Helminthic therapy and cancer

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Some helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] can cause cancer, but not NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus, TTthe human whipworm, Trichuris trichiura, TSthe porcine (pig) whipworm, Trichuris suis or HDHymenolepis diminuta, a murine (rat) tapeworm.

Some helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] have been identified as being carcinogenic, but these don’t include any of the helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] used for therapeutic purposes.

Why does infection with some helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] cause cancer? [1]

It isn’t in a worm's interests to make its host more susceptible to anything that might kill it, as is explained here: [2]

HelminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] may provide cancer protection

HelminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] may offer protection against at least some forms of cancer rather than increase our susceptibility to it.

HelminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] may be able to elicit anti-tumor immune responses that can lead to protection from tumorigenesis, or even cancer regression. [3]

Helminth infection may reduce the risk of colitis-associated tumour formation [4]

Helminthiasis may alter inflammatory responses to H. pylori and thus affect the progression of gastritis to gastric atrophy, dysplasia, and cancer. [5]

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Researchers found that enhanced biodiversity (of bacteria and worms) was associated with better immune responsiveness. Specifically, they found better responses to vaccination, better T-cell responses, and much higher levels of "natural" antibodies, which have been shown to be important in fighting cancer. [6]

Cancer has been linked to inflammation, and helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] control inflammation

Chronic Inflammation Linked to High-Grade Prostate Cancer [7]

Pre-existing inflammation (from allergic reactions) may promote the spread of cancer [8]

Infection with other microorganisms may also help to reduce cancer risk

BCG vaccination in infancy confers a survival advantage for melanoma patients, and vaccination of adults against yellow fever may have a similar effect. [9]

Does cat poop parasiteAn organism that lives in or on another organism (its host) and benefits at the host’s expense. (The organisms used in helminthic therapy are, strictly speaking, not parasites, but mutualists, because they have a mutually beneficial symbiotic relationship with their hosts.) play a role in curing cancer? [10]

Rather than the presence of infectious microorganisms increasing cancer risk, a lack of them may be the greater problem.

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…attenuated responses to tumor antigens as a result of biome depletion might underlie, at least in part, the proposed connection between increased rates of cancer and biome depletion. Further, decreased levels of “natural” IgG and IgM observed in biome depleted (laboratory) environments could exacerbate the problem, since the natural antibody repertoire is involved in tumor surveillance. In this manner, decreased tumor surveillance in biome depleted environments could promote cancer progression and operate synergistically with biome depletion-associated inflammation, a potential initiator and promoter of carcinogenesis. [11]

When a helminthAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths], itself, gets cancer

A case in which a man died after a tapewormA helminth with a flat, ribbon-like, segmented body. Only the murine (rat) tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta, is used in helminthic therapy and this generally does not reach adulthood in humans so requires regular dosing of HDC. inside him developed cancer involved a helminth that is not used in therapy.

Malignant Transformation of Hymenolepis nanaA species of murine (rat) tapeworm closely related to Hymenolepis diminuta but not suitable for use in therapy because it can reproduce within a host and spread person-to-person. Also known as Dwarf tapeworm. in a Human Host [12]

For more discussion about this case, see this thread: [13]

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