Helminthic therapy FAQ
If you are new to helminthic therapy, it's best to start by reading the Introduction to helminthic therapy. While this is not set out in the FAQ format, it is the most comprehensive and up-to-date guide to everything you need to know in order to understand and get started with this therapy. Its contents form a foundation to the rest of the material on this site and include details about the special types of helminth which are used in therapy and the companies that supply them. Reading the introduction carefully, and in full, will help to prevent you wasting time and money and possibly not getting the best from the therapy, if you decide to try it.
How do I get started with helminthic therapy?
This section is for those who want to cut to the chase.
1. Read the Introduction to helminthic therapy.
2. Check the Helminthic therapy personal stories page for the conditions you would like to treat. Reading these stories will help you decide which helminth species might best meet your needs.
3. Read more about these species on the Selecting a therapeutic helminth page.
4. See one, or more, of the following pages, as appropriate.
5. Once you have decided which species you would like to start with, check the Helminth providers page to find companies that supply this organism and ship to your location.
6. Check out the customer feedback about all the providers on the Helminth provider reviews page.
FAQs for newbies
What is helminthic therapy?
Helminthic therapy is the reintroduction to the digestive tract of a controlled number of specially domesticated, mutualistic helminths (intestinal worms) in the form of microscopic eggs or larvae to reconstitute a depleted biome to treat and prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy.
To learn more, see this introduction to the topic.
Is helminthic therapy safe?
Yes, it is very safe, as can be seen from the details on the following page.
Is helminthic therapy legal?
In the United States, the FDA have issued an Import Alert which states that helminths used as immunomodulators are considered to be biological products as defined in Section 351 of the Public Health Service Act. This alert is the Agency's current guidance to FDA field personnel and authorises US Customs staff to confiscate packages they identify as containing helminth products.
However, there is no specific law prohibiting self-treatment with helminths, or prohibiting the sale, purchase, possession or growing of helminths for self-treatment, anywhere in the world, and, in practice, very few packages containing helminth eggs or larvae are intercepted in transit, even in the US. Most people who are self-treating with helminths are therefore able to receive deliveries from the helminth providers without issue.
Australian and German Customs departments have been known to impound some packages from the helminth providers, although there are ways to avoid this hurdle, so anyone in these countries should talk to their provider about this.
How does helminthic therapy work?
The organisms used in helminthic therapy work as a result of the chemicals that they secrete to protect themselves from being ejected by their host and to keep their host alive for as long as possible.
Over millions of years of coevolution with humans and our primate ancestors, helminths have learned to evade most of what the human immune system can throw at them, and they do this by controlling inflammation. For more detail about how they achieve this effect, see the following page.
Why is helminthic therapy necessary?
Helminthic therapy has only become necessary because humans have adopted many practices (e.g., wearing shoes and using toilets) that interrupt the life cycles of helminths which our forebears had previously hosted for millions of years.
Helminths are now considered to be heirloom species that have coexisted and co-evolved with humans to the extent that we are now incomplete without them and depend on their presence for the optimal functioning of our immune systems. These mutualistic organisms train the developing immune system in infancy and continue to regulate immune function throughout life for as long as they remain with us. Helminthic therapy is therefore not like a drug treatment, but more a form of replacement therapy - putting back something we have lost but which we actually need.
Although some people with particular genetic profiles don’t develop autoimmune diseases or allergies as a result of being helminth deficient, there is evidence that even they can be susceptible to developing degenerative diseases because they lack the very efficient inflammation control that helminths provide.
What are the benefits of hosting helminths?
Helminthic therapy modulates (normalises) the function of the immune system. This action controls inflammation and reduces autoimmunity and allergies. To see how these effects are achieved, go to the following page.
Since inflammation is involved in many diseases, its control has many benefits for helminth hosts. Diseases that have been successfully treated by helminthic therapy are listed on the following page.
In addition to treating existing disease, helminthic therapy can also prevent disease, as can be seen from the details on this page:
What conditions have been helped by helminthic therapy?
Conditions with the largest number of reported successes are Crohn’s disease, allergy, food intolerance and ulcerative colitis.
Other conditions with a high number of reports of success include multiple sclerosis (MS), eczema, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), asthma, multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS), food allergy, anxiety, depression, autism, migraine and Sjogren’s syndrome.
In all, more than 100 conditions have been reported to have been successfully remediated by helminthic therapy. These are all listed on the following page along with thumbnail comments by the patients or their parents, and with links to their full reports.
How long does it take to see benefits?
Helminthic therapy is typically very slow to deliver benefits when compared with drugs. For the majority who respond to treatment with hookworms, consistent improvements do not usually materialise until at least 3 months after their first inoculation, with most people only seeing improvement in their condition between 3 and 5 months. Some may only start to improve between 6 and 12 months and a few may even have to wait for as long as 18-24 months. Response to the non-human helminths, TSO and HDC, is usually more rapid.
Once improvements do begin, some people can experience a sudden and dramatic reduction in symptoms while others may respond more gradually over a period of time, possibly three years or more. Improvements during the first 2 years are not always continuous because there can be periods of exacerbation during which symptoms may worsen again, albeit temporarily.
Helminthic therapy is not a one-size-fits-all solution, nor a one dose fix. Dosing needs to be tailored to the unique needs of each individual, and continued indefinitely in the vast majority of cases.
How long does helminthic therapy take to effect a cure?
Helminthic therapy is a form of replacement therapy in which something that is missing is added back. In this case, helminths are replaced in the intestine to supplement a diminished biome.  This is necessary because, due to our long coevolution with helminths, we have come to rely on worms for optimal immune function and, without them, our immune systems may malfunction. 
Helminthic therapy is therefore not a “cure” for anything, in much the same way that other replacement therapies - such as thyroid replacement - do not cure a condition, and need to be continued indefinitely in order to maintain relief from symptoms. In the same way, helminths need to be taken continuously in the majority of cases.
There are people who have been able to enjoy several years of relief from their disease after taking only one or two courses of TSO, and this period of remission has been extended in some self-treaters by taking periodic maintenance doses. (For more detail, see this page section.) But only one case has been reported of someone remaining disease-free for a period of time after completing an initial course of therapy with NA  , and there have not yet been any reports of HDC users having remained disease-free after stopping the treatment. While there may be cases that have not yet been reported, they are likely to be limited in number.
Which worm species are used in helminthic therapy?
Four species of benign helminth have been domesticated for therapeutic use.
Which is the best helminth to use?
See the following page.
How many helminths do you need to take?
The number of helminths that need to be inoculated, and how often these doses need to be repeated, is different for each species. There are full details on the following pages.
How are helminths administered?
Three species (TSO, TTO and HDC) are taken orally in a drink. NA is introduced percutaneously (via the skin). More details on the following page.
Where, and how long, do helminths live?
NA and HDC live in the small intestine. The whipworms (TSO and TTO) live in the large intestine.
NA are reported to survive in humans for 3-10 years  but to be capable of living for up to 15 years,  and possibly even 18 years. However, the experience of hookworm self-treaters suggests that they typically only survive for approximately 1-3 years, and sometimes for only a few months, depending on the strength of the individual host’s immune response. For more, see: Hookworm survival.
TT can survive in humans for more than 2 years, and there have been two reports of them showing up during colonoscopies 7 and 8 years post-inoculation. However, they may die in under a year.
TSO and HDC only survive in humans for 2-3 weeks, and a few people may need to re-dose every week with HDC, suggesting an even shorter lifespan for this species in some hosts. HDC may mature to adulthood in immunosuppressed adults, and colonise a very small percentage of young children, but TSO does not colonise.
More details on the following pages.
What side effects are experienced by people with helminths?
Side effects are usually transient and confined to the first two or three months after the first inoculation. They are also dose-dependent, so can be minimised by conservative dosing.
For more detail about the side effects that are associated with each off the helminth species, see the following pages.
FAQs for helminth hosts
What products and medications can harm a worm population?
See the following page.
Might a genetic bottleneck weaken the domesticated NA stock?
See the following page section.
I've inoculated with too many hookworms. What should I do?
See the following page section.
Are tattoos contraindicated if you have hookworms?
Since hookworms secrete a small amount of anticoagulant to assist their digestive process, NA self-treaters are sometimes concerned that getting a tattoo could cause excessive blood loss. This is not the case, however, due to the minuscule amount of anticoagulant involved, the fact that its effect is mostly localised at the feeding sites and the small number of worms that are hosted. For more about this, see the following page section.
FAQs published by the helminth providers
The following "Frequently Asked Questions" pages on the websites of the commercial helminth providers are an additional source of answers to questions about the therapy.
- Wormswell FAQ (NA)
- Symmbio FAQ (NA and TTO)
- Biome Restoration FAQ (HDC)
- Worm Therapy FAQ (NA and HDC)
- Autoimmune Therapies FAQ (NA and TTO) (PDF)
Alternatives to FAQs
There are several alternative ways to get answers to questions by drilling into the contents of this site.
1. The Search tool is available at the top right of every page.
2. The Home page shows the site’s main sections.
3. The Index to Topics lists every subject covered on the site.
4. The List of Pages includes the title of every page on the site.
5. The Sitemap provides a schematic of the site's contents.