Helminth inoculation

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Inoculation with NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus

NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus larvaeThe active immature form of an insect, or an animal such as a helminth, which develops from an egg and eventually transforms again into its adult state. should be used as soon as they are available. They can survive for as long as 3-5 months if kept at a favourable temperature (70ºF/21ºC), although their longevity is also dependent on the temperature at which their were incubated, with larvaeThe active immature form of an insect, or an animal such as a helminth, which develops from an egg and eventually transforms again into its adult state. grown at a lower temperature surviving for longer. Since they do not feed at this stage in their development, the larvaeThe active immature form of an insect, or an animal such as a helminth, which develops from an egg and eventually transforms again into its adult state. are reliant on their fat stores, which obviously diminish over time, rendering them progressively weaker.

HookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. larvaeThe active immature form of an insect, or an animal such as a helminth, which develops from an egg and eventually transforms again into its adult state. are best applied to a hairless, convex area of skin, after being pipetted onto a bandage/dressing as demonstrated in the following instructional video.

HookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. larvaeThe active immature form of an insect, or an animal such as a helminth, which develops from an egg and eventually transforms again into its adult state. from some providers may be supplied pre-loaded onto a small damp cotton patch, which is then placed onto a larger bandage/dressing before being applied to the skin, as demonstrated in the following video.

The bandage/dressing should be left in place for a minimum of four hours and, ideally, for twelve hours.

Not everyone gets a rash at the inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation] site and, when they do, the number of red dots does not necessarily indicate the number of larvaeThe active immature form of an insect, or an animal such as a helminth, which develops from an egg and eventually transforms again into its adult state. that have entered the skin. Since larvaeThe active immature form of an insect, or an animal such as a helminth, which develops from an egg and eventually transforms again into its adult state. tend to clump together and are microscopic, several may enter in close proximity and leave what looks to the naked eye like a single spot. So, with no one-to-one, worm-to-spot relationship, the number of visible entry points can only provide a rough guide to the number inoculated. The only certainty is that, if there is a rash, then at least as many worms will have entered as there are spots.

For tips on dealing with the inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation] rash, see the following page.

The first inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation] tends to produce a limited reaction in comparison with the following 3 or 4 doses, which typically produce successively more pronounced skin rashes. The fourth and fifth inoculations can leave some people with a very angry-looking bright red rash. For more on this, see Development of the rashes over time.

Best time of day to inoculate with NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus

Different self-treaters prefer different times.

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I get a very aggressive itch, so I always inoculate in the morning. This way, I can distract myself during the day. I take the bandage/dressing off before I retire for the night, and take my hair dryer to bed with me. [1]
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I like to inoculate at night because I sleep through the itch! I hair dryer in the morning. [2]

Body sites used for hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation]

The inside of the forearm or bicep is a good choice because it is convenient to access in order to treat the rash with creams, etc., but inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation] too close to the armpit can cause lymph nodes there to swell, and inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation] high on the inner thigh can raise lymph nodes in the groin.

Sites that have been used include the following.

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I use somewhere on my legs because it's easier to hide under clothes. I always get an awfully itchy itch -- but slightly less when using the upper parts of the leg. [3]
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I like to do ankles. [4]
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It always itches badly, but say the most sensitive places such as inner lower arm and inner calf (not to mention the hollow of the knee :-o ) are "10" on the itching scale, then the middle of the thigh, or slightly above the knee, is "7" or "8"... [5]
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Since it's summer, I think I'm going for left thigh or hip this time. [6]
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I did my second dose on my thigh and that worked fine. [7]
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I've done my thigh but much prefer my arm as the itch seems more managable. [8]
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I started inoculating high on my shoulder because I sleep on my side, and that part is always squished against and rubbing around on the bed, and plus not very sensitive, so the itch is quite bearable. [9]
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I prefer the inner left forearm because I’m right handed and this makes applying anti-itch cream easier. [10]
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I always use the place on my inner arm halfway between my elbow and wrist, because it's flat and smooth... The forearm can easily be covered with a light sleeve but also quickly accessed for airing out or changing dressing. [11]
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Calf. [12]
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I put them somewhere that isn't hard to scratch. Down on my calf I'd be bent over all day long. [13]
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I always do my stomach. [14]

Many hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. hosts have found that repeatedly using the same site results in a more robust skin reaction, and that varying the site effectively reduces both the rash and the itching.

The absence of a rash may not indicate a failed inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation]

A successful first inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation] frequently causes a short-lived and often itchy rash [15] [16] at the inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation] site, but this does not always happen and some subjects only get a faint pink mark with or without red dots, while others get an itch but no rash, and some get no physical signs whatsoever. In the latter case, with no visible confirmation that inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation] was successful, it might be assumed that the larvaeThe active immature form of an insect, or an animal such as a helminth, which develops from an egg and eventually transforms again into its adult state. were all dead, but they may not be.

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I had zero rash the first time... No rash the second time either but in both cases gut symptoms... So no rash does not necessarily mean no worms. [17]
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My wife has yet to see any sign of entry on either dose of hers, but has seen huge effects afterwards. Don't take a small or nonexistent reaction to mean it didn't take. [18]
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My first inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation] of 10 HWhookworm, usually referring to the human hookworm, Necator americanus was 11 days ago and I had absolutely no response at all, nothing on the skin or anything of note since... That is until today when the inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation] site has some small raised reddish bumps. [19]
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I did not get a rash and I did not see any side effects until week 3. [20]

In the absence of a rash the subject may be tempted to add more worms immediately. However, it is advisable to wait because side effects can appear suddenly, “out of nowhere”, a few weeks after an apparently unsuccessful inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation].

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I inoculated with 10 HWhookworm, usually referring to the human hookworm, Necator americanus at the end of September. I had zero issues and was thinking of doing a second round of ten right away. Then, in the beginning of November I suffered from a massive increase in stomach acid production, which brought on GERD and gastritis type symptoms, along with other GIGastroenterology is the branch of medicine concerned with disorders of the digestive system which includes all the organs of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract (alimentary canal) from mouth to anus. Physicians practicing in this field of medicine are called gastroenterologists or GI specialists. symptoms characteristic of HWhookworm, usually referring to the human hookworm, Necator americanus infection. It was really bad for three weeks... [21]
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Well, I finally have decided (39 days in) that my 10 are there - just a little slow on the uptake. The last couple of days the gut has become increasingly uncomfortable, with some severe pains and quite a lot of dizzy spells. Feeling quite a bit worse for wear, so I guess they were quiet arriving but are now settling in... Glad I decided not to use the replacement dose! [22]
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I actually didn't think the inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation] worked, as I only had a slight tingle for a few minutes and the rash was super light and gone in 3 days with no itching. Fast forward 5 weeks and they've made it clear they're here! [23]

If these individuals had added a second dose of larvaeThe active immature form of an insect, or an animal such as a helminth, which develops from an egg and eventually transforms again into its adult state. within the first 12 weeks, they would have faced greatly increased side effects.

Most viable supplementary doses produce a rash, but even these can occasionally fail to cause any skin response.

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My last one, #6, gave me practically no itching at the time. Definitely worked though. [24]

Oral inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation] with NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus is not recommended

There are several reasons why it is not recommended to swallow NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus larvaeThe active immature form of an insect, or an animal such as a helminth, which develops from an egg and eventually transforms again into its adult state..

1. Oral inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation] has been shown to be effective with some hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. species, such as the dog hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin., Ancylostoma caninum, [25] and the human hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin., Ancylostoma duodenaleA species of roundworm, aka the Old World hookworm, that is "not" used in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ancylostoma_duodenale Wikipedia:Ancylostoma duodenale], [26] but oral inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation] with Necator americanusThe species of human hookworm used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. has been found to be ineffective.

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N. americanus may require a period of growth in the lungs, which is not required by A. duodenale. This deduction is based on the observation that development of N. americanus following oral infection rarely succeeds and, even then, very few worms develop… the apparent inability of N. americanus to do this is thought to be attributable to an obligate pneumonic phase in its life history. [27]

2. HookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. have probably taken the same route throughout most of their long co-evolution with mankind, so they are likely to try to follow the same pathway irrespective of where they actually enter the body. Therefore, unless they are encapsulated, larvaeThe active immature form of an insect, or an animal such as a helminth, which develops from an egg and eventually transforms again into its adult state. that are swallowed may still be looking for skin, and might mistake the lining of the mouth or throat for external skin and enter via these surfaces. Nagahana, et al., have reported that N. americanus L3 larvaeThe active immature form of an insect, or an animal such as a helminth, which develops from an egg and eventually transforms again into its adult state. will invade the buccal epithelium if they enter through the mouth. (Nagahana M, et al. Experimental studies on the oral infection of Necator americanusThe species of human hookworm used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin.. III. Experimental infection of three cases of human beings with Necator americanusThe species of human hookworm used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. larvaeThe active immature form of an insect, or an animal such as a helminth, which develops from an egg and eventually transforms again into its adult state. through the mucous membrane of the mouth. Japanese Journal of Parasitology. 1963;12:162–167.) Since some people experience significant swelling at the inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation] site, there is a potential for blockage of the throat if larvaeThe active immature form of an insect, or an animal such as a helminth, which develops from an egg and eventually transforms again into its adult state. were swallowed.

3. L3 hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. larvaeThe active immature form of an insect, or an animal such as a helminth, which develops from an egg and eventually transforms again into its adult state. are particularly susceptible to acid, so there must be some developmental change that occurs during the few days that they normally take to travel from the skin to the stomach which enables them to survive the harsh, acidic gastric environment. Hotez and colleagues have reported that, following entry into the host via the skin, L3 larvaeThe active immature form of an insect, or an animal such as a helminth, which develops from an egg and eventually transforms again into its adult state. receive a signal present in mammalian blood and tissue that causes them to resume development and secrete bioactive polypeptides. [28] [29] Larvae that are swallowed will obviously not experience this trigger.

4. Oral inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation] does not provide the visible confirmation of dose viability that is common with successful percutaneous inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation]. So, unless the worms have been cultured by the person inoculating, or they have a microscope with which to check the viability of doses received from other sources, they might unknowingly swallow a dose of dead worms, which could delay the progress of their treatment.

Possible side effects after inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation] with NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus

See the following pages.

Inoculation with TTOthe ova (eggs) of the human whipworm, Trichuris trichiura

TTOthe ova (eggs) of the human whipworm, Trichuris trichiura are taken orally in a drink.

Possible side effects after inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation] with TTOthe ova (eggs) of the human whipworm, Trichuris trichiura

See the following page section.

Inoculation with TSOthe ova (eggs) of the porcine (pig) whipworm, Trichuris suis

TSOthe ova (eggs) of the porcine (pig) whipworm, Trichuris suis are taken orally in a drink.

Possible side effects after inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation] with TSOthe ova (eggs) of the porcine (pig) whipworm, Trichuris suis

See the following page section.

Inoculation with HDCHymenolepis diminuta cysticercoids (Hi-men-o-lep'is dim-a-nu-ta sis-ti-sur-koid) - the larval cysts of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta

HDCHymenolepis diminuta cysticercoids (Hi-men-o-lep'is dim-a-nu-ta sis-ti-sur-koid) - the larval cysts of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta are taken orally in a drink, preferably something containing fat to help promote the growth of the cysticerciThe larval (immature) stage of a tapeworm.. Milk will work well, or a single fish oil capsule can be taken with any other liquid.

Possible side effects after inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation] with HDCHymenolepis diminuta cysticercoids (Hi-men-o-lep'is dim-a-nu-ta sis-ti-sur-koid) - the larval cysts of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta

See the following page and page section.

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