15591883 The hygiene hypothesis and asthma]
 
* 2005 Jan [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15591883 The hygiene hypothesis and asthma]
 
* 2005 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15780483 Can worms defend our hearts? Chronic helminthic infections may attenuate the development of cardiovascular diseases]
 
* 2005 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15780483 Can worms defend our hearts? Chronic helminthic infections may attenuate the development of cardiovascular diseases]
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* 2004 Oct 13 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15486631 Schistosoma mansoni infection modulates the immune response against allergic and auto-immune diseases] -- [http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0074-02762004000900005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Full text] | [http://www.scielo.br/pdf/mioc/v99s1/v99s1a05.pdf PDF]
 
* 2004 Oct 13 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15486631 Schistosoma mansoni infection modulates the immune response against allergic and auto-immune diseases] -- [http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0074-02762004000900005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Full text] | [http://www.scielo.br/pdf/mioc/v99s1/v99s1a05.pdf PDF]
 
* 2004 Oct [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15361235 Helminth parasites--masters of regulation]
 
* 2004 Oct [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15361235 Helminth parasites--masters of regulation]
* 2004 Aug 15 [http://www.jimmunol.org/content/173/4/2699.full A Secreted Protein from the Human Hookworm Necator americanus Binds Selectively to NK Cells and Induces IFN-γ Production] -- [http://www.jimmunol.org/content/173/4/2699.full.pdf PDF]
+
* 2004 Aug 15 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15294988 A Secreted Protein from the Human Hookworm Necator americanus Binds Selectively to NK Cells and Induces IFN-{gamma} Production] -- [https://www.jimmunol.org/content/173/4/2699.long Full text] |  [https://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/images/8/8a/A_Secreted_Protein.pdf PDF]
 +
* 2004 Aug 1 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15265954 Schistosoma mansoni and alpha-galactosylceramide: prophylactic effect of Th1 Immune suppression in a mouse model of Graves' hyperthyroidism] -- [https://www.jimmunol.org/content/173/3/2167.long Full text] | [https://www.jimmunol.org/content/jimmunol/173/3/2167.full.pdf PDF]
 
* 2004 Jul 9 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15247451 Immunotherapy. Can worms tame the immune system?]
 
* 2004 Jul 9 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15247451 Immunotherapy. Can worms tame the immune system?]
 
* 2004 Jul [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15196202 The increased prevalence of allergy and the hygiene hypothesis: missing immune deviation, reduced immune suppression, or both?] --  [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1782506/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1782506/pdf/imm0112-0352.pdf PDF]
 
* 2004 Jul [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15196202 The increased prevalence of allergy and the hygiene hypothesis: missing immune deviation, reduced immune suppression, or both?] --  [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1782506/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1782506/pdf/imm0112-0352.pdf PDF]
* 2004 Jun [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15330453 A review of autism and the immune response] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2270714/pdf/CDI-11-165.pdf PDF]
+
* 2004 Jun [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15330453 A review of autism and the immune response] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2270714/pdf/CDI-11-165.pdf PDF]
 
* 2004 Apr [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15039389 Helminth infection modulates the development of allergen-induced airway inflammation] -- [http://intimm.oxfordjournals.org/content/16/4/585.long Full text] | [http://intimm.oxfordjournals.org/content/16/4/585.full.pdf PDF]
 
* 2004 Apr [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15039389 Helminth infection modulates the development of allergen-induced airway inflammation] -- [http://intimm.oxfordjournals.org/content/16/4/585.long Full text] | [http://intimm.oxfordjournals.org/content/16/4/585.full.pdf PDF]
 
* 2004 Mar [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15279624 Inhibition of neutrophil recruitment by ES of Nippostrongylus brasiliensis] -- [http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.0141-9838.2004.00692.x/full Full text] | [http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.0141-9838.2004.00692.x/epdf PDF]
 
* 2004 Mar [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15279624 Inhibition of neutrophil recruitment by ES of Nippostrongylus brasiliensis] -- [http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.0141-9838.2004.00692.x/full Full text] | [http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.0141-9838.2004.00692.x/epdf PDF]
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* 2004 Feb [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14755073 Helminth infections and allergic diseases: from the Th2 paradigm to regulatory networks]
 
* 2004 Feb [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14755073 Helminth infections and allergic diseases: from the Th2 paradigm to regulatory networks]
 
* 2004 Jan [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14684583 Concurrent infection with Schistosoma mansoni attenuates inflammation induced changes in colonic morphology, cytokine levels, and smooth muscle contractility of trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid induced colitis in rats] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1773910/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1773910/pdf/gut05300099.pdf PDF]
 
* 2004 Jan [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14684583 Concurrent infection with Schistosoma mansoni attenuates inflammation induced changes in colonic morphology, cytokine levels, and smooth muscle contractility of trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid induced colitis in rats] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1773910/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1773910/pdf/gut05300099.pdf PDF]
* 2004 Jan [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14723608 Review article: helminths as therapeutic agents for inflammatory bowel disease]
+
* 2004 Jan [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14723608 Review article: helminths as therapeutic agents for inflammatory bowel disease] (IBD)
 
* 2004 Jan [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14684567 Helminths and harmony] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1773927/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1773927/pdf/gut05300007.pdf PDF](Pages 7-9)
 
* 2004 Jan [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14684567 Helminths and harmony] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1773927/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1773927/pdf/gut05300007.pdf PDF](Pages 7-9)
 +
 
=== 2003 ===
 
=== 2003 ===
 
* 2003 Sept [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12933842 Schistosomiasis decreases central nervous system inflammation and alters the progression of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC187318/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC187318/pdf/0223.pdf PDF]
 
* 2003 Sept [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12933842 Schistosomiasis decreases central nervous system inflammation and alters the progression of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC187318/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC187318/pdf/0223.pdf PDF]
* ✅ 2003 Sept [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14499784 Trichuris suis seems to be safe and possibly effective in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease] This trial showed that pig whipworm ova (TSO) can reduce symptoms of Crohn’s disease without producing side effects.
+
* ✅ 2003 Sept [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14499784 Trichuris suis seems to be safe and possibly effective in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease] (IBD) This trial showed that pig whipworm ova (TSO) can reduce symptoms of Crohn’s disease without producing side effects.
 
* 2003 Sept [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12949497 Immune regulation by helminth parasites: cellular and molecular mechanisms]
 
* 2003 Sept [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12949497 Immune regulation by helminth parasites: cellular and molecular mechanisms]
 +
* 2003 Aug 15 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12902519 A Novel Therapeutic Approach Targeting Articular Inflammation Using the Filarial Nematode-Derived Phosphorylcholine-Containing Glycoprotein ES-62] --  [http://www.jimmunol.org/content/171/4/2127.long PDF]
 
* 2003 May [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12743563 Reduced risk of atopy among school-age children infected with geohelminth parasites in a rural area of the tropics]
 
* 2003 May [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12743563 Reduced risk of atopy among school-age children infected with geohelminth parasites in a rural area of the tropics]
 
 
* 2003 May [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12731071 Schistosoma mansoni antigens modulate the activity of the innate immune response and prevent onset of type 1 diabetes] -- [http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/eji.200323910/full Full text] | [http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/eji.200323910/epdf PDF]
 
* 2003 May [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12731071 Schistosoma mansoni antigens modulate the activity of the innate immune response and prevent onset of type 1 diabetes] -- [http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/eji.200323910/full Full text] | [http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/eji.200323910/epdf PDF]
 
* 2003 Mar 1 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12431903 Exposure to schistosome eggs protects mice from TNBS-induced colitis] -- [http://ajpgi.physiology.org/content/284/3/G385 Full text] | [http://ajpgi.physiology.org/content/ajpgi/284/3/G385.full.pdf PDF]
 
* 2003 Mar 1 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12431903 Exposure to schistosome eggs protects mice from TNBS-induced colitis] -- [http://ajpgi.physiology.org/content/284/3/G385 Full text] | [http://ajpgi.physiology.org/content/ajpgi/284/3/G385.full.pdf PDF]
 
* 2003 Jan [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12502726 Immunomodulation of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by helminth ova immunization] -- [http://intimm.oxfordjournals.org/content/15/1/59.long Full text] | [http://intimm.oxfordjournals.org/content/15/1/59.full.pdf PDF]
 
* 2003 Jan [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12502726 Immunomodulation of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by helminth ova immunization] -- [http://intimm.oxfordjournals.org/content/15/1/59.long Full text] | [http://intimm.oxfordjournals.org/content/15/1/59.full.pdf PDF]
 +
 
=== 2002 ===
 
=== 2002 ===
 
* ✅ 2002 Nov [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12379667 Intestinal nematode infection ameliorates experimental colitis in mice] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC130294/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC130294/pdf/0150.pdf PDF]
 
* ✅ 2002 Nov [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12379667 Intestinal nematode infection ameliorates experimental colitis in mice] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC130294/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC130294/pdf/0150.pdf PDF]
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* 2001 Oct [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11585781 Immune responses in hookworm infections] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC89000/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC89000/pdf/cm0401000689.pdf PDF]
 
* 2001 Oct [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11585781 Immune responses in hookworm infections] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC89000/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC89000/pdf/cm0401000689.pdf PDF]
 
* 2001 Jul [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11429321 Th2 responses without atopy: immunoregulation in chronic helminth infections and reduced allergic disease]
 
* 2001 Jul [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11429321 Th2 responses without atopy: immunoregulation in chronic helminth infections and reduced allergic disease]
* 2001 Apr [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11282505 Is Necator americanus approaching a mutualistic symbiotic relationship with humans?]
+
* 2001 Apr [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11282505 Is Necator americanus approaching a mutualistic symbiotic relationship with humans?] (NA)
  
 
=== 2000 ===
 
=== 2000 ===
 
* 2000 Nov 18 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11095260 Decreased atopy in children infected with Schistosoma haematobium: a role for parasite-induced interleukin-10]
 
* 2000 Nov 18 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11095260 Decreased atopy in children infected with Schistosoma haematobium: a role for parasite-induced interleukin-10]
 
* ✅ 2000 Oct 15 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11032865 Chronic immune activation associated with intestinal helminth infections results in impaired signal transduction and anergy] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC314342/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC314342/pdf/JCI0010182.pdf PDF] This Research found reduced immune responses in patients infected with helminths.
 
* ✅ 2000 Oct 15 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11032865 Chronic immune activation associated with intestinal helminth infections results in impaired signal transduction and anergy] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC314342/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC314342/pdf/JCI0010182.pdf PDF] This Research found reduced immune responses in patients infected with helminths.
* ✅ 2000 Sept 14 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10973934 Does the failure to acquire helminthic parasites predispose to Crohn's disease?] -- [http://www.fasebj.org/content/14/12/1848.long Full text] | [http://www.fasebj.org/content/14/12/1848.full.pdf PDF] This paper linking a failure to acquire helminths to the prevalence of Crohn’s disease was key in the development of
+
* ✅ 2000 Sept 14 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10973934 Does the failure to acquire helminthic parasites predispose to Crohn's disease?] -- [http://www.fasebj.org/content/14/12/1848.long Full text] | [http://www.fasebj.org/content/14/12/1848.full.pdf PDF] This paper linking a failure to acquire helminths to the prevalence of Crohn’s disease was key in the development of the Hygiene Hypothesis.
the Hygiene Hypothesis.
 
 
* 2000 May [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10784608 Antigen-specific cellular hyporesponsiveness in a chronic human helminth infection is mediated by T(h)3/T(r)1-type cytokines IL-10 and transforming growth factor-beta but not by a T(h)1 to T(h)2 shift] -- [http://intimm.oxfordjournals.org/content/12/5/623.long Full text] | [http://intimm.oxfordjournals.org/content/12/5/623.full.pdf PDF]
 
* 2000 May [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10784608 Antigen-specific cellular hyporesponsiveness in a chronic human helminth infection is mediated by T(h)3/T(r)1-type cytokines IL-10 and transforming growth factor-beta but not by a T(h)1 to T(h)2 shift] -- [http://intimm.oxfordjournals.org/content/12/5/623.long Full text] | [http://intimm.oxfordjournals.org/content/12/5/623.full.pdf PDF]
 +
* 2000 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2560630/pdf/11143198.pdf Eradication of helminthic infections may be essential for successful vaccination against HIV and tuberculosis] 
 +
 
=== 1999 ===
 
=== 1999 ===
 
* 1999 Apr [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10320614 Infection with Schistosoma mansoni prevents insulin dependent diabetes mellitus in non-obese diabetic mice] -- [http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1046/j.1365-3024.1999.00213.x/epdf PDF]
 
* 1999 Apr [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10320614 Infection with Schistosoma mansoni prevents insulin dependent diabetes mellitus in non-obese diabetic mice] -- [http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1046/j.1365-3024.1999.00213.x/epdf PDF]
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=== 1992 ===
 
=== 1992 ===
 +
* 1992 Aug [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1399239 The partial characterization of proteases present in the excretory/secretory products and exsheathing fluid of the infective (L3) larva of Necator americanus] (NA)
 
* 1992 May 15 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1533656 Infection with Schistosoma mansoni alters Th1/Th2 cytokine responses to a non-parasite antigen]
 
* 1992 May 15 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1533656 Infection with Schistosoma mansoni alters Th1/Th2 cytokine responses to a non-parasite antigen]
  
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=== 1987 ===
 
=== 1987 ===
* 1987 Jul [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3605493/ The clinical and immunologic responses of normal human volunteers to low dose hookworm (Necator americanus) infection]
+
* 1987 Jul [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3605493/ The clinical and immunologic responses of normal human volunteers to low dose hookworm (Necator americanus) infection] (NA)
  
 
=== 1982 ===
 
=== 1982 ===
 
* 1982 Jul Modulation of immune responses by commensal bacteria and intestinal helminth [http://e-collection.library.ethz.ch/eserv/eth:5334/eth-5334-02.pdf PDF]
 
* 1982 Jul Modulation of immune responses by commensal bacteria and intestinal helminth [http://e-collection.library.ethz.ch/eserv/eth:5334/eth-5334-02.pdf PDF]
 
=== 1979 ===  
 
=== 1979 ===  
* ✅ [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/447497 Epidemiology of chronic intestinal disease in middle Africa] This was one of several papers noting a North-South gradient for many autoimmune diseases, including Crohn’s, a fact that informed later studies on autoimmunity.
+
* ✅ 1979 Apr [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/447497 Epidemiology of chronic intestinal disease in middle Africa] This was one of several papers noting a North-South gradient for many autoimmune diseases, including Crohn’s, a fact that informed later studies on autoimmunity.
 +
 
 
=== 1978 ===
 
=== 1978 ===
* [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/635980 Antibody responses in self-infections with Necator americanus]
+
* 1978 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/635980 Antibody responses in self-infections with Necator americanus] (NA)
 +
 
 
=== 1976 ===
 
=== 1976 ===
* ✅ Sept 25 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/60540 Letter: IgE, parasites, and allergy] This reported the first known case of successful helminthic therapy in which colonisation with Necator americanus was shown to resolve hay fever.
+
* ✅ 1976 Sept 25 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/60540 Letter: IgE, parasites, and allergy] This paper reported the first known case of successful helminthic therapy in which colonisation with Necator americanus was shown to resolve hay fever. (NA)
 +
* ✅ 1976 Aug [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/987744 Serum IgE levels in white and metis communities in Saskatchewan] This paper's author suggested that atopic disease is the price paid by some members of the white community of  northern Saskatchewan for their relative freedom from helminth infestation and viral and bacterial infection.
 +
 
 +
=== 1968 ===
 +
* ✅ 1968 Aug 17 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4174413 Autoimmune disease and parasitic infections in Nigerians] The author of this paper suggested a possible relationship between parasitic infections and the reduced incidence of autoimmune disease in parts of tropical Africa.
 
=== 1932 ===
 
=== 1932 ===
* ✅ [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10828911 Regional ileitis: a pathologic and clinical entity] Disease charcterised by inflammation of the terminal ileum was first described in this paper. This condition was later to become known as Crohn’s disease.
+
* ✅ 1932 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10828911 Regional ileitis: a pathologic and clinical entity] Disease charcterised by inflammation of the terminal ileum was first described in this paper. This condition was later to become known as Crohn’s disease.
 +
 
 +
== Take part in the research ==
 +
 
 +
===Socio-medical research at Duke University===
 +
 
 +
The researchers at Duke have previously reported on data they have already gathered.
 +
 
 +
* [http://www.yourwildlife.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/galley-proof-v2.pdf Overcoming Evolutionary Mismatch by Self-Treatment with Helminths: Current Practices and Experience] (PDF)
 +
* [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27240605 Practices and outcomes of self-treatment with helminths based on physicians' observations] -- [[media:Practices_and_outcomes_of_self-treatment_with_helminths_based_on_physicians_observations.pdf | PDF]]
 +
 
 +
The team at Duke are now looking for details about the use of helminthic therapy to treat those conditions for which helminths are less commonly employed, such as lupus, migraine headaches and neuropsychiatric disorders. If you have used helminthic therapy to treat one of these conditions, and whether or not this proved successful, please consider completing the [[Helminth self-treatment survey | Helminth Self-treatment Survey]].
 +
 
 +
== Support the research by donation ==
 +
 
 +
The vast majority of research into the effects of helminths is being carried out by researchers aiming to discover worm-derived molecules that can potentially be used to create drugs, and this work is already well funded by agencies hoping to benefit from the patents and sales which it is anticipated will follow in the wake of successful drug discovery.
 +
 
 +
Far less well funded is the research into the use and effects of live helminths, and their development for mass application in both the treatment and prevention of autoimmune, inflammatory, metabolic and allergic diseases, including neuropsychiatric conditions.
 +
 
 +
This latter work is being spearheaded by Prof William Parker and his team at Duke University, the progress of which is dependent on finance being found for each step they take - finance which is hard to secure from the usual sources due to the perceived lack of potential profits. 
 +
 
 +
At the present time, the team at Duke have two main goals for their helminthic therapy research.
 +
 
 +
* Writing papers, including reviews, commentaries, and policy briefs about helminthic therapy. In particular, they want to push for change in the landscape of the field to get helminths repositioned away from the modern drug pipeline, which is unsuitable and impractical for helminthic therapy. The Duke team would also like to be able to provide evidence to encourage governments to focus on the ultimate causes of diseases rather than on applying ‘sticking plasters’ to patch up sick people, and to concentrate on disease prevention - especially by means of biota restoration - rather than on the use of expensive pharmaceuticals.  
  
{{Expando}}
+
* Continuing to pursue the traditional pathway, for example, by seeking approval from the FDA for trials with HDCs.
  
== Take part in the research ==
+
Donations are needed to support this work at Duke, and even small amounts will make a difference. For example, $50 will go a long way towards covering the cost of publishing a scientific paper. $500 will help towards supporting a summer intern working on the HDC project. $5,000 would cover the supply costs of the HDC project for five months. $10,000 could pay for a study in an animal model, for example testing the idea that helminths may help with wound healing. (This is something the team at Duke believe, based on available information, that helminths probably do, but which has not yet been tested. If the hypothesis were shown to be correct, this would provide a huge push forward for the field of wound care.)
  
If you have used helminths to treat one of the conditions for which they have been less commonly employed, such as lupus, migraine headaches or a neuropsychiatric disorder, and whether or not this has proved successful, please consider taking part in the [[Helminth self-treatment survey | Helminth Self-treatment Survey]].
+
Anyone wishing to donate by cheque should make this out either to "Duke University Medical Center", with "for William Parker's HT research" in the memo, or to "William Parker", with "Immunity's Forge" in the memo. The [http://www.immunitysforge.org/about/ Immunity’s Forge art studio] website is also set up to take donations by credit card via a [https://secure.squarespace.com/commerce/donate?donatePageId=545d2c86e4b081b329698faf donation page]. Either of these approaches will ensure that the money donated will be spent on helminthic therapy research and not on one of the other projects being pursued by Parker’s lab, such as the autism/acetaminophen project. Both the medical centre and the art studio are registered non-profit organisations, so donations to either are tax deductible for US citizens.
  
 
== Further reading ==
 
== Further reading ==
These pages contain more research papers & articles
+
These pages contain further research papers and articles relevant to each page title.
  
* [[Helminths and the gut microbiota]]
+
* [[Helminths and the gut microbiota | '''Helminths and the gut microbiota''']]
 +
* [[Deworming debunked | '''Deworming debunked''']]
 +
* [[Helminthic therapy for well people | '''Helminthic therapy for well people''']]

Revision as of 03:52, 26 May 2020

Home>Helminthic therapy research

This page lists over 700 papers and reports of scientific studies relating to helminthic therapyThe reintroduction to the digestive tract of a controlled number of specially domesticated, mutualistic helminths (intestinal worms) in the form of microscopic eggs or larvae to reconstitute a depleted biome to treat and prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy. and closely associated topics such as the Hygiene Hypothesis, the Old Friends' Hypothesis, Evolutionary Mismatch Theory and Biome Depletion Theory / Biota Alteration Theory.

There are four organisms being used currently in helminthic therapyThe reintroduction to the digestive tract of a controlled number of specially domesticated, mutualistic helminths (intestinal worms) in the form of microscopic eggs or larvae to reconstitute a depleted biome to treat and prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy..

  • Human hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin., Necator americanus (NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus)
  • Human whipwormA helminth with a tapering whiplike body that lives in the colon. In helminthic therapy, the microscopic eggs of either the human Trichuris trichiura (TTO) or pig Trichuris suis (TSO) are taken in a drink., Trichuris trichiura (TTOthe ova (eggs) of the human whipworm, Trichuris trichiura)
  • Pig whipwormA helminth with a tapering whiplike body that lives in the colon. In helminthic therapy, the microscopic eggs of either the human Trichuris trichiura (TTO) or pig Trichuris suis (TSO) are taken in a drink., Trichuris suis (TSOthe ova (eggs) of the porcine (pig) whipworm, Trichuris suis)
  • Rat tapewormA helminth with a flat, ribbon-like, segmented body. Only the murine (rat) tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta, is used in helminthic therapy and this generally does not reach adulthood in humans so requires regular dosing of HDC., Hymenolepis diminuta (HDCHymenolepis diminuta cysticercoids (Hi-men-o-lep'is dim-a-nu-ta sis-ti-sur-koid) - the larval cysts of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta)

Some of the reports and papers listed below have focussed on the effects of other species of helminthAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths], or molecules derived from them, but all are nevertheless valuable for the insights they provide about the therapeutic and prophylactic effects of helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths].

Unless otherwise stated, the main links are to PubMed abstracts, with additional inks to full text and PDF copies, if available. Where free full text copies are not accessible via PubMed, these can usually be obtained from other sources such as Sci-Hub, or the Facebook group, Get Your Papers. Further papers on helminthic therapyThe reintroduction to the digestive tract of a controlled number of specially domesticated, mutualistic helminths (intestinal worms) in the form of microscopic eggs or larvae to reconstitute a depleted biome to treat and prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy. can be found by searching PubMed, which carries almost all of the scientific papers written on this subject.

What researchers say about helminthic therapyThe reintroduction to the digestive tract of a controlled number of specially domesticated, mutualistic helminths (intestinal worms) in the form of microscopic eggs or larvae to reconstitute a depleted biome to treat and prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy.

The following quotes illustrate the current thinking among researchers who are investigating the therapeutic use of living helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths].

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Although some helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] are known to cause disease and have been labeled parasitesAn organism that lives in or on another organism (its host) and benefits at the host’s expense. (The organisms used in helminthic therapy are, strictly speaking, not parasites, but mutualists, because they have a mutually beneficial symbiotic relationship with their hosts.), it is now clear that some exposure to this class of organisms is necessary for human health. (Bono-Lunn et al) [1]
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The results strongly support previous indications that helminth therapyThe reintroduction to the digestive tract of a controlled number of specially domesticated, mutualistic helminths (intestinal worms) in the form of microscopic eggs or larvae to reconstitute a depleted biome to treat and prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy. can effectively treat a wide range of allergies, autoimmune conditions and neuropsychiatric disorders. (Liu et al) [2]
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What was a costly and sometimes risky venture into the unknown, undertaken by only a few 10 years ago, is rapidly becoming a readily available and well-established resource currently used by thousands of individuals. (Cheng et al, 2015) [3]
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In developed countries, where we are well nourished, worms are potentially good. If I had Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitisUlcerative colitis (Colitis ulcerosa, UC) is a form of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) which specifically affects the large intestine, or colon, causing characteristic ulcers, or open sores. The main symptom of active disease is constant diarrhea mixed with blood, of gradual onset. or multiple sclerosis, I would infect myself without hesitation. (Prof Alex Loukas, Australian Institute of Tropical Health & Medicine) [4]
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All immunocompetent humans need regular exposure to helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] in order to maintain optimal immune function and avoid risk for inflammation-associated disease… access to helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] is a basic human need. (Smyth et al) [5]
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We need to embrace the view that helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] are a necessary component of the ecosystem of a healthy body, and that helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] should be cultivated for population-wide biota restoration. (Villeneuve et al) [6]
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Biome reconstitution… holds a promise for exposure of all individuals to naturally occurring organisms or selected variants of those organisms in a way that is required for human health. Such exposure must be considered a fundamental human right worthy of government support rather than an option for pharmaceutical development. (Parker and Ollerton) [7]
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In some not too distant futurity, there may come a day when we all take ‘helminth supplements’ along with our Omega 3 fatty acids, vitamins, and whatever else goes to make up a modern balanced diet. (Zaccone et al) [8]
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Twenty years from now everybody is going to have a helminthAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths], and no insurance company will begin to cover you if you don’t have your helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths]. We’re very confident in the science, that every single human being needs a helminthAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths]. It’s part of our biology. (Prof William Parker, Duke University, 2016) [9]

Reading packet

These selected papers provide a good overview of the potential of helminthic therapyThe reintroduction to the digestive tract of a controlled number of specially domesticated, mutualistic helminths (intestinal worms) in the form of microscopic eggs or larvae to reconstitute a depleted biome to treat and prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy. and would be suitable resources to include in a reading packet to be given to a doctor or someone who is unaware of the evidence and rationale for helminthic therapyThe reintroduction to the digestive tract of a controlled number of specially domesticated, mutualistic helminths (intestinal worms) in the form of microscopic eggs or larvae to reconstitute a depleted biome to treat and prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy.. The first two papers provide validation for the practice of self-treatmentMedication or treatment of one's own disease or condition without medical assistance. with helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths].

  • Overcoming Evolutionary Mismatch by Self-Treatment with Helminths: Current Practices and Experience (2015)
    This study probes the methods and outcomes reported by individuals who are self-treating with helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] and is an ideal basis for discussion between patients and their physicians.
  • Helminth–host immunological interactions: prevention and control of immune-mediated diseases (2012)
    Summarises the science underpinning helminthic therapyThe reintroduction to the digestive tract of a controlled number of specially domesticated, mutualistic helminths (intestinal worms) in the form of microscopic eggs or larvae to reconstitute a depleted biome to treat and prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy..

Research papers & articles

Tips for searching the list

Symbols used in the list of documents:

  • ✅ - A key paper/report in the development of the therapeutic use of helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths]
  • ⚡ - A good place to start if you are new to helminthic therapyThe reintroduction to the digestive tract of a controlled number of specially domesticated, mutualistic helminths (intestinal worms) in the form of microscopic eggs or larvae to reconstitute a depleted biome to treat and prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy., or if you are looking for resources that would help someone else to understand the therapy.

If you are interested in helminthic therapyThe reintroduction to the digestive tract of a controlled number of specially domesticated, mutualistic helminths (intestinal worms) in the form of microscopic eggs or larvae to reconstitute a depleted biome to treat and prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy. in relation to a particular medical condition, use your device’s search function to locate the items that are relevant to that disease. Several conditions will require the use of more than one search term, for example:

  • Allergies - search for “allerg”, “atopy” and “anaphylaxis”
  • Anemia - search for “anemia” and “anaemia”
  • Arthritis - search for ”arthrit” and “joint”
  • Asthma - search for “asthma”, “airway” and “wheeze”
  • Autism - search for “autism” and “ASD”
  • Celiac disease - search for “celiac” and “coeliac”
  • Crohn’s disease - search for “Crohn”, “bowel” and “IBDInflammatory bowel disease is a group of conditions affecting the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, particularly the colon and small intestine. The major types of IBD are Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis (UC).
  • Diabetes - search for “diabet”, “insulin”, “glucose” and “metabolic”
  • Heart disease - search for “cardio” and “atherosclerosis”
  • Inflammation - search for “inflam”
  • Leaky gut - search for “barrier”
  • Multiple sclerosis - search for “multiple sclerosis” rather than “MSMultiple sclerosis (also known as disseminated sclerosis) is a chronic, typically progressive disease involving damage to the sheaths of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord, whose symptoms may include numbness, impairment of speech and of muscular coordination, blurred vision and severe fatigue.
  • Obesity - search for “obes” and “adipose”
  • Pregnancy - search for “preg” and “mater”
  • Ulcerative colitisUlcerative colitis (Colitis ulcerosa, UC) is a form of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) which specifically affects the large intestine, or colon, causing characteristic ulcers, or open sores. The main symptom of active disease is constant diarrhea mixed with blood, of gradual onset. - search for “colitis”, “bowel” and “IBDInflammatory bowel disease is a group of conditions affecting the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, particularly the colon and small intestine. The major types of IBD are Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis (UC).

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  • 2019 Oct 24 Tuftsin-phosphorylcholine attenuate experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (MSMultiple sclerosis (also known as disseminated sclerosis) is a chronic, typically progressive disease involving damage to the sheaths of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord, whose symptoms may include numbness, impairment of speech and of muscular coordination, blurred vision and severe fatigue.)
  • 2019 Jan 9 Cross-Domain and Viral Interactions in the Microbiome (Includes a 10-page section on microbiotaThe specific population of microorganisms living in a certain part of the body, such as the gut. "Microbiome" refers to all the microorganisms living in and on the body, or the genome of these microorganisms. These two terms are often used interchangeably./helminth interactions and their effects on immune function.)

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  • 1982 Jul Modulation of immune responses by commensalCommensalism is a relationship between two organisms where one benefits from the other without affecting it. bacteria and intestinal helminth PDF

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  • ✅ 1976 Sept 25 Letter: IgE, parasites, and allergy This paper reported the first known case of successful helminthic therapyThe reintroduction to the digestive tract of a controlled number of specially domesticated, mutualistic helminths (intestinal worms) in the form of microscopic eggs or larvae to reconstitute a depleted biome to treat and prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy. in which colonisation with Necator americanusThe species of human hookworm used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. was shown to resolve hay fever. (NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus)
  • ✅ 1976 Aug Serum IgE levels in white and metis communities in Saskatchewan This paper's author suggested that atopic disease is the price paid by some members of the white community of northern Saskatchewan for their relative freedom from helminth infestation and viral and bacterial infection.

1968

  • ✅ 1968 Aug 17 Autoimmune disease and parasitic infections in Nigerians The author of this paper suggested a possible relationship between parasiticAn organism that lives in or on another organism (its host) and benefits at the host’s expense. (The organisms used in helminthic therapy are, strictly speaking, not parasites, but mutualists, because they have a mutually beneficial symbiotic relationship with their hosts.) infections and the reduced incidence of autoimmune disease in parts of tropical Africa.

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Take part in the research

Socio-medical research at Duke University

The researchers at Duke have previously reported on data they have already gathered.

The team at Duke are now looking for details about the use of helminthic therapyThe reintroduction to the digestive tract of a controlled number of specially domesticated, mutualistic helminths (intestinal worms) in the form of microscopic eggs or larvae to reconstitute a depleted biome to treat and prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy. to treat those conditions for which helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] are less commonly employed, such as lupus, migraine headaches and neuropsychiatric disorders. If you have used helminthic therapyThe reintroduction to the digestive tract of a controlled number of specially domesticated, mutualistic helminths (intestinal worms) in the form of microscopic eggs or larvae to reconstitute a depleted biome to treat and prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy. to treat one of these conditions, and whether or not this proved successful, please consider completing the Helminth Self-treatment Survey.

Support the research by donation

The vast majority of research into the effects of helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] is being carried out by researchers aiming to discover worm-derived molecules that can potentially be used to create drugs, and this work is already well funded by agencies hoping to benefit from the patents and sales which it is anticipated will follow in the wake of successful drug discovery.

Far less well funded is the research into the use and effects of live helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths], and their development for mass application in both the treatment and prevention of autoimmune, inflammatory, metabolic and allergic diseases, including neuropsychiatric conditions.

This latter work is being spearheaded by Prof William Parker and his team at Duke University, the progress of which is dependent on finance being found for each step they take - finance which is hard to secure from the usual sources due to the perceived lack of potential profits.

At the present time, the team at Duke have two main goals for their helminthic therapyThe reintroduction to the digestive tract of a controlled number of specially domesticated, mutualistic helminths (intestinal worms) in the form of microscopic eggs or larvae to reconstitute a depleted biome to treat and prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy. research.

  • Writing papers, including reviews, commentaries, and policy briefs about helminthic therapyThe reintroduction to the digestive tract of a controlled number of specially domesticated, mutualistic helminths (intestinal worms) in the form of microscopic eggs or larvae to reconstitute a depleted biome to treat and prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy.. In particular, they want to push for change in the landscape of the field to get helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] repositioned away from the modern drug pipeline, which is unsuitable and impractical for helminthic therapyThe reintroduction to the digestive tract of a controlled number of specially domesticated, mutualistic helminths (intestinal worms) in the form of microscopic eggs or larvae to reconstitute a depleted biome to treat and prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy.. The Duke team would also like to be able to provide evidence to encourage governments to focus on the ultimate causes of diseases rather than on applying ‘sticking plasters’ to patch up sick people, and to concentrate on disease prevention - especially by means of biota restoration - rather than on the use of expensive pharmaceuticals.
  • Continuing to pursue the traditional pathway, for example, by seeking approval from the FDA for trials with HDCsHymenolepis diminuta cysticercoids (Hi-men-o-lep'is dim-a-nu-ta sis-ti-sur-koid) - the larval cysts of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta.

Donations are needed to support this work at Duke, and even small amounts will make a difference. For example, $50 will go a long way towards covering the cost of publishing a scientific paper. $500 will help towards supporting a summer intern working on the HDCHymenolepis diminuta cysticercoids (Hi-men-o-lep'is dim-a-nu-ta sis-ti-sur-koid) - the larval cysts of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta project. $5,000 would cover the supply costs of the HDCHymenolepis diminuta cysticercoids (Hi-men-o-lep'is dim-a-nu-ta sis-ti-sur-koid) - the larval cysts of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta project for five months. $10,000 could pay for a study in an animal model, for example testing the idea that helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] may help with wound healing. (This is something the team at Duke believe, based on available information, that helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] probably do, but which has not yet been tested. If the hypothesis were shown to be correct, this would provide a huge push forward for the field of wound care.)

Anyone wishing to donate by cheque should make this out either to "Duke University Medical Center", with "for William Parker's HThelminthic therapy research" in the memo, or to "William Parker", with "Immunity's Forge" in the memo. The Immunity’s Forge art studio website is also set up to take donations by credit card via a donation page. Either of these approaches will ensure that the money donated will be spent on helminthic therapyThe reintroduction to the digestive tract of a controlled number of specially domesticated, mutualistic helminths (intestinal worms) in the form of microscopic eggs or larvae to reconstitute a depleted biome to treat and prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy. research and not on one of the other projects being pursued by Parker’s lab, such as the autism/acetaminophen project. Both the medical centre and the art studio are registered non-profit organisations, so donations to either are tax deductible for US citizens.

Further reading

These pages contain further research papers and articles relevant to each page title.