Difference between revisions of "Helminthic therapy and cancer"

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(The protective role of helminths: Added a citation.)
 
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Some helminths have been identified as being carcinogenic, but these don’t include any of the helminths used for therapeutic purposes.
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{{Breadcrumb|[[Effects_of_helminthic_therapy|Effects of helminthic therapy]]}}
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|description=Therapeutic helminths might help to prevent cancer and may even assist in its treatment.
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=== Some helminths cause cancer, while others protect against it ===
  
Why does infection with some helminths cause cancer?
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{{Quote|indent}}In spite of having parasites that are classified as inducers and promoters of some neoplasms, others are reported as negative regulators of cancer.” [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30266743]{{Quote|/indent}}
[http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26618199 Link]
 
  
It isn’t in a worm's interests to make its host more susceptible to anything that might kill it, as is explained here:
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{{Quote|indent}}Emerging evidence indicates that certain parasites… are causative agents of malignancies such as bladder cancer caused bv schistosomes and cholangiocarcinoma by liver flukes… On the contrary, some parasite infections or molecules seem to display protective effects on some cancers, such as is the case with Echinococcus. [https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmed.2019.00055/full]{{Quote|/indent}}
[https://www.facebook.com/groups/htsupport/permalink/862869457102344/?comment_id=862871853768771&offset=0&total_comments=1&comment_tracking=%7B%22tn%22%3A%22R%22%7D&__mref=message_bubble Link]
 
  
Helminths may offer protection against at least some forms of cancer rather than increase our susceptibility to it.
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Helminths that have been identified as being carcinogenic include the fish-borne trematodes [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Opisthorchis_viverrini Opisthorchis viverrini] and [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clonorchis_sinensis Clonorchis sinensis] and the blood fluke [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schistosoma_haematobium Schistosoma haematobium], all of which are categorised by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as Group 1 biological carcinogens. [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26618199] [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28750101]
  
Helminths may be able to elicit anti-tumor immune responses that can lead to protection from tumorigenesis, or even cancer regression.
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The helminths used for therapeutic purposes (NA, TT, TS and HD) are not carcinogenic (see [[Helminthic therapy safety | '''Helminthic therapy safety''']]), but one helminthic therapist has suggested that, since some solid mass tumours like to surround themselves with regulatory immune cells, it may be unwise to increase this cell population in patients with a history of solid mass tumours. [https://drruscio.com/healthy-worms-with-garin-aglietti/]
[http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24588712 Link]
 
  
Helminth infection may reduce the risk of colitis-associated tumour formation
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=== The protective role of helminths ===
[http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25210492 Link]
 
  
Helminthiasis may alter inflammatory responses to H. pylori and thus affect the progression of gastritis to gastric atrophy, dysplasia, and cancer.
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Helminths may be able to elicit anti-tumor immune responses that can lead to protection from tumorigenesis, or even to cancer regression.
[http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15941957 Link]
 
  
{{Quote|indent}}Researchers found that enhanced biodiversity (of bacteria and worms) was associated with better immune responsiveness. Specifically, they found better responses to vaccination, better T-cell responses, and much higher levels of "natural" antibodies, which have been shown to be important in fighting cancer.{{Quote|/indent}}
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* [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24588712 The bifacial role of helminths in cancer: involvement of immune and non-immune mechanisms]
[http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/04/150408145242.htm Link]
 
  
We know that helminths control inflammation, and cancer has been linked with inflammation.
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Helminth infection may limit the growth and dispersion of tumors.  
  
Chronic Inflammation Linked to High-Grade Prostate Cancer
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* [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31255915 The immune response to Hymenolepis nana in mice decreases tumorigenesis induced by 7,12 dimethylbenz-anthracene]  
[http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/news/media/releases/chronic_inflammation_linked_to_high_grade_prostate_cancer Link]
 
  
Pre-existing inflammation (from allergic reactions) may promote the spread of cancer
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Helminth infection may reduce the risk of colitis-associated tumour formation.
[http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/04/150430113205.htm Link]
 
  
Infection with other microorganisms may also reduce cancer risk
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* [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31407335 Helminth-derived molecules inhibit colitis-associated colon cancer development through NF-kB and STAT3 regulation]
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* [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25210492 Extraintestinal helminth infection reduces the development of colitis-associated tumorigenesis]
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Helminth infection may alter inflammatory responses to H. pylori and thus affect the progression of gastritis to gastric atrophy, dysplasia, and cancer.
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* [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15941957 Intestinal helminthiasis in Colombian children promotes a Th2 response to Helicobacter pylori: possible implications for gastric carcinogenesis]
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=== Cancer has been linked to inflammation, which is controlled by helminths ===
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* [http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/news/media/releases/chronic_inflammation_linked_to_high_grade_prostate_cancer Chronic Inflammation Linked to High-Grade Prostate Cancer]
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* [http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/04/150430113205.htm Pre-existing inflammation (from allergic reactions) may promote the spread of cancer]
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* [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31205032 Preoperative management of inflammation may stave off cancer recurrences]
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=== Helminths and their products may potentially treat cancer ===
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Helminths exert antitumor effects via several mechanisms of action.
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{{Quote|indent}}The beneficial effects reported for some parasitic diseases on tumorigenesis range from the induction of apoptosis, activation of the immune response, avoiding metastasis and angiogenesis, inhibition of proliferative signals, to the regulation of inflammatory responses that promote cancer. [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30266743]{{Quote|/indent}}
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Worm-derived molecules could be potential candidates for anti-cancer drugs.
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* [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28659212 Helminth-induced apoptosis: a silent strategy for immunosuppression.]
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* [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30069018 Hookworm exposure decreases human papillomavirus uptake and cervical cancer cell migration through systemic regulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition marker expression.]
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* [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31299381 The helminth-derived peptide GK-1 induces an anti-tumoral CD8 T cell response associated with downregulation of the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway]
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=== Infection with other microorganisms may also help to reduce cancer risk ===
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{{Quote|indent}}Researchers found that enhanced biodiversity (of bacteria and worms) was associated with better immune responsiveness. Specifically, they found better responses to vaccination, better T-cell responses, and much higher levels of "natural" antibodies, which have been shown to be important in fighting cancer. [http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/04/150408145242.htm] {{Quote|/indent}}
  
 
BCG vaccination in infancy confers a survival advantage for melanoma patients, and vaccination of adults against yellow fever may have a similar effect.
 
BCG vaccination in infancy confers a survival advantage for melanoma patients, and vaccination of adults against yellow fever may have a similar effect.
[http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2407/14/595 Link]
 
  
Does cat poop parasite play a role in curing cancer?
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* [http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2407/14/595 The biography of the immune system and the control of cancer: from St Peregrine to contemporary vaccination strategies]
[http://www.newswise.com/articles/does-cat-poop-parasite-play-a-role-in-curing-cancer Link]
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Infection with the feline parasite, Toxoplasma gondii, stimulates the body to produce natural killer cells and cytotoxic T cells, which wage war on cancer cells.
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* [http://www.newswise.com/articles/does-cat-poop-parasite-play-a-role-in-curing-cancer Does cat poop parasite play a role in curing cancer?]  
  
 
Rather than the presence of infectious microorganisms increasing cancer risk, a lack of them may be the greater problem.
 
Rather than the presence of infectious microorganisms increasing cancer risk, a lack of them may be the greater problem.
  
{{Quote|indent}}…attenuated responses to tumor antigens as a result of biome depletion might underlie, at least in part, the proposed connection between increased rates of cancer and biome depletion. Further, decreased levels of “natural” IgG and IgM observed in biome depleted (laboratory) environments could exacerbate the problem, since the natural antibody repertoire is involved in tumor surveillance. In this manner, decreased tumor surveillance in biome depleted environments could promote cancer progression and operate synergistically with biome depletion-associated inflammation, a potential initiator and promoter of carcinogenesis.{{Quote|/indent}}
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{{Quote|indent}}…attenuated responses to tumor antigens as a result of biome depletion might underlie, at least in part, the proposed connection between increased rates of cancer and biome depletion. Further, decreased levels of “natural” IgG and IgM observed in biome depleted (laboratory) environments could exacerbate the problem, since the natural antibody repertoire is involved in tumor surveillance. In this manner, decreased tumor surveillance in biome depleted environments could promote cancer progression and operate synergistically with biome depletion-associated inflammation, a potential initiator and promoter of carcinogenesis. [http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0120255] {{Quote|/indent}}
[http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0120255]
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=== When a helminth, itself, gets cancer ===
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This rare case in which a man died after a tapeworm inside him developed cancer, involved a helminth that is not used in therapy.
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* [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26535513 Malignant Transformation of Hymenolepis nana in a Human Host] -- [https://www.nejm.org/doi/10.1056/NEJMoa1505892?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub%3dwww.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov Full text]
  
A case in which a man died after a tapeworm inside him developed cancer involved a helminth that is not used in therapy.
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For a discussion about this case, see this [https://www.facebook.com/groups/htsupport/permalink/910009412388348/ support group thread].
  
Malignant Transformation of Hymenolepis nana in a Human Host
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===See also===
[http://www.nejm.org/doi/pdf/10.1056/NEJMoa1505892 Link]
 
  
For more discussion about this case, see this thread:
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* [[Helminthic therapy safety | '''Helminthic therapy safety''']]
[https://www.facebook.com/groups/htsupport/permalink/910009412388348/ Link]
 

Latest revision as of 21:17, 15 August 2019

Home>Effects of helminthic therapy>Helminthic therapy and cancer

Some helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] cause cancer, while others protect against it

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In spite of having parasitesAn organism that lives in or on another organism (its host) and benefits at the host’s expense. (The organisms used in helminthic therapy are, strictly speaking, not parasites, but mutualists, because they have a mutually beneficial symbiotic relationship with their hosts.) that are classified as inducers and promoters of some neoplasms, others are reported as negative regulators of cancer.” [1]
Quotein.gif
Emerging evidence indicates that certain parasitesAn organism that lives in or on another organism (its host) and benefits at the host’s expense. (The organisms used in helminthic therapy are, strictly speaking, not parasites, but mutualists, because they have a mutually beneficial symbiotic relationship with their hosts.)… are causative agents of malignancies such as bladder cancer caused bv schistosomes and cholangiocarcinoma by liver flukes… On the contrary, some parasiteAn organism that lives in or on another organism (its host) and benefits at the host’s expense. (The organisms used in helminthic therapy are, strictly speaking, not parasites, but mutualists, because they have a mutually beneficial symbiotic relationship with their hosts.) infections or molecules seem to display protective effects on some cancers, such as is the case with Echinococcus. [2]

HelminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] that have been identified as being carcinogenic include the fish-borne trematodes Opisthorchis viverrini and Clonorchis sinensis and the blood fluke Schistosoma haematobium, all of which are categorised by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as Group 1 biological carcinogens. [3] [4]

The helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] used for therapeutic purposes (NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus, TTthe human whipworm, Trichuris trichiura, TSthe porcine (pig) whipworm, Trichuris suis and HDHymenolepis diminuta, a murine (rat) tapeworm.) are not carcinogenic (see Helminthic therapy safety), but one helminthic therapist has suggested that, since some solid mass tumours like to surround themselves with regulatory immune cells, it may be unwise to increase this cell population in patients with a history of solid mass tumours. [5]

The protective role of helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths]

HelminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] may be able to elicit anti-tumor immune responses that can lead to protection from tumorigenesis, or even to cancer regression.

Helminth infection may limit the growth and dispersion of tumors.

Helminth infection may reduce the risk of colitis-associated tumour formation.

Helminth infection may alter inflammatory responses to H. pylori and thus affect the progression of gastritis to gastric atrophy, dysplasia, and cancer.

Cancer has been linked to inflammation, which is controlled by helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths]

HelminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] and their products may potentially treat cancer

HelminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] exert antitumor effects via several mechanisms of action.

Quotein.gif
The beneficial effects reported for some parasiticAn organism that lives in or on another organism (its host) and benefits at the host’s expense. (The organisms used in helminthic therapy are, strictly speaking, not parasites, but mutualists, because they have a mutually beneficial symbiotic relationship with their hosts.) diseases on tumorigenesis range from the induction of apoptosis, activation of the immune response, avoiding metastasis and angiogenesis, inhibition of proliferative signals, to the regulation of inflammatory responses that promote cancer. [6]

Worm-derived molecules could be potential candidates for anti-cancer drugs.

Infection with other microorganisms may also help to reduce cancer risk

Quotein.gif
Researchers found that enhanced biodiversity (of bacteria and worms) was associated with better immune responsiveness. Specifically, they found better responses to vaccination, better T-cell responses, and much higher levels of "natural" antibodies, which have been shown to be important in fighting cancer. [7]

BCG vaccination in infancy confers a survival advantage for melanoma patients, and vaccination of adults against yellow fever may have a similar effect.

Infection with the feline parasiteAn organism that lives in or on another organism (its host) and benefits at the host’s expense. (The organisms used in helminthic therapy are, strictly speaking, not parasites, but mutualists, because they have a mutually beneficial symbiotic relationship with their hosts.), Toxoplasma gondii, stimulates the body to produce natural killer cells and cytotoxic T cells, which wage war on cancer cells.

Rather than the presence of infectious microorganisms increasing cancer risk, a lack of them may be the greater problem.

Quotein.gif
…attenuated responses to tumor antigens as a result of biome depletion might underlie, at least in part, the proposed connection between increased rates of cancer and biome depletion. Further, decreased levels of “natural” IgG and IgM observed in biome depleted (laboratory) environments could exacerbate the problem, since the natural antibody repertoire is involved in tumor surveillance. In this manner, decreased tumor surveillance in biome depleted environments could promote cancer progression and operate synergistically with biome depletion-associated inflammation, a potential initiator and promoter of carcinogenesis. [8]

When a helminthAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths], itself, gets cancer

This rare case in which a man died after a tapewormA helminth with a flat, ribbon-like, segmented body. Only the murine (rat) tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta, is used in helminthic therapy and this generally does not reach adulthood in humans so requires regular dosing of HDC. inside him developed cancer, involved a helminth that is not used in therapy.

For a discussion about this case, see this support group thread.

See also