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==Helminthic therapy and susceptibility to infectious diseases==
 
==Helminthic therapy and susceptibility to infectious diseases==
  
People enquiring about helminthic therapy are often concerned that the treatment might reduce their ability to fight common infections, but the effect that helminths have on the immune system is complex and not simply a matter of reducing an excessive response. What helminths do is more a case of subtle modulation, i.e., balancing or quieting rather than suppression, of immunity, and they achieve this by deploying an orchestra of molecules with the intension of keeping themselves and their host alive and well for as long as possible. See [[The effects of helminths on the immune system | The effects of helminths on the immune system]].
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People enquiring about helminthic therapy are often concerned that the treatment might reduce their ability to fight common infections, but the effect that helminths have on the immune system is complex and not simply a matter of reducing an excessive response. What helminths do is more a case of subtle modulation, i.e., balancing or quieting rather than suppression, of immunity, and they achieve this by deploying an orchestra of molecules with the intension of keeping themselves and their host alive and well for as long as possible. See [[The effects of helminths on the immune system | '''The effects of helminths on the immune system''']].
  
 
{{Quote|indent}}Some investigators worry that helminths could weaken patients' immune systems and leave them more vulnerable to some types of infectious diseases, even under careful medical supervision. But as long as society maintains its current modern hygienic standards, I consider this risk negligible. Given the lack of side effects from helminth therapy, morbidity from immune-mediated diseases, and the toxicities of modern therapies for them, almost certainly exceed the risk from helminthic exposure. [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3744107/]{{Quote|/indent}}   
 
{{Quote|indent}}Some investigators worry that helminths could weaken patients' immune systems and leave them more vulnerable to some types of infectious diseases, even under careful medical supervision. But as long as society maintains its current modern hygienic standards, I consider this risk negligible. Given the lack of side effects from helminth therapy, morbidity from immune-mediated diseases, and the toxicities of modern therapies for them, almost certainly exceed the risk from helminthic exposure. [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3744107/]{{Quote|/indent}}   
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{{Quote|indent}}I get cold sores and noticed a small increase shortly after inoculation. [https://www.facebook.com/groups/htsupport/permalink/1482913471764603/?comment_id=1483140678408549&comment_tracking=%7B%22tn%22%3A%22R%22%7D]{{Quote|/indent}}
 
{{Quote|indent}}I get cold sores and noticed a small increase shortly after inoculation. [https://www.facebook.com/groups/htsupport/permalink/1482913471764603/?comment_id=1483140678408549&comment_tracking=%7B%22tn%22%3A%22R%22%7D]{{Quote|/indent}}
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{{Quote|indent}}My daughter has herpes. The virus gets activated everytime we inoculate, but only then. We have not seen any increase in activation frequency outside of inoculations (rather the opposite if anything). [https://www.facebook.com/groups/htsupport/permalink/1667358526653429/?comment_id=1667381146651167&reply_comment_id=1673870859335529&comment_tracking=%7B%22tn%22%3A%22R4%22%7D]{{Quote|/indent}}
  
 
Any exacerbation following inoculation should only last up to approximately 6 months, and any doses added while the herpes flare is still active may cause an increase in symptoms, especially within the first 3 or 4 months, i.e., before the first cohort of worms is able to fully exert its suppressive effect on the immune response to itself.
 
Any exacerbation following inoculation should only last up to approximately 6 months, and any doses added while the herpes flare is still active may cause an increase in symptoms, especially within the first 3 or 4 months, i.e., before the first cohort of worms is able to fully exert its suppressive effect on the immune response to itself.
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Herpes appears to be treatable using high doses of vitamin C, a course of which could be taken prior to, or concurrent with helminthic therapy. [http://orthomolecular.org/resources/omns/v01n05.shtml] [http://orthomolecular.org/library/jom/1995/pdf/1995-v10n02-p097.pdf]
 
Herpes appears to be treatable using high doses of vitamin C, a course of which could be taken prior to, or concurrent with helminthic therapy. [http://orthomolecular.org/resources/omns/v01n05.shtml] [http://orthomolecular.org/library/jom/1995/pdf/1995-v10n02-p097.pdf]
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===Helminthic therapy and Epstein–Barr virus (EBV)===
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As with other viruses, an infection with the [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epstein–Barr_virus Epstein-Barr virus] (human herpesvirus 4 (HHV-4)) may be temporarily worsened or reactivated following an initial inoculation with helminths, or after a large supplementary dose.
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There is no evidence to suggest that helminths might kill the EB virus, but, due to them being effective against inflammation, allergy and autoimmune disease, helminths might help those with EBV by protecting them from the ravages of the inflammation that this infection is known to cause. Helminths might also turn off allergy to EBV and prevent the development of autoimmune diseases which develop more frequently in those infected by this virus. And, since there is evidence that helminths may prevent the development of cancer (see [[Helminthic therapy and cancer | '''Helminthic therapy and cancer''']]), it is possible they might offer a degree of protection against cancers developing as a sequela of EBV infection.
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There is anecdotal evidence that hosting helminths can improve a person's health in spite of them having an EBV infection.
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{{Quote|indent}}My health turned to crap after EBV in college, turned into lupus-like symptoms and food intolerances, extreme fatigue and depression. 6 month on HW helped immensely and now I am doing very good on HW and L. Reuteri.” (Link expired){{Quote|/indent}}
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Someone else was able to reap numerous health benefits from hosting hookworms, in spite of having a long-term EBV infection.
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* [[The Amazing Dr Wriggly | '''The Amazing Dr Wriggly''']]
  
 
==Helminthic therapy and tuberculosis (TB)==  
 
==Helminthic therapy and tuberculosis (TB)==  
  
Helminths may enhance TB infection, whether newly acquired or reactivated. [http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-3024.2006.00909.x/full] and they may reduce the effect of any anti-TB therapy. [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1810442/] However, Infection with the human whipworm, Trichuris trichiura, may provide protection against acquiring a TB infection. [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28342825]
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Certain helminths may enhance TB infection, whether newly acquired or reactivated [http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-3024.2006.00909.x/full] and some helminth species may reduce the effect of any anti-TB therapy. [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1810442/] However, there is a reduced prevalence of latent TB infection among individuals hosting hookworms.
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* 2018 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30619265 Human Hookworm Infection Enhances Mycobacterial Growth Inhibition and Associates With Reduced Risk of Tuberculosis Infection] — [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6302045/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6302045/pdf/fimmu-09-02893.pdf PDF]
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And infection with the human whipworm, Trichuris trichiura, may also provide protection against acquiring a TB infection.  
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* 2017 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28342825 Association between parasitic infections and tuberculin skin test results in refugees]
  
 
In order to combat TB, a certain degree of immune vigilance is required, but a hyper-vigilant immune system will increase the risk of autoimmune disease. The effects of helminthic therapy in TB must be seen in relation to this dynamic.
 
In order to combat TB, a certain degree of immune vigilance is required, but a hyper-vigilant immune system will increase the risk of autoimmune disease. The effects of helminthic therapy in TB must be seen in relation to this dynamic.
  
Here is more of the relevant research.
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Below are several further examples of the research into the interactions between helminths and TB. As can be seen, three of these papers addressed the effects of specific helminths that are '''''not''''' used in helminthic therapy. These include Schistosoma mansoni, a blood fluke, the eggs of which penetrate body cavities such as the lungs where, unlike the therapeutic helminths, they actually ''cause'' inflammation and promote reinfection and relapse in TB.
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* 2017 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29312343 Review: Impact of Helminth Infection on Antimycobacterial Immunity - A Focus on the Macrophage] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5743664/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5743664/pdf/fimmu-08-01864.pdf PDF]
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:: {{Quote|indent}}It is now evident that helminth infestations can influence the host response to MTB at multiple levels, from the initial encounter between macrophage and bacilli, to the type of adaptive T cell immunity, and to the development of immunopathology. At the same time, many open questions remain to be answered, both at the clinical–epidemiological level (e.g., regarding the benefit of anthelminthic treatment) and at the fundamental level of immune regulation during coinfection.{{Quote|/indent}}
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* 2016 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27501916/ Helminth-Tuberculosis Co-Infection: an Immunologic Perspective] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5003706/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5003706/pdf/nihms808865.pdf PDF]
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:: {{Quote|indent}}It is clear that there is great degree of interaction in the initiation and maintenance of host immune responses to concomitant or co-existing helminth infections and TB. Whether this antigen-specific crosstalk actually alters clinical outcomes remains an important question.{{Quote|/indent}}
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* 2015 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26571397 Helminth-induced arginase-1 exacerbates lung inflammation and disease severity in tuberculosis] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4665786/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4665786/pdf/JCI77378.pdf PDF] ([https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schistosoma_mansoni Schistosoma mansoni])
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* 2014 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25375117 Coincident helminth infection modulates systemic inflammation and immune activation in active pulmonary tuberculosis] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4222842/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4222842/pdf/pntd.0003289.pdf PDF] ([https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Strongyloides_stercoralis Strongyloides stercoralis])
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* 2005 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15730384 Low dose chronic Schistosoma mansoni infection increases susceptibility to Mycobacterium bovis BCG infection in mice] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1809318/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1809318/pdf/cei0139-0398.pdf PDF] ([https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schistosoma_mansoni Schistosoma mansoni])
  
* 2017 Dec 22 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29312343 Review: Impact of Helminth Infection on Antimycobacterial Immunity - A Focus on the Macrophage] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5743664/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5743664/pdf/fimmu-08-01864.pdf PDF]
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* 2000 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11143198 Eradication of helminthic infections may be essential for successful vaccination against HIV and tuberculosis] [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2560630/pdf/11143198.pdf PDF
* 2015 Dec [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26571397 Helminth-induced arginase-1 exacerbates lung inflammation and disease severity in tuberculosis] 
 
* 2015 Aug 6 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26248316 Asymptomatic Helminth Infection in Active Tuberculosis Is Associated with Increased Regulatory and Th-2 Responses and a Lower Sputum Smear Positivity] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4527760/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4527760/pdf/pntd.0003994.pdf PDF]
 
* 2014 Nov 6 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25375117 Coincident helminth infection modulates systemic inflammation and immune activation in active pulmonary tuberculosis] -- [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4222842/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4222842/pdf/pntd.0003289.pdf PDF]
 
* 2005 Mar [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15730384 Low dose chronic Schistosoma mansoni infection increases susceptibility to Mycobacterium bovis BCG infection in mice] -- [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1809318/ Full text] | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1809318/pdf/cei0139-0398.pdf PDF]
 
* 2000 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2560630/pdf/11143198.pdf Eradication of helminthic infections may be essential for successful vaccination against HIV and tuberculosis
 
  
 
==See also==
 
==See also==

Latest revision as of 16:31, 24 March 2019

Home>Effects of helminthic therapy>Helminthic therapy and infectious diseases

Helminthic therapyThe reintroduction to the digestive tract of a controlled number of specially domesticated, mutualistic helminths (intestinal worms) in the form of microscopic eggs or larvae to reconstitute a depleted biome to treat and prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy. and susceptibility to infectious diseases

People enquiring about helminthic therapyThe reintroduction to the digestive tract of a controlled number of specially domesticated, mutualistic helminths (intestinal worms) in the form of microscopic eggs or larvae to reconstitute a depleted biome to treat and prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy. are often concerned that the treatment might reduce their ability to fight common infections, but the effect that helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] have on the immune system is complex and not simply a matter of reducing an excessive response. What helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] do is more a case of subtle modulation, i.e., balancing or quieting rather than suppression, of immunity, and they achieve this by deploying an orchestra of molecules with the intension of keeping themselves and their host alive and well for as long as possible. See The effects of helminths on the immune system.

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Some investigators worry that helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] could weaken patients' immune systems and leave them more vulnerable to some types of infectious diseases, even under careful medical supervision. But as long as society maintains its current modern hygienic standards, I consider this risk negligible. Given the lack of side effects from helminth therapyThe reintroduction to the digestive tract of a controlled number of specially domesticated, mutualistic helminths (intestinal worms) in the form of microscopic eggs or larvae to reconstitute a depleted biome to treat and prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy., morbidity from immune-mediated diseases, and the toxicities of modern therapies for them, almost certainly exceed the risk from helminthic exposure. [1]

In fact, we can be rather confident in the ability of helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] to modulate the immune system without immunocompromising the host, [2] a view supported by William Parker, whose team at Duke University have found enhanced rather than suppressed immune function in animals with increased biodiversity.

Parker says that, far from making the immune system lazy or less effective, helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] actually make it smarter.

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People who host helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] can still mount an inflammatory attack on pathogens, but they don't set off self-destructive immune bombs against harmless substances or their own cells.

There is also evidence from elsewhere that intestinal parasitesAn organism that lives in or on another organism (its host) and benefits at the host’s expense. (The organisms used in helminthic therapy are, strictly speaking, not parasites, but mutualists, because they have a mutually beneficial symbiotic relationship with their hosts.) may help the body ward off some infections.

The experience of helminth self-treaters

There are reports of both less, and more, infections while hosting worms, but the majority of self-treaters appear to experience a reduced incidence of infection.

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Don't think I've caught a single cold since my infection with hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. a couple of years ago. [3]
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My immunity seems better with HWhookworm, usually referring to the human hookworm, Necator americanus. I have an immune deficiency that makes me more susceptible to upper respiratory infections. Since starting HWhookworm, usually referring to the human hookworm, Necator americanus I have successfully fought of infection which is VERY unusual for me. My husband had a cold. Normally that is a disaster for me as a cold in someone else almost always leads to chest infection and bronchitis in me. For the first time in more years than I remember I sniffled for a day and fought it off. (Edited from two posts.) [4] [5]
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Anecdotally, I haven't had a single cold or flu since inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation] last March.
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It will be 2 years (next month) with helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths]. I have around 135 (NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus)… I have not had flu or a cold for the last 2 winters even though whole family had severe chest and throat infections. Prior to the worms I would get flu every winter. First holiday last August to Kenya where I did not get ill. [6]
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Have been hosting for over 3 years as a reservoir donor. No colds in this time.
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I have the flu. I know because my son just tested positive with the nasal swab test. My immune response has been very different from years past, I've always coughed like crazy which ended up as bronchitis, and I've spiked a fever. But this time I have very little coughing and only a low grade fever. 24 hrs later and I'm almost completely over it. I attribute this to having hosted human hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. for the past nine months. My body is better at handling infection now. [7]
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I used to have a cold every 6-8 weeks. My whole life. Since getting NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus almost 2 years ago I've only been ill once. [8]
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I don't get sinus infections that last for six months any more. I don't get colds that turn into sinus infections. [9]

In some cases, the normalisation of immune function by helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] can result in people who previously rarely got infections beginning to get them more frequently.

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I got my first cold in years 6 weeks after my first inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation]. [10]
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Since I inoculated over 3 years ago, I get sick way way more often. I have Crohn's diseaseAlso known as regional enteritis, this is an inflammatory disease of the intestines that may affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract from mouth to anus, causing a wide variety of symptoms. It primarily causes abdominal pain, diarrhea (which may be bloody if inflammation is severe), vomiting or weight loss, but may also cause complications outside the gastrointestinal tract such as skin rashes, arthritis, inflammation of the eye, tiredness and lack of concentration. and before my worms I was almost never sick and I was usually the lone person in my house who stayed "healthy" while illnesses ran through everyone else. One of the theories about crohns being due to an overactive immune system seems to be true for me. The worms have dramatically reduced my crohns symptoms but in exchange I catch just about any illness my young kids bring home from school. It's completely worth it, though, as colds, flus, strep, etc on occasion are nothing compared to the pain of crohns! [11]
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Prior to HThelminthic therapy I didn't get many colds. Now I get colds and flu bugs more often. I think when my immune system was over reactive it killed everything quickly, including attacking my gut. Now that it's less active and colds and flus take hold more often. [12]
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Since inoculating less than six months ago I've had my first sinus infection in 43 years, my first lung infection and my first skin infection. None were too serious - but it seems unlikely to be a coincidence. I've always been the person you couldn't give a bacterial infection to if you tried. Having said that, two pesky warts I've had for over a decade have disappeared. I'd say something is shifting! I should point out that I'll take some mild bacterial infections over 4 autoimmune diseases any day. [13]
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I never had flu or cold for the last 20 years or what I can remember. Not even once a sneeze or running nose. But after the helminth therapyThe reintroduction to the digestive tract of a controlled number of specially domesticated, mutualistic helminths (intestinal worms) in the form of microscopic eggs or larvae to reconstitute a depleted biome to treat and prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy., I have a flu or cold episode at least twice a year. [14]

How infections impact on the benefits of helminthic therapyThe reintroduction to the digestive tract of a controlled number of specially domesticated, mutualistic helminths (intestinal worms) in the form of microscopic eggs or larvae to reconstitute a depleted biome to treat and prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy.

When someone who is hosting helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] gets an infection, such as a cold or the flu, this can cause a brief return of symptoms of whatever disease they are treating.

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I had a flu 10 days ago and had a return of crohn’s symptoms. [15]
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… any time I get a cold/flu it exacerbates all my allergy-related symptoms by revving up my immune system (especially congestion/headaches, eczema & muscle/joint pain). [16]
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I am 7½ months into hwhookworm, usually referring to the human hookworm, Necator americanus therapy to cope with rhinitis… Last week I caught a minor cold from my kids and have had the worst allergy attack lasting all week. [17]
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I have noticed that my old symptoms (systemic reaction to food) that are now much better, flare whenever I get a cold… It does appear to happen each time I get a virus so far…[18]

This return of disease symptoms does not occur because the infection has a direct effect on the worms themselves, which may continue to secrete their immune modulating molecules while the infection is active. However, since the effect of these excretory/secretory products is subtle, this may be overwhelmed by the increased activity of the immune system, resulting in the temporary reappearance of symptoms.

If any substance is taken which enhances the immune response, this may also increase the symptoms of autoimmune diseases, making it appear that the substance itself has adversely affected the worms. For example, this can occur with the use of elderberry. [19] [20] (Also see the comments here and here.)

When the immune system settles back to it’s normal level of activity after dealing with an infection and after the use of any immune enhancing substances has ceased, the impact of the worms’ subtle immune modulation will once again become evident, and disease symptoms will gradually subside.

Normal immune balance may be restored within 2-3 weeks after a cold or the flu but, in the case of the latter, it may take a while after the viral infection has been cleared, especially if a secondary bacterial infection develops in its wake.

Helminthic therapyThe reintroduction to the digestive tract of a controlled number of specially domesticated, mutualistic helminths (intestinal worms) in the form of microscopic eggs or larvae to reconstitute a depleted biome to treat and prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy. and chronic infections

Some people with chronic infections have noticed an increase in the number and severity of outbreaks after introducing helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths], especially those people who were already suffering frequent outbreaks prior to starting helminthic therapyThe reintroduction to the digestive tract of a controlled number of specially domesticated, mutualistic helminths (intestinal worms) in the form of microscopic eggs or larvae to reconstitute a depleted biome to treat and prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy.. Infections such as tuberculosis (TB), Lyme disease, herpes, hepatitis, HIV and CMV, etc., may surge during the early response phase following helminth introduction, because this alters the immune reaction and may reduce the body's ability to suppress active infection. [21] For example, some, but not all, subjects with Herpes may notice more frequent outbreaks after commencing helminthic therapyThe reintroduction to the digestive tract of a controlled number of specially domesticated, mutualistic helminths (intestinal worms) in the form of microscopic eggs or larvae to reconstitute a depleted biome to treat and prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy., and helminth providers may decline to supply someone with a more serous chronic and incurable infection, such as those who are HIV positive.

Anyone with an active chronic, or incurable, infection who does go ahead with helminthic therapyThe reintroduction to the digestive tract of a controlled number of specially domesticated, mutualistic helminths (intestinal worms) in the form of microscopic eggs or larvae to reconstitute a depleted biome to treat and prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy. would be advised to consult their physician prior to treatment, and to take steps - for instance increasing prophylactic or suppression therapy - to ameliorate the immunomodulatory effect in the early stages of helminthic therapyThe reintroduction to the digestive tract of a controlled number of specially domesticated, mutualistic helminths (intestinal worms) in the form of microscopic eggs or larvae to reconstitute a depleted biome to treat and prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy..

See also:

Helminthic therapyThe reintroduction to the digestive tract of a controlled number of specially domesticated, mutualistic helminths (intestinal worms) in the form of microscopic eggs or larvae to reconstitute a depleted biome to treat and prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy. and viral infections

The precise interactions that occur between helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] and viruses are still poorly understood, but it is known that some latent viral infections, such as herpes and tuberculosis, can be reactivated temporarily following infection with a parasiteAn organism that lives in or on another organism (its host) and benefits at the host’s expense. (The organisms used in helminthic therapy are, strictly speaking, not parasites, but mutualists, because they have a mutually beneficial symbiotic relationship with their hosts.) such as the one that causes malaria.

One study has revealed how signals from the immune system that help repel a common parasiteAn organism that lives in or on another organism (its host) and benefits at the host’s expense. (The organisms used in helminthic therapy are, strictly speaking, not parasites, but mutualists, because they have a mutually beneficial symbiotic relationship with their hosts.) can inadvertently cause the reactivation of a dormant herpes virus. [22]

However, the temporary reactivation of dormant viral infections does not happen in all cases and there may even be a reduction in viral activity following inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation], with amelioration of pathology without any increase in susceptibility to, or persistence of, the viral infection. [23]

The rate of progression of HIV disease is no different in populations living in helminth endemic parts of the world compared with the western world, where helminth infections are now almost non-existent. By balancing interactions between inflammatory and regulatory responses, helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] may produce an effect that is at least neutral, and perhaps even protective, for example by reducing the progression of HIV. [24]

Helminthic therapyThe reintroduction to the digestive tract of a controlled number of specially domesticated, mutualistic helminths (intestinal worms) in the form of microscopic eggs or larvae to reconstitute a depleted biome to treat and prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy. and herpes

As with other viral infections, herpes may be worsened or reactivated temporarily following the introduction of helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths]. [25]

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I get cold sores and noticed a small increase shortly after inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation]. [26]
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My daughter has herpes. The virus gets activated everytime we inoculate, but only then. We have not seen any increase in activation frequency outside of inoculations (rather the opposite if anything). [27]

Any exacerbation following inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation] should only last up to approximately 6 months, and any doses added while the herpes flare is still active may cause an increase in symptoms, especially within the first 3 or 4 months, i.e., before the first cohort of worms is able to fully exert its suppressive effect on the immune response to itself.

Helminthic therapyThe reintroduction to the digestive tract of a controlled number of specially domesticated, mutualistic helminths (intestinal worms) in the form of microscopic eggs or larvae to reconstitute a depleted biome to treat and prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy. should bring about a reduction in outbreaks of herpes once the worms have been hosted for a few months.

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I used to get cold sores throughout my adult life frequently and easily ~ the slightest trigger of sunburn, stress, colds, etc. would cause them to appear. Sometimes one would be just healing when another would start. Such a drag! Since HThelminthic therapy the incidence of coldsores/HSV outbreaks has drastically dropped to almost none. My HSV1 only appeared once in 3.5 years after a brutal sunburn. (Edited from three posts: [28] [29] [30])
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The following year, I have had far less frequent cold sores than I have ever had in my life which i attribute to increased overall health due to the helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths]. [31]
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Since inoculating, I have not had any cold sores… I'd say my immune system is working well that way! [32]
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My cold sores have reduced since taking HWshookworm, usually referring to the human hookworm, Necator americanus over a period of 1.5 years. [33]

Occasionally, herpes may improve in the first few weeks following inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation].

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I'm three weeks in and I haven't had a single cold sore which is really rare for me. [34] Week 6 update… I still have not had another cold sore. This is considering I used to get them once to twice a week!! [35]

Supplementary doses may cause a temporary flare of herpes, especially following overly large doses.

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I get cold sores and they do get worse (after inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation]) but antivirals pretty much fix it. Plus no outbreak is as bad as when you first get cold sores. [36]

There is also a possibility of a large hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. dose - even a supplementary one - triggering shingles.

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I can't prove this but my shingles began following this bad reaction to 25 hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin.. [37]

Herpes appears to be treatable using high doses of vitamin C, a course of which could be taken prior to, or concurrent with helminthic therapyThe reintroduction to the digestive tract of a controlled number of specially domesticated, mutualistic helminths (intestinal worms) in the form of microscopic eggs or larvae to reconstitute a depleted biome to treat and prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy.. [38] [39]

Helminthic therapyThe reintroduction to the digestive tract of a controlled number of specially domesticated, mutualistic helminths (intestinal worms) in the form of microscopic eggs or larvae to reconstitute a depleted biome to treat and prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy. and Epstein–Barr virus (EBV)

As with other viruses, an infection with the Epstein-Barr virus (human herpesvirus 4 (HHV-4)) may be temporarily worsened or reactivated following an initial inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation] with helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths], or after a large supplementary dose.

There is no evidence to suggest that helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] might kill the EB virus, but, due to them being effective against inflammation, allergy and autoimmune disease, helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] might help those with EBV by protecting them from the ravages of the inflammation that this infection is known to cause. HelminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] might also turn off allergy to EBV and prevent the development of autoimmune diseases which develop more frequently in those infected by this virus. And, since there is evidence that helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] may prevent the development of cancer (see Helminthic therapy and cancer), it is possible they might offer a degree of protection against cancers developing as a sequela of EBV infection.

There is anecdotal evidence that hosting helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] can improve a person's health in spite of them having an EBV infection.

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My health turned to crap after EBV in college, turned into lupus-like symptoms and food intolerances, extreme fatigue and depression. 6 month on HWhookworm, usually referring to the human hookworm, Necator americanus helped immensely and now I am doing very good on HWhookworm, usually referring to the human hookworm, Necator americanus and L. Reuteri.” (Link expired)

Someone else was able to reap numerous health benefits from hosting hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin., in spite of having a long-term EBV infection.

Helminthic therapyThe reintroduction to the digestive tract of a controlled number of specially domesticated, mutualistic helminths (intestinal worms) in the form of microscopic eggs or larvae to reconstitute a depleted biome to treat and prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy. and tuberculosis (TB)

Certain helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] may enhance TB infection, whether newly acquired or reactivated [40] and some helminth species may reduce the effect of any anti-TB therapy. [41] However, there is a reduced prevalence of latent TB infection among individuals hosting hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin..

And infection with the human whipwormA helminth with a tapering whiplike body that lives in the colon. In helminthic therapy, the microscopic eggs of either the human Trichuris trichiura (TTO) or pig Trichuris suis (TSO) are taken in a drink., Trichuris trichiuraThe human whipworm used in helminthic therapy and taken periodically as microscopic eggs (TTO) in a drink., may also provide protection against acquiring a TB infection.

In order to combat TB, a certain degree of immune vigilance is required, but a hyper-vigilant immune system will increase the risk of autoimmune disease. The effects of helminthic therapyThe reintroduction to the digestive tract of a controlled number of specially domesticated, mutualistic helminths (intestinal worms) in the form of microscopic eggs or larvae to reconstitute a depleted biome to treat and prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy. in TB must be seen in relation to this dynamic.

Below are several further examples of the research into the interactions between helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] and TB. As can be seen, three of these papers addressed the effects of specific helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] that are not used in helminthic therapyThe reintroduction to the digestive tract of a controlled number of specially domesticated, mutualistic helminths (intestinal worms) in the form of microscopic eggs or larvae to reconstitute a depleted biome to treat and prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy.. These include Schistosoma mansoni, a blood fluke, the eggs of which penetrate body cavities such as the lungs where, unlike the therapeutic helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths], they actually cause inflammation and promote reinfection and relapse in TB.

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It is now evident that helminth infestations can influence the host response to MTB at multiple levels, from the initial encounter between macrophage and bacilli, to the type of adaptive T cell immunity, and to the development of immunopathology. At the same time, many open questions remain to be answered, both at the clinical–epidemiological level (e.g., regarding the benefit of anthelminthic treatment) and at the fundamental level of immune regulation during coinfection.
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It is clear that there is great degree of interaction in the initiation and maintenance of host immune responses to concomitant or co-existing helminth infections and TB. Whether this antigen-specific crosstalk actually alters clinical outcomes remains an important question.

See also