Helminthic therapy research

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This page lists more than 660 papers and reports of scientific studies relating to helminthic therapy and closely related topics such as the Hygiene Hypothesis, the Old Friends' Hypothesis, Evolutionary Mismatch Theory and Biome Depletion Theory / Biota Alteration Theory.

There are four organisms being used currently in helminthic therapy.

Some of the reports and papers listed below have focussed on the effects of other species of helminth, or molecules derived from them, but all are nevertheless valuable for the insights they provide about the therapeutic and prophylactic effects of helminths.

Unless otherwise stated, the main links are to PubMed abstracts, with additional inks to full text copies and PDFs, if available. Where free full text copies are not available via PubMed, these can usually be obtained from other sources such as Sci-Hub, or the Facebook group, Get Your Papers. Further papers on helminthic therapy can be found by searching PubMed, which carries almost all of the scientific papers written on this subject.

Reading packet

These selected papers provide a good overview of the potential of helminthic therapy and would be suitable resources to include in a reading packet to be given to a doctor or someone who is unaware of the evidence and rationale for helminthic therapy. The first two papers provide validation for the practice of self-treatment with helminths.

Research papers & articles[edit]

Tips for searching the list

Symbols used in the list of documents:

  • ✅ - A key paper/report in the development of the therapeutic use of helminths
  • ⚡ - A good place to start if you are new to helminthic therapy, or if you are looking for resources that would help someone else to understand the therapy.

If you are interested in helminthic therapy in relation to a particular medical condition, use your device’s search function to locate the items that are relevant to that disease. Several conditions will require the use of more than one search term, for example:

  • Allergies - search for “allerg”, “atopy” and “anaphylaxis”
  • Anemia - search for “anemia” and “anaemia”
  • Arthritis - search for ”arthrit” and “joint”
  • Asthma - search for “asthma”, “airway” and “wheeze”
  • Autism - search for “autism” and “ASD
  • Celiac disease - search for “celiac” and “coeliac”
  • Crohn’s disease - search for “Crohn”, “bowel” and “IBD
  • Diabetes - search for “diabet”, “insulin”, “glucose” and “metabolic syndrome”
  • Heart disease - search for “cardio” and “atherosclerosis”
  • Inflammation - search for “inflam”
  • Leaky gut - search for “barrier”
  • Multiple sclerosis - search for “multiple sclerosis” rather than “MS
  • Obesity - search for “obes” and “adipose”
  • Pregnancy - search for “preg” and “mater”
  • Ulcerative colitis - search for “colitis”, “bowel” and “IBD




























  • 1982 Jul Modulation of immune responses by commensal bacteria and intestinal helminth PDF




  • ✅ 1976 Sept 25 Letter: IgE, parasites, and allergy This paper reported the first known case of successful helminthic therapy in which colonisation with Necator americanus was shown to resolve hay fever.
  • ✅ 1976 Aug Serum IgE levels in white and metis communities in Saskatchewan This paper's author suggested that atopic disease is the price paid by some members of the white community of northern Saskatchewan for their relative freedom from helminth infestation and viral and bacterial infection.



Take part in the research[edit]

Socio-medical research at Duke University[edit]

The researchers at Duke have previously reported on data they have already gathered.

The team at Duke are now looking for details about the use of helminthic therapy to treat those conditions for which helminths are less commonly employed, such as lupus, migraine headaches and neuropsychiatric disorders. If you have used helminthic therapy to treat one of these conditions, and whether or not this proved successful, please consider completing the Helminth Self-treatment Survey.

Crowd-sourced health data on the Cure Together website[edit]

Cure Together aggregates the quantitative information shared anonymously by patients from around the world about their own condition(s), symptoms and treatments. This patient-contributed data has already enabled new discoveries to be made, and the site offers helminth self-treaters a means of alerting others to the helminthic therapy option, about which many would otherwise never become aware.

Support the research by donation[edit]

The vast majority of research into the effects of helminths is being carried out by researchers aiming to discover worm-derived molecules that can potentially be used to create drugs, and this work is already well funded by agencies hoping to benefit from the patents and sales which it is anticipated will follow in the wake of successful drug discovery.

Far less well funded is the research into the use and effects of live helminths, and their development for mass application in both the treatment and prevention of autoimmune, inflammatory and allergic diseases, including neuropsychiatric conditions.

This latter work is being spearheaded by Prof William Parker and his team at Duke University, the progress of which is dependent on finance being found for each step they take - finance which is hard to secure from the usual sources due to the perceived lack of potential profits.

At the present time, the team at Duke have two main goals for their helminthic therapy research.

  • Writing papers, including reviews, commentaries, and policy briefs about helminthic therapy. In particular, they want to push for change in the landscape of the field to get helminths repositioned away from the modern drug pipeline, which is unsuitable and impractical for helminthic therapy. The Duke team would also like to be able to provide evidence to encourage governments to focus on the ultimate causes of diseases rather than on applying ‘sticking plasters’ to patch up sick people, and to concentrate on disease prevention - especially by means of biota restoration - rather than on the use of expensive pharmaceuticals.
  • Continuing to pursue the traditional pathway, for example, by seeking approval from the FDA for trials with HDCs.

Donations are needed to support this work at Duke, and even small amounts will make a difference. For example, $50 will go a long way towards covering the cost of publishing a scientific paper. $500 will help towards supporting a summer intern working on the HDC project. $5,000 would cover the supply costs of the HDC project for five months. $10,000 could pay for a study in an animal model, for example testing the idea that helminths may help with wound healing. (This is something the team at Duke believe, based on available information, that helminths probably do, but which has not yet been tested. If the hypothesis were shown to be correct, this would provide a huge push forward for the field of wound care.)

Anyone wishing to donate by cheque should make this out either to "Duke University Medical Center", with "for William Parker's HT research" in the memo, or to "William Parker", with "Immunity's Forge" in the memo. The Immunity’s Forge art studio website is also set up to take donations by credit card via a donation page. Either of these approaches will ensure that the money donated will be spent on helminthic therapy research and not on one of the other projects being pursued by Parker’s lab, such as the autism/acetaminophen project. Both the medical centre and the art studio are registered non-profit organisations, so donations to either are tax deductible for US citizens.

Further reading[edit]

These pages contain further research papers and articles relevant to each page title.

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