Difference between revisions of "Helminthic therapy research"

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===2020===
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* 2020 Mar 18 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32200170 Effects of the dietary fibre inulin and Trichuris suis products on inflammatory responses in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages] (TSO)
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* 2020 Mar 10 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32153025 Regulatory T cells in Helminth Infection: Induction, Function and Therapeutic Potential]
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* 2020 Mar 4 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32194529 Dietary Inulin and Trichuris suis Infection Promote Beneficial Bacteria Throughout the Porcine Gut] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7064446/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7064446/pdf/fmicb-11-00312.pdf PDF] (TSO)
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* 2020 Mar 3 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32126084 Helminth infection modulates systemic pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines implicated in type 2 diabetes mellitus pathogenesis] -- [https://journals.plos.org/plosntds/article?id=10.1371/journal.pntd.0008101 Full text]
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* 2020 Mar 2 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32135180 Helminths, polyparasitism, and the gut microbiome in the Philippines]
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* 2020 Feb 6 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32027755 IL-33 is essential to prevent high fat diet-induced obesity in mice infected with an intestinal helminth]
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* 2020 Jan-Feb [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32123528 Perspectives of People with Multiple Sclerosis About Helminth Immunotherapy] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7041615 Full text]
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* 2020 Jan 31 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32005978 The gut microbiota response to helminth infection depends on host sex and genotype]
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* 2020 Jan 24 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31976564 Wuchereria bancrofti macrophage migration inhibitory factor-2 (rWbaMIF-2) ameliorates experimental colitis]
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* 2020 Jan 23 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31971074 A critical analysis of helminth immunotherapy in multiple sclerosis]
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* 2020 Jan 16 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31954872 Suppression of systemic lupus erythematosus in NZBWF1 mice infected with Hymenolepis microstoma]
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* 2020 Jan 1 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31894102 Helminth infections drive heterogeneity in human type 2 and regulatory cells]
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* 2020 Jan [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31914677 Fasciola helminth defense molecule-1 protects against experimental arthritis by inhibiting osteoclast formation and function without modulating the systemic immune response]
  
 
===2019===  
 
===2019===  
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* 2019 Dec 26 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31888063 Immunomodulation of Murine Chronic DSS-Induced Colitis by Tuftsin-Phosphorylcholine] -- [https://www.mdpi.com/2077-0383/9/1/65/htm  Full text]
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* 2019 Dec 24 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31878146 Safety of P28GST, a Protein Derived from a Schistosome Helminth Parasite, in Patients with Crohn's Disease: A Pilot Study (ACROHNEM)] -- [https://www.mdpi.com/2077-0383/9/1/41/htm Full text]
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* 2019 Dec 19 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31885223 Toxicity of parasites and their unconventional use in medicine]
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* 2019 Dec 16 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31845020 Amelioration of type 1 diabetes by recombinant fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase and cystatin derived from Schistosoma japonicum in a murine model]
  
 
* 2019 Dec 13 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31836772 Immunomodulatory effect of Syphacia obvelata in treatment of experimental DSS-induced colitis in mouse model]  
 
* 2019 Dec 13 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31836772 Immunomodulatory effect of Syphacia obvelata in treatment of experimental DSS-induced colitis in mouse model]  
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* 2019 Jan 4 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30640950 Exclusive dependence of IL-10Rα signalling on intestinal microbiota homeostasis and control of whipworm infection] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6347331/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6347331/pdf/ppat.1007265.pdf PDF] (This study contributes to understanding of the actions of TSO and TTO on diseases such as IBD. There's a more readable summary of the research [https://www.cambridgenetwork.co.uk/news/immune-master-regulator-responses-to-parasite/?fbclid=IwAR1MMJPuhc1SmoHUF7oGDWL3VELh8cOe-f46nnbeHjPDyKTb2eBDFUmFyFM here].)
 
* 2019 Jan 4 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30640950 Exclusive dependence of IL-10Rα signalling on intestinal microbiota homeostasis and control of whipworm infection] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6347331/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6347331/pdf/ppat.1007265.pdf PDF] (This study contributes to understanding of the actions of TSO and TTO on diseases such as IBD. There's a more readable summary of the research [https://www.cambridgenetwork.co.uk/news/immune-master-regulator-responses-to-parasite/?fbclid=IwAR1MMJPuhc1SmoHUF7oGDWL3VELh8cOe-f46nnbeHjPDyKTb2eBDFUmFyFM here].)
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* 2019 Jan [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30413272 Effect of Trichinella spiralis intervention on TNBS-induced experimental colitis in mice]
  
 
* 2019 [http://www.jneuropsychiatry.org/peer-review/parasitic-worms-for-the-treatment-of-neurodegeneration-12989.html Parasitic Worms for the Treatment of Neurodegeneration] -- [http://www.jneuropsychiatry.org/peer-review/parasitic-worms-for-the-treatment-of-neurodegeneration.pdf PDF]
 
* 2019 [http://www.jneuropsychiatry.org/peer-review/parasitic-worms-for-the-treatment-of-neurodegeneration-12989.html Parasitic Worms for the Treatment of Neurodegeneration] -- [http://www.jneuropsychiatry.org/peer-review/parasitic-worms-for-the-treatment-of-neurodegeneration.pdf PDF]
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* 2017 Dec 7 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29224909  Hygiene Hypothesis in Asthma Development: Is Hygiene to Blame?]
 
* 2017 Dec 7 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29224909  Hygiene Hypothesis in Asthma Development: Is Hygiene to Blame?]
 
* 2017 Nov 29 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29238348 The Mannose Receptor in Regulation of Helminth-Mediated Host Immunity] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5712593/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5712593/pdf/fimmu-08-01677.pdf PDF]
 
* 2017 Nov 29 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29238348 The Mannose Receptor in Regulation of Helminth-Mediated Host Immunity] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5712593/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5712593/pdf/fimmu-08-01677.pdf PDF]
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* 2017 Nov 28 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29184071 Preventive Trichuris suis ova (TSO) treatment protects immunocompetent rabbits from DSS colitis but may be detrimental under conditions of immunosuppression] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5705695/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5705695/pdf/41598_2017_Article_16287.pdf PDF]
 
* 2017 Nov 24 [https://medicalxpress.com/news/2017-11-discovery-potent-parasite-protein-therapeutic.html Discovery of potent parasite protein may lead to new therapeutic options for inflammatory bowel conditions] Medical News Today (IBD)
 
* 2017 Nov 24 [https://medicalxpress.com/news/2017-11-discovery-potent-parasite-protein-therapeutic.html Discovery of potent parasite protein may lead to new therapeutic options for inflammatory bowel conditions] Medical News Today (IBD)
 
* 2017 Nov 24 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29171863 Schistosoma mansoni-specific immune responses and allergy in Uganda]
 
* 2017 Nov 24 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29171863 Schistosoma mansoni-specific immune responses and allergy in Uganda]
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* 2015 Nov [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25698173 Trichuris suis ova therapy in relapsing multiple sclerosis is safe but without signals of beneficial effect] This study used a treatment period of only 12 weeks, which is inadequate when assessing the efficacy of helminths, and it also used a novel TSO formulation with a pH of 5, when it is known that storage of TSO at a pH above 4 may impede its therapeutic effect in humans. [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28720335] The conclusions drawn by the authors of this study about the efficacy of TSO are therefore not reliable.  
 
* 2015 Nov [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25698173 Trichuris suis ova therapy in relapsing multiple sclerosis is safe but without signals of beneficial effect] This study used a treatment period of only 12 weeks, which is inadequate when assessing the efficacy of helminths, and it also used a novel TSO formulation with a pH of 5, when it is known that storage of TSO at a pH above 4 may impede its therapeutic effect in humans. [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28720335] The conclusions drawn by the authors of this study about the efficacy of TSO are therefore not reliable.  
 
* 2015 Nov [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26586763 Helminth infection, fecundity, and age of first pregnancy in women] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5953513/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5953513/pdf/nihms961168.pdf PDF] (Also see [[Helminthic therapy and fertility | '''Helminthic therapy and fertility''']].)
 
* 2015 Nov [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26586763 Helminth infection, fecundity, and age of first pregnancy in women] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5953513/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5953513/pdf/nihms961168.pdf PDF] (Also see [[Helminthic therapy and fertility | '''Helminthic therapy and fertility''']].)
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* 2015 Nov [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26332354 Adoptive transfer of helminth antigen-pulsed dendritic cells protects against the development of experimental colitis in mice] -- [https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/eji.201545579 Full text] | [https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1002/eji.201545579 PDF] (HDC)
 
* 2015 Oct 27 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26522986 The Intestinal Microbiota Contributes to the Ability of Helminths to Modulate Allergic Inflammation] -- [http://www.cell.com/immunity/fulltext/S1074-7613(15)00397-0 Full text] | [http://www.cell.com/immunity/pdf/S1074-7613(15)00397-0.pdf PDF]
 
* 2015 Oct 27 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26522986 The Intestinal Microbiota Contributes to the Ability of Helminths to Modulate Allergic Inflammation] -- [http://www.cell.com/immunity/fulltext/S1074-7613(15)00397-0 Full text] | [http://www.cell.com/immunity/pdf/S1074-7613(15)00397-0.pdf PDF]
 
* 2015 Oct 8 [http://onlinelibrary.ectrims-congress.eu/ectrims/2015/31st/115556/jorge.correale.il-35.is.a.critical.regulator.of.immunity.during.helminth.html?f=p6m3e891o11465 IL-35 is a critical regulator of immunity during helminth infections associated with multiple sclerosis]
 
* 2015 Oct 8 [http://onlinelibrary.ectrims-congress.eu/ectrims/2015/31st/115556/jorge.correale.il-35.is.a.critical.regulator.of.immunity.during.helminth.html?f=p6m3e891o11465 IL-35 is a critical regulator of immunity during helminth infections associated with multiple sclerosis]
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* 2015 Feb [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25547076 Helminthes and insects: maladies or therapies]
 
* 2015 Feb [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25547076 Helminthes and insects: maladies or therapies]
 
* 2015 Feb [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25248819 Experimental hookworm infection and gluten microchallenge promote tolerance in celiac disease] -- [http://www.jacionline.org/article/S0091-6749(14)01010-0/fulltext Full text] | [http://www.jacionline.org/article/S0091-6749(14)01010-0/pdf PDF] (Also reported by EurekAlert and ABC Austrailia. [https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2014-09/jcu-aws092414.php] [http://www.abc.net.au/news/2014-09-25/hookworms-coeliac-disease-research/5768732])
 
* 2015 Feb [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25248819 Experimental hookworm infection and gluten microchallenge promote tolerance in celiac disease] -- [http://www.jacionline.org/article/S0091-6749(14)01010-0/fulltext Full text] | [http://www.jacionline.org/article/S0091-6749(14)01010-0/pdf PDF] (Also reported by EurekAlert and ABC Austrailia. [https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2014-09/jcu-aws092414.php] [http://www.abc.net.au/news/2014-09-25/hookworms-coeliac-disease-research/5768732])
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* 2015 Feb [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25174866 Worms as therapeutic agents for allergy and asthma: understanding why benefits in animal studies have not translated into clinical success] -- [https://www.jacionline.org/article/S0091-6749%2814%2900960-9/fulltext Full text] | [https://www.jacionline.org/article/S0091-6749(14)00960-9/pdf PDF] 
 
* 2015 Feb [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25459578 Potential Treatments for Food Allergy]
 
* 2015 Feb [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25459578 Potential Treatments for Food Allergy]
 
* 2015 Feb [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25449677 The mechanisms behind helminth's immunomodulation in autoimmunity]
 
* 2015 Feb [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25449677 The mechanisms behind helminth's immunomodulation in autoimmunity]
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* 2011 Jun 9 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21772981 Excretory-Secretory Products from Hookworm L3 and Adult Worms Suppress Proinflammatory Cytokines in Infected Individuals] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3135091/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3135091/pdf/JPR2011-512154.pdf PDF]
 
* 2011 Jun 9 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21772981 Excretory-Secretory Products from Hookworm L3 and Adult Worms Suppress Proinflammatory Cytokines in Infected Individuals] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3135091/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3135091/pdf/JPR2011-512154.pdf PDF]
 
* 2011 Jun [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21610741 Diversity and dialogue in immunity to helminths]
 
* 2011 Jun [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21610741 Diversity and dialogue in immunity to helminths]
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* 2011 Jun [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21372112 Probiotic helminth administration in relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis: a phase 1 study] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3894910/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3894910/pdf/nihms536054.pdf PDF]
 
* 2011 May 12 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21576944 Atopic dermatitis and the hygiene hypothesis revisited]
 
* 2011 May 12 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21576944 Atopic dermatitis and the hygiene hypothesis revisited]
 
* 2011 May 6 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21573157 Schistosome infection intensity is inversely related to auto-reactive antibody levels] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3089602/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3089602/pdf/pone.0019149.pdf PDF]
 
* 2011 May 6 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21573157 Schistosome infection intensity is inversely related to auto-reactive antibody levels] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3089602/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3089602/pdf/pone.0019149.pdf PDF]
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* 2004 Oct 13 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15486631 Schistosoma mansoni infection modulates the immune response against allergic and auto-immune diseases] -- [http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0074-02762004000900005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Full text] | [http://www.scielo.br/pdf/mioc/v99s1/v99s1a05.pdf PDF]
 
* 2004 Oct 13 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15486631 Schistosoma mansoni infection modulates the immune response against allergic and auto-immune diseases] -- [http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0074-02762004000900005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Full text] | [http://www.scielo.br/pdf/mioc/v99s1/v99s1a05.pdf PDF]
 
* 2004 Oct [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15361235 Helminth parasites--masters of regulation]
 
* 2004 Oct [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15361235 Helminth parasites--masters of regulation]
* 2004 Aug 15 [http://www.jimmunol.org/content/173/4/2699.full A Secreted Protein from the Human Hookworm Necator americanus Binds Selectively to NK Cells and Induces IFN-γ Production] -- [http://www.jimmunol.org/content/173/4/2699.full.pdf PDF] (NA)
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* 2004 Aug 15 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15294988 A Secreted Protein from the Human Hookworm Necator americanus Binds Selectively to NK Cells and Induces IFN-{gamma} Production] -- [https://www.jimmunol.org/content/173/4/2699.long Full text] |  [https://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/images/8/8a/A_Secreted_Protein.pdf PDF]
 
* 2004 Aug 1 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15265954 Schistosoma mansoni and alpha-galactosylceramide: prophylactic effect of Th1 Immune suppression in a mouse model of Graves' hyperthyroidism] -- [https://www.jimmunol.org/content/173/3/2167.long Full text] | [https://www.jimmunol.org/content/jimmunol/173/3/2167.full.pdf PDF]
 
* 2004 Aug 1 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15265954 Schistosoma mansoni and alpha-galactosylceramide: prophylactic effect of Th1 Immune suppression in a mouse model of Graves' hyperthyroidism] -- [https://www.jimmunol.org/content/173/3/2167.long Full text] | [https://www.jimmunol.org/content/jimmunol/173/3/2167.full.pdf PDF]
 
* 2004 Jul 9 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15247451 Immunotherapy. Can worms tame the immune system?]
 
* 2004 Jul 9 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15247451 Immunotherapy. Can worms tame the immune system?]
 
* 2004 Jul [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15196202 The increased prevalence of allergy and the hygiene hypothesis: missing immune deviation, reduced immune suppression, or both?] --  [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1782506/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1782506/pdf/imm0112-0352.pdf PDF]
 
* 2004 Jul [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15196202 The increased prevalence of allergy and the hygiene hypothesis: missing immune deviation, reduced immune suppression, or both?] --  [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1782506/ Full text] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1782506/pdf/imm0112-0352.pdf PDF]
* 2004 Jun [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15330453 A review of autism and the immune response] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2270714/pdf/CDI-11-165.pdf PDF]
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* 2004 Jun [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15330453 A review of autism and the immune response] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2270714/pdf/CDI-11-165.pdf PDF]
 
* 2004 Apr [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15039389 Helminth infection modulates the development of allergen-induced airway inflammation] -- [http://intimm.oxfordjournals.org/content/16/4/585.long Full text] | [http://intimm.oxfordjournals.org/content/16/4/585.full.pdf PDF]
 
* 2004 Apr [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15039389 Helminth infection modulates the development of allergen-induced airway inflammation] -- [http://intimm.oxfordjournals.org/content/16/4/585.long Full text] | [http://intimm.oxfordjournals.org/content/16/4/585.full.pdf PDF]
 
* 2004 Mar [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15279624 Inhibition of neutrophil recruitment by ES of Nippostrongylus brasiliensis] -- [http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.0141-9838.2004.00692.x/full Full text] | [http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.0141-9838.2004.00692.x/epdf PDF]
 
* 2004 Mar [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15279624 Inhibition of neutrophil recruitment by ES of Nippostrongylus brasiliensis] -- [http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.0141-9838.2004.00692.x/full Full text] | [http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.0141-9838.2004.00692.x/epdf PDF]

Revision as of 00:49, 24 March 2020

Home>Helminthic therapy research

This page lists over 700 papers and reports of scientific studies relating to helminthic therapyThe reintroduction to the digestive tract of a controlled number of specially domesticated, mutualistic helminths (intestinal worms) in the form of microscopic eggs or larvae to reconstitute a depleted biome to treat and prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy. and closely associated topics such as the Hygiene Hypothesis, the Old Friends' Hypothesis, Evolutionary Mismatch Theory and Biome Depletion Theory / Biota Alteration Theory.

There are four organisms being used currently in helminthic therapyThe reintroduction to the digestive tract of a controlled number of specially domesticated, mutualistic helminths (intestinal worms) in the form of microscopic eggs or larvae to reconstitute a depleted biome to treat and prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy..

  • Human hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin., Necator americanus (NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus)
  • Human whipwormA helminth with a tapering whiplike body that lives in the colon. In helminthic therapy, the microscopic eggs of either the human Trichuris trichiura (TTO) or pig Trichuris suis (TSO) are taken in a drink., Trichuris trichiura (TTOthe ova (eggs) of the human whipworm, Trichuris trichiura)
  • Pig whipwormA helminth with a tapering whiplike body that lives in the colon. In helminthic therapy, the microscopic eggs of either the human Trichuris trichiura (TTO) or pig Trichuris suis (TSO) are taken in a drink., Trichuris suis (TSOthe ova (eggs) of the porcine (pig) whipworm, Trichuris suis)
  • Rat tapewormA helminth with a flat, ribbon-like, segmented body. Only the murine (rat) tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta, is used in helminthic therapy and this generally does not reach adulthood in humans so requires regular dosing of HDC., Hymenolepis diminuta (HDCHymenolepis diminuta cysticercoids (Hi-men-o-lep'is dim-a-nu-ta sis-ti-sur-koid) - the larval cysts of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta)

Some of the reports and papers listed below have focussed on the effects of other species of helminthAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths], or molecules derived from them, but all are nevertheless valuable for the insights they provide about the therapeutic and prophylactic effects of helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths].

Unless otherwise stated, the main links are to PubMed abstracts, with additional inks to full text and PDF copies, if available. Where free full text copies are not accessible via PubMed, these can usually be obtained from other sources such as Sci-Hub, or the Facebook group, Get Your Papers. Further papers on helminthic therapyThe reintroduction to the digestive tract of a controlled number of specially domesticated, mutualistic helminths (intestinal worms) in the form of microscopic eggs or larvae to reconstitute a depleted biome to treat and prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy. can be found by searching PubMed, which carries almost all of the scientific papers written on this subject.

What researchers say about helminthic therapyThe reintroduction to the digestive tract of a controlled number of specially domesticated, mutualistic helminths (intestinal worms) in the form of microscopic eggs or larvae to reconstitute a depleted biome to treat and prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy.

The following quotes illustrate the current thinking among researchers who are investigating the therapeutic use of living helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths].

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Although some helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] are known to cause disease and have been labeled parasitesAn organism that lives in or on another organism (its host) and benefits at the host’s expense. (The organisms used in helminthic therapy are, strictly speaking, not parasites, but mutualists, because they have a mutually beneficial symbiotic relationship with their hosts.), it is now clear that some exposure to this class of organisms is necessary for human health. (Bono-Lunn et al) [1]
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The results strongly support previous indications that helminth therapyThe reintroduction to the digestive tract of a controlled number of specially domesticated, mutualistic helminths (intestinal worms) in the form of microscopic eggs or larvae to reconstitute a depleted biome to treat and prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy. can effectively treat a wide range of allergies, autoimmune conditions and neuropsychiatric disorders. (Liu et al) [2]
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What was a costly and sometimes risky venture into the unknown, undertaken by only a few 10 years ago, is rapidly becoming a readily available and well-established resource currently used by thousands of individuals. (Cheng et al, 2015) [3]
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In developed countries, where we are well nourished, worms are potentially good. If I had Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitisUlcerative colitis (Colitis ulcerosa, UC) is a form of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) which specifically affects the large intestine, or colon, causing characteristic ulcers, or open sores. The main symptom of active disease is constant diarrhea mixed with blood, of gradual onset. or multiple sclerosis, I would infect myself without hesitation. (Prof Alex Loukas, Australian Institute of Tropical Health & Medicine) [4]
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All immunocompetent humans need regular exposure to helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] in order to maintain optimal immune function and avoid risk for inflammation-associated disease… access to helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] is a basic human need. (Smyth et al) [5]
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We need to embrace the view that helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] are a necessary component of the ecosystem of a healthy body, and that helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] should be cultivated for population-wide biota restoration. (Villeneuve et al) [6]
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Biome reconstitution… holds a promise for exposure of all individuals to naturally occurring organisms or selected variants of those organisms in a way that is required for human health. Such exposure must be considered a fundamental human right worthy of government support rather than an option for pharmaceutical development. (Parker and Ollerton) [7]
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In some not too distant futurity, there may come a day when we all take ‘helminth supplements’ along with our Omega 3 fatty acids, vitamins, and whatever else goes to make up a modern balanced diet. (Zaccone et al) [8]
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Twenty years from now everybody is going to have a helminthAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths], and no insurance company will begin to cover you if you don’t have your helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths]. We’re very confident in the science, that every single human being needs a helminthAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths]. It’s part of our biology. (Prof William Parker, Duke University, 2016) [9]

Reading packet

These selected papers provide a good overview of the potential of helminthic therapyThe reintroduction to the digestive tract of a controlled number of specially domesticated, mutualistic helminths (intestinal worms) in the form of microscopic eggs or larvae to reconstitute a depleted biome to treat and prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy. and would be suitable resources to include in a reading packet to be given to a doctor or someone who is unaware of the evidence and rationale for helminthic therapyThe reintroduction to the digestive tract of a controlled number of specially domesticated, mutualistic helminths (intestinal worms) in the form of microscopic eggs or larvae to reconstitute a depleted biome to treat and prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy.. The first two papers provide validation for the practice of self-treatmentMedication or treatment of one's own disease or condition without medical assistance. with helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths].

  • Overcoming Evolutionary Mismatch by Self-Treatment with Helminths: Current Practices and Experience (2015)
    This study probes the methods and outcomes reported by individuals who are self-treating with helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] and is an ideal basis for discussion between patients and their physicians.
  • Helminth–host immunological interactions: prevention and control of immune-mediated diseases (2012)
    Summarises the science underpinning helminthic therapyThe reintroduction to the digestive tract of a controlled number of specially domesticated, mutualistic helminths (intestinal worms) in the form of microscopic eggs or larvae to reconstitute a depleted biome to treat and prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy..

Research papers & articles

Tips for searching the list

Symbols used in the list of documents:

  • ✅ - A key paper/report in the development of the therapeutic use of helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths]
  • ⚡ - A good place to start if you are new to helminthic therapyThe reintroduction to the digestive tract of a controlled number of specially domesticated, mutualistic helminths (intestinal worms) in the form of microscopic eggs or larvae to reconstitute a depleted biome to treat and prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy., or if you are looking for resources that would help someone else to understand the therapy.

If you are interested in helminthic therapyThe reintroduction to the digestive tract of a controlled number of specially domesticated, mutualistic helminths (intestinal worms) in the form of microscopic eggs or larvae to reconstitute a depleted biome to treat and prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy. in relation to a particular medical condition, use your device’s search function to locate the items that are relevant to that disease. Several conditions will require the use of more than one search term, for example:

  • Allergies - search for “allerg”, “atopy” and “anaphylaxis”
  • Anemia - search for “anemia” and “anaemia”
  • Arthritis - search for ”arthrit” and “joint”
  • Asthma - search for “asthma”, “airway” and “wheeze”
  • Autism - search for “autism” and “ASD”
  • Celiac disease - search for “celiac” and “coeliac”
  • Crohn’s disease - search for “Crohn”, “bowel” and “IBDInflammatory bowel disease is a group of conditions affecting the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, particularly the colon and small intestine. The major types of IBD are Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis (UC).
  • Diabetes - search for “diabet”, “insulin”, “glucose” and “metabolic”
  • Heart disease - search for “cardio” and “atherosclerosis”
  • Inflammation - search for “inflam”
  • Leaky gut - search for “barrier”
  • Multiple sclerosis - search for “multiple sclerosis” rather than “MSMultiple sclerosis (also known as disseminated sclerosis) is a chronic, typically progressive disease involving damage to the sheaths of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord, whose symptoms may include numbness, impairment of speech and of muscular coordination, blurred vision and severe fatigue.
  • Obesity - search for “obes” and “adipose”
  • Pregnancy - search for “preg” and “mater”
  • Ulcerative colitisUlcerative colitis (Colitis ulcerosa, UC) is a form of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) which specifically affects the large intestine, or colon, causing characteristic ulcers, or open sores. The main symptom of active disease is constant diarrhea mixed with blood, of gradual onset. - search for “colitis”, “bowel” and “IBDInflammatory bowel disease is a group of conditions affecting the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, particularly the colon and small intestine. The major types of IBD are Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis (UC).

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  • 2019 Oct 24 Tuftsin-phosphorylcholine attenuate experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (MSMultiple sclerosis (also known as disseminated sclerosis) is a chronic, typically progressive disease involving damage to the sheaths of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord, whose symptoms may include numbness, impairment of speech and of muscular coordination, blurred vision and severe fatigue.)
  • 2019 Jan 9 Cross-Domain and Viral Interactions in the Microbiome (Includes a 10-page section on microbiotaThe specific population of microorganisms living in a certain part of the body, such as the gut. "Microbiome" refers to all the microorganisms living in and on the body, or the genome of these microorganisms. These two terms are often used interchangeably./helminth interactions and their effects on immune function.)

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  • 1982 Jul Modulation of immune responses by commensalCommensalism is a relationship between two organisms where one benefits from the other without affecting it. bacteria and intestinal helminth PDF

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  • ✅ 1976 Sept 25 Letter: IgE, parasites, and allergy This paper reported the first known case of successful helminthic therapyThe reintroduction to the digestive tract of a controlled number of specially domesticated, mutualistic helminths (intestinal worms) in the form of microscopic eggs or larvae to reconstitute a depleted biome to treat and prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy. in which colonisation with Necator americanusThe species of human hookworm used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. was shown to resolve hay fever. (NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus)
  • ✅ 1976 Aug Serum IgE levels in white and metis communities in Saskatchewan This paper's author suggested that atopic disease is the price paid by some members of the white community of northern Saskatchewan for their relative freedom from helminth infestation and viral and bacterial infection.

1968

  • ✅ 1968 Aug 17 Autoimmune disease and parasitic infections in Nigerians The author of this paper suggested a possible relationship between parasiticAn organism that lives in or on another organism (its host) and benefits at the host’s expense. (The organisms used in helminthic therapy are, strictly speaking, not parasites, but mutualists, because they have a mutually beneficial symbiotic relationship with their hosts.) infections and the reduced incidence of autoimmune disease in parts of tropical Africa.

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Take part in the research

Socio-medical research at Duke University

The researchers at Duke have previously reported on data they have already gathered.

The team at Duke are now looking for details about the use of helminthic therapyThe reintroduction to the digestive tract of a controlled number of specially domesticated, mutualistic helminths (intestinal worms) in the form of microscopic eggs or larvae to reconstitute a depleted biome to treat and prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy. to treat those conditions for which helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] are less commonly employed, such as lupus, migraine headaches and neuropsychiatric disorders. If you have used helminthic therapyThe reintroduction to the digestive tract of a controlled number of specially domesticated, mutualistic helminths (intestinal worms) in the form of microscopic eggs or larvae to reconstitute a depleted biome to treat and prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy. to treat one of these conditions, and whether or not this proved successful, please consider completing the Helminth Self-treatment Survey.

Support the research by donation

The vast majority of research into the effects of helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] is being carried out by researchers aiming to discover worm-derived molecules that can potentially be used to create drugs, and this work is already well funded by agencies hoping to benefit from the patents and sales which it is anticipated will follow in the wake of successful drug discovery.

Far less well funded is the research into the use and effects of live helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths], and their development for mass application in both the treatment and prevention of autoimmune, inflammatory and allergic diseases, including neuropsychiatric conditions.

This latter work is being spearheaded by Prof William Parker and his team at Duke University, the progress of which is dependent on finance being found for each step they take - finance which is hard to secure from the usual sources due to the perceived lack of potential profits.

At the present time, the team at Duke have two main goals for their helminthic therapyThe reintroduction to the digestive tract of a controlled number of specially domesticated, mutualistic helminths (intestinal worms) in the form of microscopic eggs or larvae to reconstitute a depleted biome to treat and prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy. research.

  • Writing papers, including reviews, commentaries, and policy briefs about helminthic therapyThe reintroduction to the digestive tract of a controlled number of specially domesticated, mutualistic helminths (intestinal worms) in the form of microscopic eggs or larvae to reconstitute a depleted biome to treat and prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy.. In particular, they want to push for change in the landscape of the field to get helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] repositioned away from the modern drug pipeline, which is unsuitable and impractical for helminthic therapyThe reintroduction to the digestive tract of a controlled number of specially domesticated, mutualistic helminths (intestinal worms) in the form of microscopic eggs or larvae to reconstitute a depleted biome to treat and prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy.. The Duke team would also like to be able to provide evidence to encourage governments to focus on the ultimate causes of diseases rather than on applying ‘sticking plasters’ to patch up sick people, and to concentrate on disease prevention - especially by means of biota restoration - rather than on the use of expensive pharmaceuticals.
  • Continuing to pursue the traditional pathway, for example, by seeking approval from the FDA for trials with HDCsHymenolepis diminuta cysticercoids (Hi-men-o-lep'is dim-a-nu-ta sis-ti-sur-koid) - the larval cysts of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta.

Donations are needed to support this work at Duke, and even small amounts will make a difference. For example, $50 will go a long way towards covering the cost of publishing a scientific paper. $500 will help towards supporting a summer intern working on the HDCHymenolepis diminuta cysticercoids (Hi-men-o-lep'is dim-a-nu-ta sis-ti-sur-koid) - the larval cysts of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta project. $5,000 would cover the supply costs of the HDCHymenolepis diminuta cysticercoids (Hi-men-o-lep'is dim-a-nu-ta sis-ti-sur-koid) - the larval cysts of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta project for five months. $10,000 could pay for a study in an animal model, for example testing the idea that helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] may help with wound healing. (This is something the team at Duke believe, based on available information, that helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] probably do, but which has not yet been tested. If the hypothesis were shown to be correct, this would provide a huge push forward for the field of wound care.)

Anyone wishing to donate by cheque should make this out either to "Duke University Medical Center", with "for William Parker's HThelminthic therapy research" in the memo, or to "William Parker", with "Immunity's Forge" in the memo. The Immunity’s Forge art studio website is also set up to take donations by credit card via a donation page. Either of these approaches will ensure that the money donated will be spent on helminthic therapyThe reintroduction to the digestive tract of a controlled number of specially domesticated, mutualistic helminths (intestinal worms) in the form of microscopic eggs or larvae to reconstitute a depleted biome to treat and prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy. research and not on one of the other projects being pursued by Parker’s lab, such as the autism/acetaminophen project. Both the medical centre and the art studio are registered non-profit organisations, so donations to either are tax deductible for US citizens.

Further reading

These pages contain further research papers and articles relevant to each page title.