The hookworm inoculation rash

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The rash

A successful first inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation] with hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. frequently causes an itchy, pink and possibly raised rash at the inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation] site as a result of the immune system reacting to the worms’ entry into the skin. [1] [2] Occasionally, the entry sites may take on a bruised appearance, with black and blue discolouration.

Some people may have a rash without itching.

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I got very little itch, just barely detectable if at all, but I got easily visible red bumps that stayed for several days. [3]
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I wasn't sure I felt anything, maybe a little tingle but couldn't be sure on that first dose. But they were in. I got two little red dots 2 days later and lots of health improvements 8 weeks later! [4]

Others can experience itching but no rash, and some may have no physical signs whatsoever.

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I had no initial signs physically to indicate success such as itching or redness etc. [5]

A lack of skin response is more likely in someone who is taking an immunosuppressant drug.

Timing, severity and duration of itching

If there is itching, this often commences within a few minutes of applying the bandage/dressing, but it can be delayed for a number of hours, and its duration can vary enormously, from a few minutes to several weeks. The severity of itching and whether it is continuous or intermittent also vary considerably, with occasional itching at the inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation] site being possible at any time during the first few weeks and even occasionally as late as 4 months or more.

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In our case, itching starts in about 3 minutes. [6]
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6-7 min pretty much every time. [7]
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About 10-15 minutes after for me. [8]
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Not until hours after, or even the next day. [9]
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For me it was only about 25 minutes of crazy itching, and it hasn’t itched since. [10]
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It continues for 12 to 24 hours while the bandage is on, then it's gone. [11]
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Still itching and blotchy after 3 weeks, nearly drove me crazy. [12]
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Itching lasted over a month. [13]
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15 weeks post inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation] with HWhookworm, usually referring to the human hookworm, Necator americanus and the inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation] site is intermittently red, inflamed and itchy. [14]

Number of red dots may not correspond with number of larvaeThe active immature form of an insect, or an animal such as a helminth, which develops from an egg and eventually transforms again into its adult state. inoculated

When there is a rash at the inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation] site, the number of red dots that appear does not necessarily indicate the number of larvaeThe active immature form of an insect, or an animal such as a helminth, which develops from an egg and eventually transforms again into its adult state. that have entered the skin. Since larvaeThe active immature form of an insect, or an animal such as a helminth, which develops from an egg and eventually transforms again into its adult state. tend to clump together and are microscopic, several may enter in close proximity, leaving what looks to the naked eye like a single entry point. So, with no one-to-one, worm-to-spot relationship, the number of visible entry points can only provide a rough guide to the number inoculated.

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I recently did 6 live wrigglers and dropped them off slide onto bandage ... checked slide for stragglers all good and i got 2 bumps... so unless you are individually applying its not a great way to count them. [15]

The only certainty is that, if there is a rash, then at least as many worms will have entered the skin as there are red dots.

To examine the rash more closely, photograph your arm in bright light with a macro lens, then use a computer monitor to count any visible spots.

Skin response may not necessarily predict outcome

The severity of the skin response is not a reliable indication of a successful outcome from the therapy, and nor is the appearance of a bounce or the presence, absence, or severity of side effects.

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My first dose I had quite a severe reaction at the site, blisters & marks that lasted for ever (but) I have had no benefits to my allergies at all.” [16]

Persistence of the rash

The rash may persist for at least 7 weeks in some cases.

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Mine lasted for about 7 weeks and is just now starting to fade. [17]

And it can reappear intermittently over an even longer period.

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15 weeks post inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation] with HWhookworm, usually referring to the human hookworm, Necator americanus and the inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation] site is intermittently red, inflamed and itchy. [18]

In one case involving a 4-year-old boy with a suspected mast cell disorder, a third inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation] of 10 NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus caused a persistent rash and also reactivated the rash at the site of his second inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation] (also 10 NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus). Both rashes then remained “constantly itchy/painful and bumpy” for 7 months until a helminthic therapyThe reintroduction to the digestive tract of a controlled number of specially domesticated, mutualistic helminths (intestinal worms) in the form of microscopic eggs or larvae to reconstitute a depleted biome to treat and prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy.-aware doctor recommended high doses of antihistamines and mast cell medications, which quickly resolved the rash. The problem in this case was likely to have been that the number of larvaeThe active immature form of an insect, or an animal such as a helminth, which develops from an egg and eventually transforms again into its adult state. inoculated was too high for a child with a suspected mast cell disorder. (See Helminthic therapy and mast cell disorders for more about the use of HThelminthic therapy in subjects with MCADMast cell activation disorder, also known as mast cell activation syndrome (MCAS). An immunological condition. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mast_cell_activation_syndrome Wikipedia:Mast cell activation syndrome]/MCASMast cell activation syndrome, also referred to as mast cell activation disorder (MCAD). An immunological condition. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mast_cell_activation_syndrome Wikipedia:Mast cell activation syndrome].)

Future reactivation of the rash

The inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation] site may suddenly flare and become itchy again weeks or months after an inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation]. This might occur when the worms start to attach to the inner wall of the intestine to feed for the first time on or after day 21, or at the peak of the immune response to a new batch of worms at around 7 weeks.

This phenomenon may be the result of the L3 larvaeThe active immature form of an insect, or an animal such as a helminth, which develops from an egg and eventually transforms again into its adult state. having shed their cuticles and sheaths during their migration through the host’s skin. [19] When the immune system detects similar material during the later stages of the worms’ migration, and when they begin to feed from the intestinal wall, there is a release of antibodies to those types of cells or proteins wherever they occur, including in the skin, which can flare as a result.

Two hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. self-treaters have reported a reactivation of the inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation] site on or around day 12, [20] [21] and another experienced a flare of her rash at 7 weeks. [22]

Yet another self-treaterSomeone who treats their own disease or condition without medical assistance. experienced a rash in the area of an old inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation] site when exposed to sun for the first time in a while. [23]

Treating the itch

After self-inoculation with hookworm larvae, the bandage/dressing should be left in place for a minimum of four hours and, ideally, for twelve. If the larvaeThe active immature form of an insect, or an animal such as a helminth, which develops from an egg and eventually transforms again into its adult state. are applied in the morning, the bandage/dressing can be removed before going to bed at night, making it easier to treat the itch and thus prevent sleep being lost as a result of discomfort during the night. Although some people prefer to inoculate just before going to bed because they can sleep through the itching.

If the resulting rash is itchy, this can be treated after removal of the bandage/dressing.

An electric hair dryer - gold star tip!

An electric hair dryer provides the gold standard treatment for a hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. itch. Hot air is directed from the dryer at the centre of the rash and held up to the point of feeling momentary pain. This will usually stop the itch completely for a number of hours, but one does need to be careful not to cause a burn! More details here.

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The hairdryer trick works a treat. I ended up sleeping with mine beside the bed for a couple of days. [24]

Oral antihistamine products

Oral antihistamines may help to relieve the itch but, unfortunately, some of these contain drugs that have anthelminthic properties. While it is unlikely that anything will harm hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. before they attach to the gut mucosa (towards the end of the third week, post inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation]) some of these drugs may harm mature hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin.. The following guide is intended to help navigate the available antihistamine drugs.

Topical antihistamines

Topical products containing 2% diphenhydramine hydrochloride are very effective and are available in several forms. An alcohol-based version may perform marginally better than a cream, but whichever form is used, diphenhydramine is ideal because it works as an antihistamine as well as a local anaesthetic. Available in both the US and UK - from Amazon, Ebay and other outlets and may also be available in other countries.

Steroid cream

A maximum strength (1%) hydrocortisone cream is another treatment option for the itch, e.g.

Non-steroidal creams and lotions

Any topical allergy or itch treatment - such as vaginal itch relief creams - should work to varying degrees, and other treatments that have been reported to work include the following.

  • Calamine lotion One individual says this gives him at least two hours relief, and someone else, who had tried Benadryl lotion, prednisolone, cortisone cream, “some sort of anti/itch numbing spray” and oral antihistamines, has claimed that calamine lotion beats them all. [25]

Essential oils

Several essential oils have been reported to help, including magnolia oil (controlled the itch and prevented scratching [28], and worked in the short term, but so did ice, which is cheaper [29]), sandalwood oil [30] and lavender oil. Two drops of the latter applied on a bandage calmed one user’s itch almost immediately and allowed her to forget about the rash completely! [31]

Magnesium sulphate (Epsom salts)

One hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. host has had success using an Epsom salts (magnesium sulphate) solution. This reportedly eased the itch, stopped the weeping and generally dried up the rash site. [32]

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I have been rinsing the spot with Epsom salts on second day and it queitens the itch and redness for me.... Basically the itch stops 99%. I just used a 1/4 teasp (of magnesium sulphate) in a tiny bit of water then pour over and rub in. Then just let air dry. The scab seems bigger but its not as most of it is the drawn out liquid dried. Underneath was a tiny scab, but the redness was down and the itching gone. Just makes it a non event for me. [33] [34]

Others have used magnesium sulphate paste with similar success.

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I found that using one application of Magnesium Sulphate paste on the site of innoculation around day 14 finally stopped the itch and led to marks clearing up quickly. This paste is available from pharmacists over the counter and is usually only left on for 12 hours... Apply and cover with a plaster, wash off the next day. [35]

Someone else who applied Epsom salts as a paste also found that it worked, but said it was messy. [36]

Miscellaneous substances

Others have reported success with a variety of substances, including honey, natural pawpaw cream, sea or salt water and even toothpaste!

Keeping the rash covered

One person says that she finds the best way to deal with the itch is not to touch the rash at all with fingers, creams or clothes, etc., as any friction over the area increases the itch. So, while it’s hard to achieve, she finds that just keeping the rash covered and restraining her urge to touch it is what works best for her. Another agrees about covering the rash.

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I use hydrocortisone cream and a gauze wrap (very snug) over the top. The snugness helps dampen the itch and prevents you from scratching it in your sleep! [37]

Applying pressure

Someone else has found it helpful to go a step further and apply pressure to the rash using an elastic bandage.

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... using a tensor bandage around the site; the pressure/tension seems to help lessen the itchiness. (I have bees, and this really helps a lot for stings on arms/legs but a bit less effective for the inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation] itch.) [38]

Striking the rash

A few others have reported getting up to half a day’s relief from the itch after giving their rash several hearty slaps. In one case this is done after applying hydrocortisone cream.



Ice packs

An ice pack has been found to provide effective relief by some people.

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My husband used the ice pack - on for about 1/2 hour before going to bed each night helped enough that he wasn't kept awake by the itching. It also helped decrease the swelling around the inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation] rash. During the day, he would just put on the ice pack for 15- 30 min, whenever he had a chance and it seemed to make it better for an hour or so at a time. [39]
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Icing it for 15 minutes took care of it. [40]

If there is no rash

An absence of any indication that the larvaeThe active immature form of an insect, or an animal such as a helminth, which develops from an egg and eventually transforms again into its adult state. have entered the skin is especially likely if the self-treaterSomeone who treats their own disease or condition without medical assistance. is taking an immunosuppressant drug such as prednisone/prednisolone. Even low-dose steroids, such as those used in inhalers, can profoundly reduce the skin reaction to inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation], although a few subjects who are taking steroids may still develop an itch and/or rash.

In a few cases, a lack of any skin response may indicate that the larvaeThe active immature form of an insect, or an animal such as a helminth, which develops from an egg and eventually transforms again into its adult state. failed to survive the rigours of the journey, perhaps as a result of them being exposed to extremes of temperature during transit, especially at altitude during flight, where everything at or near the edge of a pallet will freeze. For more information about this possibility, see Storage and survival of hookworm larvae.

The absence of a rash may not indicate a failed inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation]

Where there is no visible confirmation that inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation] was successful, it might be assumed that the larvaeThe active immature form of an insect, or an animal such as a helminth, which develops from an egg and eventually transforms again into its adult state. were all dead, but they may not be.

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I had zero rash the first time... No rash the second time either but in both cases gut symptoms... So no rash does not necessarily mean no worms. [41]
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My wife has yet to see any sign of entry on either dose of hers, but has seen huge effects afterwards. Don't take a small or nonexistent reaction to mean it didn't take. [42]
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My first inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation] of 10 HWhookworm, usually referring to the human hookworm, Necator americanus was 11 days ago and I had absolutely no response at all, nothing on the skin or anything of note since... That is until today when the inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation] site has some small raised reddish bumps. [43]
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I did not get a rash and I did not see any side effects until week 3. [44]

In the absence of a rash, the subject may be tempted to add more worms immediately. However, it is advisable to wait rather than immediately order a replacement dose because side effects can appear suddenly, “out of nowhere”, a few weeks after an apparently unsuccessful inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation], confirming that the original dose was viable after all.

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I inoculated with 10 HWhookworm, usually referring to the human hookworm, Necator americanus at the end of September. I had zero issues and was thinking of doing a second round of ten right away. Then, in the beginning of November I suffered from a massive increase in stomach acid production, which brought on GERD and gastritis type symptoms, along with other GIGastroenterology is the branch of medicine concerned with disorders of the digestive system which includes all the organs of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract (alimentary canal) from mouth to anus. Physicians practicing in this field of medicine are called gastroenterologists or GI specialists. symptoms characteristic of HWhookworm, usually referring to the human hookworm, Necator americanus infection. It was really bad for three weeks... [45]
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Well, I finally have decided (39 days in) that my 10 are there - just a little slow on the uptake. The last couple of days the gut has become increasingly uncomfortable, with some severe pains and quite a lot of dizzy spells. Feeling quite a bit worse for wear, so I guess they were quiet arriving but are now settling in... Glad I decided not to use the replacement dose! [46]
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I actually didn't think the inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation] worked, as I only had a slight tingle for a few minutes and the rash was super light and gone in 3 days with no itching. Fast forward 5 weeks and they've made it clear they're here! [47]

If these individuals had added a second dose of larvaeThe active immature form of an insect, or an animal such as a helminth, which develops from an egg and eventually transforms again into its adult state. within the first 12 weeks, they would have faced the possibility of having to run the gauntlet of greatly increased side effects which could have been so severe as to necessitate termination. It may therefore be wise, in the absence of a skin response, to wait for several weeks before reinoculating. One individual who did this after getting no rash, only very minor itching, and no other obvious symptoms in the first few days, suddenly developed the typical gastrointestinal side effects three weeks later, including bloating, nausea, diarrhoea and significant fatigue.

The absence of a rash may not predict reduced side effects

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My skin reaction was minimal, but systemic reaction all but intolerable... [48]

Determining whether inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation] was successful


In the absence of an obvious skin response, there are two approaches that can help to determine whether or not inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation] was successful.

1. If you had a full blood count (CBC) and/or IgE levels taken just before inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation], you could retest a couple of weeks after the inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation]. If there has been an increase in eosinophilsEosinophils are a specialised type of white blood cell with a variety of both harmful and beneficial functions. Their numbers rise temporarily following inoculation with helminths., this would suggest that infection is likely, although there are other factors that can influence eosinophilEosinophils are a specialised type of white blood cell with a variety of both harmful and beneficial functions. Their numbers rise temporarily following inoculation with helminths. levels.

2. The only definitive test is stool analysis, which can be carried out once the worms begin producting eggs between 4 and 6 weeks post inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation]. For more details, see Stool testing (egg counting).

Development of inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation] rashes over time

The first few hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. doses tend to produce a successively more pronounced skin rash as a result of memory cells keeping a record of their previous encounter with the organism. [49]

The fourth and fifth inoculations can leave some people with a very angry-looking bright red rash which can develop fluid-filled blisters/vesicles that may ooze exudateCells and fluid that seep out of blood vessels during inflammation. or serous drainageClear, thin, watery plasma released during the inflammatory stage of wound healing..

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I got almost no itch with the first dose of HWhookworm, usually referring to the human hookworm, Necator americanus. As I understand it, the immune system isn't prepared for that first intrusion through the skin. But by the second dose, your little soldiers are alert and they converge quite intensely on the migration site. My 2nd, 3rd, and 4th skin reactions grew increasingly severe. [50]
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My 4th is still itching and blotchy after 3 weeks, nearly drove me crazy. [51]

Some people begin to experience less severe rashes after the fourth or fifth inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation].

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My response increased for the first few - my fourth was the worst. Oozed for 10 weeks and left a noticeable scar. Subsequent inoculations have gotten easier. My seventh quit oozing by 5 or 6 days and was completely healed in 2 weeks. [52]
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For me the 5th was by far the worst, so it was a real relief when my reaction to the 6th dose was vastly smaller. [53]

Others can continue to get very angry and itchy rashes indefinitely.

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I always get a swollen runny angry rash. It takes a couple months to disappear. [54]

Some people may eventually develop an additional area of inflammation extending for several inches around the rash. This area of cellulitis may appear bruised, can be quite swollen, and may also be as itchy as the rash itself.

But some successful supplementary inoculations may fail to produce any reaction.

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My last one, #6, gave me practically no itching at the time. Definitely worked though. [55]

Others have reported their experience of the intensity of the inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation] rash after each dose of NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus in this Support group thread.

In a few people, the rash severity may reduce significantly after hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. have been hosted for more than 6 years.

Managing an angry, weeping rash

This section applies to the rashes produced by supplementary inoculations rather than a first inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation].

A pumice stone or other abrasive

Once there are pronounced yellow heads or blisters at the points of entry, scrubbing away everything that stands above the skin surface can bring remarkably swift relief from the itching and help reduce the possibility of swelling. This is probably because the scrubbing removes the debris left behind by the larvaeThe active immature form of an insect, or an animal such as a helminth, which develops from an egg and eventually transforms again into its adult state. when they entered the skin, thus taking away what the immune system was reacting to.

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After removing the bandage (12 hours), I recommend rubbing a pumice stone over the area with some force to remove the discarded larvaThe active immature form of an insect, or an animal such as a helminth, which develops from an egg and eventually transforms again into its adult state. skins that cause irritation. Since I began doing this, the length and severity of my skin reaction has decreased noticeably. [56]
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I pretty much just rip the skin off now as soon as the blistering starts. Not elegant, but it does seem to help it clear up sooner and relieves the itching. [57]

A rough towel, loofah, or surgical nail brush may remove the heads, but a pumice stone can be even more effective. [58] One hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. host uses a men's pocket hair comb to scrape/rake repeatedly across the area, with the long edge of the comb aligned in parallel to the direction of movement. Another uses her fingernails [59] and one brave helminthophile pours table salt onto the rash and scours this with a paper towel, [60] although someone else who tried this commented that it "Burns like the dickens for a while!" [61]

Removing the heads will leave shallow craters which may weep, sometimes quite profusely, for a few days. However, the fluid released is just exudateCells and fluid that seep out of blood vessels during inflammation., or serous drainageClear, thin, watery plasma released during the inflammatory stage of wound healing.. It is very unlikely to be suppurationPuss formed as a result of bacterial infection..

There have been no reports to date of infections taking hold at inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation] sites, even when the skin is broken, and this may be because the heightened immune activity around the rash defeats any opportunistic bacteria. There should therefore be no need for the use of antibacterial preparations.

Panty liners

Keeping the site covered with a thick, absorbent dressing will help prevent staining of one's clothes. Panty liners are excellent for this purpose.

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I cut panty liners into 2 or 3 sections depending on the size of the rash, and keep replacing these till the rash dries up. The waterproof backing prevents any liquid seeping through to one's clothes. [62]
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I've bought small tight athletic socks and cut the toe end off to create a "sleeve", inside of which I put very thin sanitary pads to absorb the liquid. [63]

Clay poultice / lavender oil

One self-treaterSomeone who treats their own disease or condition without medical assistance. has found that following up the scrubbing with a clay poultice and/or lavender essential oil provides even more benefit.

Dickinson's Witch Hazel

Dickinson's Witch Hazel, dabbed on with cotton balls has provided soothing relief for the rash and a 75% reduction in swelling, itching and weeping within approximately half an hour. [64]

Homeopathic graphites

Some people have applied the homeopathic remedy, graphites, to their oozing rash, and this can be purchased as a cream, e.g., Nelsons Graphites Cream 30g. However, there have been no reports as to how effective this might be in the case of a hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. rash.

Table salt

Someone else has advocated applying a bandage covered in normal table salt, claiming that this "makes all the liquid come out really fast, and helps dry the scabs real soon." [65]

The possibility of marking/scarring at the inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation] site

HookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation] does not leave a permanent scar, but can cause temporary scarring and leave a visible mark that persists for a time. This marking may appear to be permanent if the same site is used repeatedly.

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I’m 20 weeks in and I have the worst raised scar from inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation] with 10 hwhookworm, usually referring to the human hookworm, Necator americanus. This is my third inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation]. (Link expired)
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I had a few marks but they all seem to disappear in 3-4 months... compared to other scars I have its unnoticeable. [66] [67]
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My fourth inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation] was the worst, still oozing at 10 weeks, and left a scar. They got better for me after that. (Link expired)
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The last mark has not disappeared - its a scar now. I honestly don't care about that though as it's not much to pay in exchange for what the worms have done for me. [68]

Some areas of skin appear to be less likely to develop marking/scarring.

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I put mine on my mid thigh as I'm not prone to wearing short skirts or tiny shorts. I put one lot on my arm and that scarred much worse. [69]

The risk of temporary scarring can be reduced by spreading the larvaeThe active immature form of an insect, or an animal such as a helminth, which develops from an egg and eventually transforms again into its adult state. around the bandage/dressing, thus preventing any areas of particularly intense inflammation.

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When inoculating I try and spread the dose around the bandage as much as possible so the HWhookworm, usually referring to the human hookworm, Necator americanus do not group together when entering the skin. I find this leaves less of a long term mark. [70]

If the same site is always used for inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation], this area may, over time, develop a semi-permanent "shadow" of slightly darkened skin, which is another reason to use a less visible area for inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation]. (See Body sites used for hookworm inoculation.)

See also

SimpleHTLogo(18x18).gif Helminthic Therapy Wiki: documenting the science, management, experience and results of helminth replacement therapy.