Hookworm dosing and response

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Home>Using helminths>Hookworm dosing and response

This page discusses the therapeutic use of the human hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin., Necator americanusThe species of human hookworm used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. (NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus) [1]. The other species of human hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin., Ancylostoma duodenaleA species of roundworm, aka the Old World hookworm, that is "not" used in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ancylostoma_duodenale Wikipedia:Ancylostoma duodenale], [2] is not suitable for use in therapy because it takes an estimated nine times more blood than Necator, can infect a foetus by crossing the placenta, and is able to migrate via breast milk. [3]

Contents

Therapeutic response

The success of hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. therapy cannot be predicted

At the present time, it is not possible to predict who will benefit from hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. therapy, nor to what extent a condition might respond, but factors that favour a better outcome include:

  • being young
  • having been ill for a shorter period of time
  • having a less severe form of a disease

The severity of skin response to the initial inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation] is not a reliable guide to the likely extent of success with the therapy.

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My first dose I had quite a severe reaction at the site, blisters & marks that lasted for ever (but, in three years) I have had no benefits to my allergies at all. [4]

Disease symptoms may worsen before improving

Disease symptoms frequently worsen during the first few months before beginning to improve. One individual, who had had daily headaches and frequent migraines for many years, saw his symptoms worsen slightly in the first 4 months after his first dose. [5]

Early benefits are possible but not common, and they may fluctuate

A few people may begin to see benefits at an early stage.

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I experienced a significant reduction in nasal congestion the very next day after I first inoculated with hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin..
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At 19 days it was like a miracle for me. I felt better than I had in years. But it took a lot longer (and additional inoculations) before I got to 95% better.” [6]
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Six weeks for me. [7]
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I saw results for asthma relief at 8 weeks after my first dose of NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus. [8]
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I started getting improvement at around 8 - 10 weeks.” [9]

But any benefits experienced before 12 weeks may fluctuate.

Consistent improvement can begin anytime from 3 to 24 months

For the majority of those who do eventually respond, significant benefits do not usually materialise until at least 3 months after the first inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation], with most people only seeing improvement in their condition between 3 and 6 months.

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I had no benefit at all until about 14 or 15 weeks, and it took until 23 weeks for anything significant to improve. [10]
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I had chronic idiopathic urticaria and it took 5 and a half months from first NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus dose until I was able to come off all meds. [11]

Some may only start to improve between 6 and 12 months.

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I have food intolerances IBSIrritable bowel syndrome is a widespread condition involving recurrent abdominal pain and diarrhoea or constipation. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Irritable_Bowel_Syndrome Wikipedia:Irritable Bowel Syndrome] and Graves' disease. Inoculated 9 months ago and am now starting to see an improvement with IBSIrritable bowel syndrome is a widespread condition involving recurrent abdominal pain and diarrhoea or constipation. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Irritable_Bowel_Syndrome Wikipedia:Irritable Bowel Syndrome] and food intolerance. [12]

Others have had to wait until beyond 12 months and, in a few cases, for as long as 18-24 months.

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At 16½ months, I think my hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. and whipwormsA helminth with a tapering whiplike body that lives in the colon. In helminthic therapy, the microscopic eggs of either the human Trichuris trichiura (TTO) or pig Trichuris suis (TSO) are taken in a drink. are really starting to work! Since (two weeks ago), I have had only 3 loose stools… I have more periods of relief than periods of exacerbation from my nasal inflammation and asthma. [13]
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It took a good 12-18 months to be able to say, yep, **definitely** much better and staying better. [14]
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18 month update. After hitting the one year mark with no improvement I was starting to get discouraged… Finally, a couple weeks ago, everything changed. I was able to eat regular foods again. [15]
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I was about 20 months into treatment before seeing really significant gains. [16]
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I was a year and a half into HThelminthic therapy and flaring. My GIGastroenterology is the branch of medicine concerned with disorders of the digestive system which includes all the organs of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract (alimentary canal) from mouth to anus. Physicians practicing in this field of medicine are called gastroenterologists or GI specialists. wouldn't do my colonoscopy because I was so inflamed he thought I would perf. He thought I should be admitted for IV steroids and started on Remicade. But (at almost 2 years) I have been in complete remission for the past two months and have never felt as good. [17]
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I was close to giving up on my little worms, since I saw no discernible improvement for a year and a half (but) I’m glad I stuck with it. One of my most burdensome allergies was oral allergy syndrome and (at nearly 2 years) I can now eat raw food with NO reaction! Blueberries, strawberries, spinach, broccoli... Delicious! I'm the healthiest I've ever been. (A private message, Sept 2013.)

In one case, improvement took 2½ years.

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It took 2.5 years before I could eat eggs (which I’d been sensitive to before hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin.). [18]

Even when benefits appear early in the process, diseases can continue to flare periodically for no apparent reason until around 18 months.

The emergence of benefits can be a gradual process

The appearance of benefits can be a very gradual process in some people, and follows a natural progression in which the amount of time that worms have been hosted can be more important than the number of worms inoculated.

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It happened slowly (from 3-6 months post inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation]) and just kind of snuck up on her. [19]
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I have Hashimoto’s… My thyroid antibodies started slowly decreasing two years ago, when I started HThelminthic therapy, first with TSOthe ova (eggs) of the porcine (pig) whipworm, Trichuris suis and then about a year ago with NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus. Every time I measured, they were lower. Today for the first time, they are normal. [20]

In another example, someone who had been unable to eat any normal foods for more than a decade began to tolerate a few foods for the first time at 12 weeks, but tolerance to other foods was only regained very gradually, over a period of 18 months. [21]

Provided that an adequate colony is maintained, improvements often continue to appear during the first 3 years, or even longer, albeit usually at a gradually diminishing rate. The first comment below was written by someone with MSMultiple sclerosis (also known as disseminated sclerosis) is a chronic, typically progressive disease involving damage to the sheaths of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord, whose symptoms may include numbness, impairment of speech and of muscular coordination, blurred vision and severe fatigue. and food sensitivities after hosting hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. for over 2½ years.

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Of all my food sensitivities, the loss of butter in my life was the most difficult. The last time I tried it was about 6 months ago, and within an hour had a crushing headache, brain fog and fatigue. But last night while I was baking for my dad I just couldn't resist and tried a little butter. And... I was fine! So I tried some more - still ok! And a bit more at breakfast - still no reaction! Yay!!! It looks like butter is back on the menu! In the past few months I was also able to start eating eggs again, and I finally am noticing diminished nerve pain in my fingers - there's still some, but it's noticeably better. [22] [23]
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I am in 3rd year of therapy now … the improvements are still adding on in terms of overall benefits. (A patient with Crohn's diseaseAlso known as regional enteritis, this is an inflammatory disease of the intestines that may affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract from mouth to anus, causing a wide variety of symptoms. It primarily causes abdominal pain, diarrhea (which may be bloody if inflammation is severe), vomiting or weight loss, but may also cause complications outside the gastrointestinal tract such as skin rashes, arthritis, inflammation of the eye, tiredness and lack of concentration..)
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I also think I've recently seen improvements in my reaction to gluten almost 3 years since my first dose of NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus. [24] [25]

Different conditions in the same host may respond at different times

Where someone has more than one condition, these may take different lengths of time to respond. One subject experienced an unusually early response when his nasal congestion began to ease on the day after his first inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation], but his Restless Leg Syndrome only began to reduce during week 5, and took 19 weeks to resolve completely. And, while a few of his food intolerances began to ease at 12 weeks, it was 18 months before he was able to eat all foods again.

People with several conditions may not see improvement in all of them

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I do HThelminthic therapy for severe food intolerance and I achieved almost full remission, although it didn't do anything for my runny nose and only a little for the CFS. [26]

For benefits to last, a hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. colony needs regular maintenance

Although it appears that a few individuals may be able to enjoy a continuation of some benefits after hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. are lost, [27] benefits will only continue in the vast majority of cases for as long as the colony is actively maintained by adding periodic top-up doses.

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Needing to stay topped up with the worms is a lesson I have had to learn the hard way… I had taken 3 doses over a period of 9 months. Then no new worms for 5-6 months… Nearly all of my old symptoms have returned fairly quickly. At first, I thought I had killed them off. But they are aging. [28]

See also

For more detail about what to expect at each stage of hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. therapy, see the following page.

Introduction to hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. dosing

HookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. dosing cannot be reduced to a formula because everyone is different in how they respond to helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths].

It is not necessary to use the large doses that were advocated by the early pioneers of this therapy, typically starting with a dose of 25 or 35 hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. larvaeThe active immature form of an insect, or an animal such as a helminth, which develops from an egg and eventually transforms again into its adult state., followed in some cases by even larger supplementary doses.

A dose of 5 larvaeThe active immature form of an insect, or an animal such as a helminth, which develops from an egg and eventually transforms again into its adult state. has proved to be an effective introduction, and this number minimises the side effects that are a common feature of the early experience of hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. therapy. For more detail about the side effects, see the following page.

If starting with 5 larvaeThe active immature form of an insect, or an animal such as a helminth, which develops from an egg and eventually transforms again into its adult state., most hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. hosts should be free from side effects by 12 weeks, so would be able to add a further dose at this point, if required. However, more worms should not be added until all the side effects caused by the first dose have completely subsided, along with any exacerbation of symptoms of the disease being treated. Otherwise, there could be an aggregation, or stacking, of side effects and disease symptoms from both doses. Apart from the host having to endure these side effects and disease exacerbations, the increased inflammation caused by adding too many worms too quickly may be sufficient to prevent some, if not all, of the new worms from attaching.

For someone who is very sick, it can be tempting to try to speed up the therapy process in the early stages by adding more worms as quickly as possible, but this can be counterproductive, possibly causing such severe side effects that it would be necessary to terminate the colony and start over.

Disease remission is brought about not so much by the number of worms being hosted as by the length of time that worms have been present. There is nothing to be gained by attempting to reach a notional maximum number of worms in any particular time frame. All that is required is that the colony is refreshed by periodic top-ups.

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Time is your best friend when it comes to autoimmune disease and HThelminthic therapy. [29]

Once disease remission is achieved, the size and frequency of doses can be determined more accurately by observing how long it takes for signs of one’s disease to return after a dose, and using this information to establish a dosing regimen that will maintain uninterrupted remission. A period of experimentation is usually required, and hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. hosts should keep a record of the size and dates of all their doses.

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I now realise that the dosage, intervals and maintenance of HThelminthic therapy is ongoing and requires lots of attention, which if I’m being honest I wasn’t expecting.
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I'm still figuring out the number of worms best for me, 5 years into this. For some of us, it's much more complicated than ‘take worms, get better'.

The first dose

The first dose of NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus is best restricted to a maximum of 5 larvaeThe active immature form of an insect, or an animal such as a helminth, which develops from an egg and eventually transforms again into its adult state.

In the first decade of self-treatmentMedication or treatment of one's own disease or condition without medical supervision. with hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. (2007-2017), introductory doses of up to 35 larvaeThe active immature form of an insect, or an animal such as a helminth, which develops from an egg and eventually transforms again into its adult state. were recommended by providers, but this quantity often causes severe side effects, and is in fact unnecessary. Based on reports from many hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. users, it has become clear that 5 larvaeThe active immature form of an insect, or an animal such as a helminth, which develops from an egg and eventually transforms again into its adult state. is an effective introductory dose, and this is the absolute maximum for anyone who is hypersensitive. Even just 3 larvaeThe active immature form of an insect, or an animal such as a helminth, which develops from an egg and eventually transforms again into its adult state. have proved to be very effective.

Those who began with dose of 50 or more NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus have usually regretted it!

Early pioneers who inoculated with 50 larvaeThe active immature form of an insect, or an animal such as a helminth, which develops from an egg and eventually transforms again into its adult state. eventually wished they hadn’t! Prof David Pritchard of Nottingham University School of Pharmacy could not cope with a single inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation] of 50 hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. larvaeThe active immature form of an insect, or an animal such as a helminth, which develops from an egg and eventually transforms again into its adult state., [30] and Dr James Logan from the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, who inoculated with 50 hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. larvaeThe active immature form of an insect, or an animal such as a helminth, which develops from an egg and eventually transforms again into its adult state. for a UK TV documentary, had to abort the experiment after 60 days, saying, "I just can't live with the symptoms and the stomach pains.” [31]

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I let myself be convinced, without doing my homework, it was OK to inoculate 50 NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus at first dose... At 5½ weeks, the asthma-like symptoms and cough are going away, but to be replaced by a dull but unrelenting belly pain and diarrhea that get pretty bad for a while after meals, and waves of mild nausea and unbelievable gas. Day 45, about 6½ weeks... belly ache is nearly gone, but the diarrhea and gas remain... uncomfortable and embarrassing (I can't remember smelling such awful gas or soiling underpants three times in a week before). [32] [33] [34]
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I inoculated with 50 NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus 15 weeks ago. Side effects have been really rough... [35]
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I did 50 my first dose too. Not the smartest thing I've ever done... Gut pain until around 12 weeks... ended up killing off my colony and starting over. I did 6, then 6 more after 18 weeks. I'm doing much better now... [36] [37]
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I started with 70, and that was a big mistake. Had to take steroids for 2 months just to tolerate the epigastric pain and increase in immune response. [38]

Doses of 30 or 35 larvaeThe active immature form of an insect, or an animal such as a helminth, which develops from an egg and eventually transforms again into its adult state. can cause severe side effects

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I had to kill my first dose of 35 HWhookworm, usually referring to the human hookworm, Necator americanus because the GIGastroenterology is the branch of medicine concerned with disorders of the digestive system which includes all the organs of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract (alimentary canal) from mouth to anus. Physicians practicing in this field of medicine are called gastroenterologists or GI specialists. symptoms were unbearable.
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After inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation] (with 30 HWhookworm, usually referring to the human hookworm, Necator americanus), the joint pain worsened so severely that at some points I could hardly walk or move.” [39]
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I received a dose of 35 HWhookworm, usually referring to the human hookworm, Necator americanus about 3 weeks ago and last night I awoke gasping for air because my throat had closed up. It was a harrowing experience that lasted about a minute as I was unable to breathe.” [40]
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I am 6 weeks post first inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation] (with 35 hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin.) and experiencing extreme exacerbation of my RA symptoms. It's hard to deal with while wondering if this will actually be worth it. [41]
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Inoculated with (35) HWhookworm, usually referring to the human hookworm, Necator americanus 6 weeks ago... I've been getting my ass kicked by worm fluThe term commonly used to describe the set of symptoms sometimes experienced initially after inoculation with helminths (especially the hookworm, NA). Some of these symptoms mirror those caused by [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Influenza influenza] - fever, cough, respiratory symptoms, chills, muscle or joint ache, fatigue, abdominal pain, diarrhoea, nausea and vomiting.! Week 4 assorted gastric issues, week 5- radical nausea, stomach aches & fatigue. My naturopath prescribed me prednisone (10 days reducing), 3 days left. Not getting better… [42]

Doses of 20 or 25 larvaeThe active immature form of an insect, or an animal such as a helminth, which develops from an egg and eventually transforms again into its adult state. can cause very unpleasant effects

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I inoculated myself 2 months ago with 25 NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus... I am having serious side effect since 2 weeks. Mainly stomach/upper belly pain to the point I am barely able to work. Today I bought mebendazole as I am considering terminating my NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus. [43]
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I dosed with 25 NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus. I only had a reaction for about 24 hours. Then at 3-4 weeks all hell broke loose and it was horrible for the next 10-12 weeks. I reacted to almost all food. [44]
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I was out of work - unpaid - for 3 weeks (after a dose of 25 NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus) because of unbearable agonising stomach pains... I was taking them for allergies, and am otherwise quite healthy (no IBDInflammatory bowel disease is a group of conditions affecting the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, particularly the colon and small intestine. The major types of IBD are Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis (UC). or anything), so I wasn't expecting serious side effects... As it was I nearly had to terminate them. [45] [46]
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My husband is on day 63 with 25 NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus. For the last two weeks he's had intermittent achy body/joint pain, daily diarrhea with stomach pain and last night a low grade fever. It has been getting progressively worse. This morning, for the first time, he said that he was close to his breaking point. [47]
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Exactly 5 days post inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation] (with 25 NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus), I awoke in the middle of the night thinking someone was choking me. My throat was burning and closing up fast, causing my breath to rasp in my chest. [48]
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I inoculated with 20 NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus (to treat seasonal allergies) and found weeks 5-12 incredibly hard. The stomach pain never resolved itself. I had to up my Prednisone dose and take it almost every day. It's hard to function with that pain. I finally had to take Albenazole (and) my body is now pain free again. I will start again w 5 and go from there… [49] [50]

Prolonged side effects can mask other developing conditions

Apart from having to cope with the side effects of larger doses of hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin., there is also a risk that these symptoms could mask other conditions that might develop during a prolonged side effect period, as happened in the following case.

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... the eosinophilia from the worms totally masked my diabetes symptoms for 6 months and would have done so for much longer if i had not aborted them. The extreme thirst, pain in the muscles of the lower leg and lower arm, malaise, overheating, brain fog, etc., are all symptoms of both conditions. Aborting the hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. got rid of about 80% of the symptoms and I was just about to take a second dose of worming tablets because i thought the remaining symptoms were due to some survivors, when in fact this is what the diabetes was causing. There was no way i could have noticed the diabetes while suffering the extreme reaction I had from HWs.

Even 5 larvaeThe active immature form of an insect, or an animal such as a helminth, which develops from an egg and eventually transforms again into its adult state. can cause significant side effects in some people

A first dose of 5 larvaeThe active immature form of an insect, or an animal such as a helminth, which develops from an egg and eventually transforms again into its adult state. can cause significant side effects in some people, and not only those who are hypersensitive.

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On the evening of day 3 post inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation] with 5 NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus (my first) i started feeling a bit of a headache as I went to bed. I woke up after sleeping about 2 hours with a searing headache and growing nausea. This lasted all night and all the next day. It was very intense and I couldn’t function all day. Around 8pm, however, the headache and nausea suddenly subsided and I was able to eat again and feel pretty normal. [51]
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I started with a five hwhookworm, usually referring to the human hookworm, Necator americanus dose four days ago. Wasn't sure about starting that low… But joint pain and muscle fatigue started to kick in yesterday and then today with a vengeance… I'm so glad now it was just five I started with. [52]
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I had huge side effects from my first dose of 5 NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus. I had to take a few days off at the worst moment... [53]
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I also took 5 NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus and started getting HORRIBLE stomach pains at Day 28. Like my insides were shredding. I am at Day 41 now, still having intense pain, but taking Benadryl (antihistamine in US) has helped a lot... [54]
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I am about 14 weeks post innoculating with 5 NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus. I had quite a lot of difficult symptoms from weeks 3-10 post innoculation:, stomach pain, bloating, feeling feverish & really tired. I got through it just, but since I was ill anyway, holding down a job with all that was hard. [55]
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I inoculated about 4 weeks ago with 5 NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus. The last ten days have been rough. I've been experiencing cold/flu symptoms for the past ten days that started to clear up and then came back with a vengeance, plus some other symptoms more in line with a flare. Fatigue, deep and persistent coughing, insomnia, post nasal drip, congestion, constant acid reflux, random itching all over my body/skin sensitivity, swelling, worsening of my existing skin problems, trouble regulating my body temperature, neuropathy in hands, and food cravings. I also had a migraine last week for the first time since I started treating my autoimmune disease with plaquenil. I'm going to a clinic tomorrow to ask for prednisone.[56]
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Since week five (with 5 NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus) I've had some pretty rough side effects. Constant fatigue, brain fog, and some depression... I can't eat much of anything right now. [57]
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I had painful tingling in my fingers, legs, arms and feet (almost like thousands of piranha’s nibbling under my skin.) I also noted "a jumpiness that feels cellular". Along with... severe joint pain. Lower back, ankles, neck and one knee. The worst of all of this started around week 8 after my first ever inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation] with 5 NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus.[58]
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This is Day 61 (with 5 NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus). Having a hard time with the stomach pains, nausea, and now very strong muscle pains. All of my muscles are so tight. Feels like EVERY single muscle. [59]
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After my first dose of 5HW I experienced extreme fatigue. It wasn't until my third dose that things began to make a big shift. [60]
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I am treating mainly neuropsychiatric issues, but 3NA was almost unbearable at points, in the mental effects it had. There was about a week and a half where I was so depressed it was hard to function. I think even 5 would have been to much for me! [61]

Patients with some conditions need to start with 5 larvaeThe active immature form of an insect, or an animal such as a helminth, which develops from an egg and eventually transforms again into its adult state. or less

Anyone with an increased level of sensitivity should start with no more than 5 larvaeThe active immature form of an insect, or an animal such as a helminth, which develops from an egg and eventually transforms again into its adult state., and preferably only 3, especially if they have one of the conditions listed in the following page section.

Here are just two examples of the difficulties experienced by people with hypersensitivities who inoculate with too many hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin..

Someone with mastocytosis who inoculated with 30 NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus ended up in hospital after increasingly high doses of prednisone failed to relieve muscle spasms that were so severe and constant she was literally screaming. She could not even roll over in bed. [62]

And someone with narcolepsy reported as follows.

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I had 10 HWhookworm, usually referring to the human hookworm, Necator americanus to start and thought I was going to die. But I could do 3. And then another 3. And then I could stand 5.

Just 3-5 larvaeThe active immature form of an insect, or an animal such as a helminth, which develops from an egg and eventually transforms again into its adult state. can be surprisingly effective

It can be difficult to imagine that very small numbers of tiny hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. would be capable of producing much benefit in a host many times their size, but it is clear that they are.

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3 little (hook)worms can have a huge impact on a 91kg guy! I used only 3 HWhookworm, usually referring to the human hookworm, Necator americanus end 2015 and again 3 a month ago (Feb 2017). I can tell you that they can have incredible impact on me. Both times I had a bounce. [63]
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At 10 weeks post inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation] with 5 NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus for CFS/ME and chronic migraine, in the past two days I suddenly have many times more energy than usual for winter. Vastly more. Last winter a weekly trip to the grocery store would wipe me out to the point of being able to do NOTHING (no work, no housework, no cooking, nothing but resting) the entire rest of the week and I struggled to stay awake past 7 pm no matter how much I rested during the day. Yesterday, I cleaned the kitchen, batch cooked for half of the day, vacuumed, changed the bed linens and stayed up until 10 pm. Today I'm mopping, cleaning the bathrooms, doing laundry and cooking a bit more. This energy is in addition to the early improvements I've had in brain fog, joint pain, plantar fasciitis and increased tolerance to high FODMAP foods. [64]
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My 11 year old son developed a bad dog dander allergy - he couldn’t be near our dogs without wheezing and getting skin blotches. He was inoculated with 5 HWhookworm, usually referring to the human hookworm, Necator americanus. He is now (6 months later) free from his allergy, he can roll around with the dogs and rub his face on them with no issues!! [65]
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I started using hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. in 2011 (for Rheumatoid Arthritis). I only had one dose of 5. I was symptom free within 4 months and stayed symptom free for 5 years. (Edited from two posts in this thread.)
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My daughter (age 16) suffers from terrible allergies. She gets asthmatic symptoms and needs an inhaler. Eight weeks ago she inoculated with 5NA. She is at this time much relieved. I would estimate by about 70% or more. She has a clear nose and has not needed her inhaler for over a month. Last night she spent the night at a friends house who had a cat. She was fine. I am surprised that only 5 seemed to provide such relief. [66]
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My first dose was only 11 weeks ago with 5 HWhookworm, usually referring to the human hookworm, Necator americanus. Even though it is very early in my HWhookworm, usually referring to the human hookworm, Necator americanus treatment I have had great success. Right now I have only a few patches of eczema, which is a vast improvement. The psoriasis around my ankles is slowly clearing up. Who knew 5 worms could do so much?! [67]

This individual then increased the size of her next two doses, but this brought no additional benefit.

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I did fine at 5HWs so went to 10 and then 25. My best benefit was at 5 so went back down. [68]

The absence of a rash may not indicate a failed inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation]

For full details, see the following page.

Other helminth species should not be added alongside a first dose of NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus

Beginning helminthic therapyThe reintroduction to the digestive tract of a controlled number of specially domesticated, mutualistic helminths (intestinal worms) in the form of microscopic eggs or larvae to reconstitute a depleted biome to treat and prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy. with more than one species of worm presents an increased challenge to the host’s immune system, resulting in a greater risk of side effects.

Supplementary doses

Once the first cohort of worms has been in place for a full 12 weeks, these mature worms will help to modulate the immune system’s response to the second dose. This will result in less side effects unless there is a large increase in the size of the second dose which would make side effects more likely, in a dose-dependent manner. It is therefore recommended that all self-treaters who are using NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus should proceed cautiously and only increase the size of supplementary doses gradually, selecting the number of larvaeThe active immature form of an insect, or an animal such as a helminth, which develops from an egg and eventually transforms again into its adult state. in each new dose based on their experience with the previous dose. If the first dose was 5, and side effects were absent or minimal, the second dose might be 10. However, if a first dose of 5 larvaeThe active immature form of an insect, or an animal such as a helminth, which develops from an egg and eventually transforms again into its adult state. causes significant side effects, this should be followed by a further dose of 5, and only once the side effects have subsided. The response to this supplementary dose should then be assessed before deciding on the size of the third dose, and so on until side effects are no longer being experienced.

After a few doses have been added, side effects should cease to appear altogether, if they have appeared at all beyond the first dose, but, occasionally, supplementary doses may continue to trigger a recurrence of the disease being treated, as happened in the following case after each of the first four doses.

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Whenever I add more NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus, my asthma comes back... not as bad as before I started NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus. But then after 8 weeks, the asthma goes away entirely. [69] [70]

A few NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus hosts may eventually tolerate doses of between 35 and 50 larvaeThe active immature form of an insect, or an animal such as a helminth, which develops from an egg and eventually transforms again into its adult state.

After the first few doses, a few hosts do best with larger supplementary doses in the long term, and tolerate them well.

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I've done 35 with no issues multiple times. [71]
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I am now certain that a smaller dose does nothing for my SIBO. The effect of dosing with 40 HWhookworm, usually referring to the human hookworm, Necator americanus... is so remarkable and so quick that my friends and family are quick to tell me that my worms are alive. lol. I take 40 NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus every 3 months. [72] [73]
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I need to take 50 every 6 months.

Supplementary doses of 35 or more larvaeThe active immature form of an insect, or an animal such as a helminth, which develops from an egg and eventually transforms again into its adult state. may cause side effects

Even subjects who have been hosting hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. for many years may continue to experience significant and quite long-lasting side effects following supplementary doses of 35 or more larvaeThe active immature form of an insect, or an animal such as a helminth, which develops from an egg and eventually transforms again into its adult state..

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I find that every time I inoculate (always with 35 HWhookworm, usually referring to the human hookworm, Necator americanus) I get a bad round of gas. This normally starts around 2 weeks after inoculating, but it settles down after a while if I don't reinoculate, and is gone by around 4½ months. (Edited from two posts: [74] [75])
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My reaction to HWhookworm, usually referring to the human hookworm, Necator americanus is about the same now as it was when I began. HookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin., in my case, cause a strong, long lasting negative response once I inoculate (with doses of between 35 and 50). I don't get the “bounce.” My mood plummets, brain fog occurs, my IBDInflammatory bowel disease is a group of conditions affecting the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, particularly the colon and small intestine. The major types of IBD are Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis (UC). related arthritis flares and I have general tiredness. I need to get sleep. Smaller dosing lessen my response. This lasts for 4 to 6 weeks then I start feeling better. (Edited from two posts: [76][77])
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I give myself 50 once a year and have some mild side effects. These are actually worse than my initial dose gave me.
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I had diarrhoea for 2.5 months once when my dose was too high. Didn't realise what it was until it cleared up almost exactly 3 months after inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation]. [78]

Larger doses may cause Löffler’s (Loeffler's) syndrome

The side effects caused by large supplementary doses mostly affect the gastrointestinal tract, causing the typical diarrhoea, cramping and gas, etc., but, sometimes, they may involve the chest, and possibly result in Löffler’s (Loeffler's) syndrome, a type of eosinophilic pneumonia (inflammation of the lung) that is caused by the immune system attacking the larvaeThe active immature form of an insect, or an animal such as a helminth, which develops from an egg and eventually transforms again into its adult state. during their transit through the lungs. This reaction is similar to those that occur at the site of inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation] on the skin, and in the gut.

Löffler’s Syndrome is most likely to be seen in those with a history of asthma or allergy, and it can manifest as a productive cough and shortness of breath, but possibly also as sinus and other upper respiratory issues. These may last for several weeks, but not necessarily continuously, and, while they do not usually require treatment, they can be very unpleasant, so it may be wise to avoid the use of doses of 35 or more in order to obviate the risk of inducing Löffler’s Syndrome.

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I have asthma, and my first inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation] (10 HWhookworm, usually referring to the human hookworm, Necator americanus) went fine. I inoculated a second time with 35 and kicked off Loffler's Syndrome - the worst bout of respiratory distress I've ever had. My difficulty breathing began around 2 weeks after inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation], and continued for about 8 weeks. It then subsided, and recently came back again. I have been using inhaled steroids twice a day for the last few months. [79]

Larger doses may potentially cause organ damage in rare cases

There has been a single report in the scientific literature of a case of reversible damage to the heart myocardium (in addition to Loeffler’s syndrome affecting the lungs) as a result of hypereosinophilia following inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation] over 7 months with three large doses of NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus. (35/50/50) [80]

Supplementary doses may be best kept under 20 or 25

For most of those who are not in the higher risk category, keeping supplementary doses below 25 larvaeThe active immature form of an insect, or an animal such as a helminth, which develops from an egg and eventually transforms again into its adult state. will reduce the risk of significant side effects.

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Started with 25 HWhookworm, usually referring to the human hookworm, Necator americanus, then 50 for the next batch which sent my immune system mad, needed prednisone...
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Anything more than 25 (hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin.) and I suffer from brain fog and lethargy, achy joints that could last a few weeks. [81]
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In my experience, taking larger doses (over 25 hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin.) can cause symptoms (similar to those) of an anaphylactic reaction. Scratchy itchy throat, sensation of tingling of mouth and tongue, effort to swallow. From armpit to elbow was very swollen and hot (around the inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation] site), more so than any other previous inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation]. Also, I can't prove this, but my shingles began following this bad reaction to 25 hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin.. [82] [83]
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Started with 15, then 30, then 30, and most recently 20 because I experienced symptoms that were too much to handle. [84]
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In my experience, taking smaller doses (under 20) of hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. is best. [85]
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I dropped from 25 to 15 worms and the side effects were significantly less! [86]
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I can never tolerate more than 10-15 at a time and I mitigated one dose of 20 (bad decision) with low dose prednisone.[87]

Some people need to restrict supplementary doses to 5 larvaeThe active immature form of an insect, or an animal such as a helminth, which develops from an egg and eventually transforms again into its adult state.

Some self-treaters have found that they need to continue to use very small doses, and that these provide them with all the benefits they require. This is particularly true for those on the hypersensitivity spectrum, who should continue to inoculate with very low numbers for at least the first few doses, and possibly indefinitely.

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I did 5 and did well for 5 months then did 10 and caused massive cfs/me flare. [88]
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I started out with a dose of 5 HWS, then went to 10, a couple dose of 25, then back down to 10 before realizing the optimal dose is only 5. At the higher doses I actually had an increase of some symptoms for a while. [89]
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5 or less will be my goto dose from now on. [90]

Dosing in the long term

HookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. survival

The length of time that hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. hosts can go between doses in the long term depends on three factors.

  1. The rate of attrition, which is dependent on the strength of the host’s unique immune response to helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths]. This is greatest in people with IBDInflammatory bowel disease is a group of conditions affecting the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, particularly the colon and small intestine. The major types of IBD are Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis (UC). and other intestinal disorders involving inflammation, and is partly genetically determined [91] [92].
  2. The extent of any use of substances that impact the health of the worms. For details of these, see the Human helminth care manual.
  3. The number of hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. that were previously inoculated may also affect the length of time before symptoms begin to return.

HookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. are reported to survive for 3-10 years [93] but to be capable of living for up to 15 years, [94] and possibly even 18 years. [95] A few hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. self-treaters have been able to enjoy remission from their diseases for more than 5 years after a single inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation].

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I started using hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. in 2011. I only had one dose of 5. I was symptom free within 4 months and stayed symptom free for 5 years. (Edited from two posts: [96] [97])

However, the experience of most self-treaters suggests that hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. typically only survive for between 1 and 3 years, and some hosts lose their worms in as little as 3 months.

Long-term dosing is based on individual user experience

HookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. hosts should keep a record of the size and dates of all their doses and, once they have achieved remission, they should note the length of time that it takes between their last inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation] and the reappearance of symptoms of their disease. This will provide the best guide to the frequency with which they will need to re-inoculate in the long term in order to maintain uninterrupted remission.

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My previous dose (10 NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus) was 5.5 months ago, and some of the baseline symptoms of my so-far "benign MSMultiple sclerosis (also known as disseminated sclerosis) is a chronic, typically progressive disease involving damage to the sheaths of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord, whose symptoms may include numbness, impairment of speech and of muscular coordination, blurred vision and severe fatigue." were reoccurring… [98]
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One of the symptoms we watch to tell us when the colony is not working at 100% is arthritic knees. Another is dry eye. [99]
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… one of the first ways I knew my old colony was dying off was that I was having stomach issues on Monday mornings, after we had our usual Sunday roast dinner and wine etc. [100]

People who have several conditions may find that, when their colony begins to need reinforcements, symptoms of these conditions may begin to return at different stages. As soon as there is an indication that one condition is returning, and it is clear that the symptoms are not being caused by something else, a top-up dose is likely to be required.

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I know my body well and now know the subtle symptoms of my autoimmunity. When this happens I need to top-up on helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] because my colony is too small to suppress my autoimmune response. [101]

Waiting until disease symptoms begin to return is not usually a problem with hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. because attrition is a gradual process, and a proportion of the colony should still be alive when symptoms begin to reappear. These existing residents will usually maintain a degree of immune modulation while a new cohort becomes established, and will themselves be perked up by the arrival of the newcomers, with the result that most people see a fairly rapid return of full benefits.

Once it has been established how long a dose will last (this may vary somewhat according to the size of the dose), future top-up doses should be added in time to prevent a recurrence of symptoms, and a reminder to do this should be set in a diary or phone. Otherwise, mild symptoms may not be recognised as an indication of the need to top up one's colony and could be overlooked, with the result that the self-treaterSomeone who treats their own disease or condition without medical supervision. might find themselves in desperate need of a dose.

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The benefits wore off exactly 12 months after first inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation]. I panicked because flare ups came back stronger than ever. Talked to her doctor and we decided to innoculate 20 more immediately, 3 months later she was back to base, we needed azithro during those months to protect her until the helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] were able to kick back in. [102]

Long-term dosing in practice

After a period of personal experimentation, the majority of hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. hosts settle on a long-term re-inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation] rate equivalent to 1 or 2 larvaeThe active immature form of an insect, or an animal such as a helminth, which develops from an egg and eventually transforms again into its adult state. per week, added at intervals ranging from weekly to twice each year, e.g., 1 or 2 weekly, 2-4 fortnightly, 4-8 monthly, 12-25 quarterly, or 25-50 every six months. A few outliers at either end of the spectrum find that they need to add the equivalent of only 1 larvaThe active immature form of an insect, or an animal such as a helminth, which develops from an egg and eventually transforms again into its adult state. every 2 weeks, or as many as 3 larvaeThe active immature form of an insect, or an animal such as a helminth, which develops from an egg and eventually transforms again into its adult state. each week, but with a maximum of 50 larvaeThe active immature form of an insect, or an animal such as a helminth, which develops from an egg and eventually transforms again into its adult state. per dose.

The following comments illustrate the range of dose sizes and dosing frequency being used, and show that many self-treaters top up at least every 3-6 months.

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I do best at 2-3 month redoses. If I wait longer, I wish I hadn't. [103]
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... my body kills off hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. every 3 months or so...” [104]
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I find 1-3 ok. Five is ok if (my colony is) low. But more than that I have symptoms... I will probably do 2 every 3 months as a topup. [105]
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I now take about 7-10 hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. every 3-4 months. [106]
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I dose 20 NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus at about 3 month Intervals. [107]
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I need 25 every 3 months. [108]
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I have to redose every three months also. 35 is my magic number. [109]
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I take 40 NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus every 3 months. [110]
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It appears I lose my worms every three months. My relative went about five months before her symptoms returned. [111]
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I need to re-dose every 20 weeks. If I wait longer, symptoms return and I go through worm fluThe term commonly used to describe the set of symptoms sometimes experienced initially after inoculation with helminths (especially the hookworm, NA). Some of these symptoms mirror those caused by [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Influenza influenza] - fever, cough, respiratory symptoms, chills, muscle or joint ache, fatigue, abdominal pain, diarrhoea, nausea and vomiting. again (though diminished). If I re-dose every 20 weeks, results are more consistent. [112]
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I need 25 every six months.
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I inoculate with 30 about every 6 months. [113]
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I need to take 50 every 6 months.

A few hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. hosts have found that they do best when they re-dose more frequently, with commensurately smaller doses.

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I need to inoculate every other month with 10-15 HWhookworm, usually referring to the human hookworm, Necator americanus[114]
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I've recently experimented with 5 every month. I've found that this new schedule is much better at keeping my sinuses clear. I'm beginning to think that the number of larvaThe active immature form of an insect, or an animal such as a helminth, which develops from an egg and eventually transforms again into its adult state. is much less important than the frequency of inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation]. [115]
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I've recently started 2-3 hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. every 2 weeks and am getting much better results than I did with 30 every 6 months. [116] [117]

The additional exposure to migrating larvaeThe active immature form of an insect, or an animal such as a helminth, which develops from an egg and eventually transforms again into its adult state. facilitated by more frequent inoculations may provide increased immune stimulation.

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… the larval phase of infection rather than the persisting egg-laying adult worms may be largely responsible for the cytokine production and so responders may be the more frequently/more recently exposed individuals. [118]

Trickle dosing

In his book, An Epidemic of Absence, Moises Velasquez-Manoff mentions that light, transitory, hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. infections may prime allergic disease, and some other commentators have suggested that trickle dosing with hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. (adding one or two larvaeThe active immature form of an insect, or an animal such as a helminth, which develops from an egg and eventually transforms again into its adult state. every week or fortnight) could present a potential risk of increased sensitisation to them, perhaps reducing the maximum number that can successfully colonise. However, feedback from self-treaters suggests that frequent dosing does not cause sensitisation, but that the addition of too many worms too quickly can do.

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My wife lost her colony due to an 8 days treatment of antibiotics. As we were in a hurry to replenish her colony, and so inoculating 20 every 20 days, she became sensitized to them. [119]

It might be assumed that those who choose to dose every week or fortnight would have an almost continuous rash, but the rash caused by 1-3 larvaeThe active immature form of an insect, or an animal such as a helminth, which develops from an egg and eventually transforms again into its adult state. is usually minimal. [120]

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I currently inoculate with 1 hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. larvaThe active immature form of an insect, or an animal such as a helminth, which develops from an egg and eventually transforms again into its adult state. every week, so my initial itch is muted enough that it doesn't tell me for sure if the larvaThe active immature form of an insect, or an animal such as a helminth, which develops from an egg and eventually transforms again into its adult state. made it. But the bounce that night does. And I get a small itchy rash a couple days later that confirms it. [121]

Dose size and frequency may need adjustment over time

Reactions to helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] may change over time, requiring some adjustment to dosing.

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After 10 years of using helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] my body has changed and reactions to helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] have changed. I find hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. cause more symptoms at smaller doses (so) my treatment requires tweaking of dosage, timing, amounts. [122]

Some people may even experience seasonal changes in their response that also require adjustments to dosing.

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Time of year also makes a difference for me. My autoimmunity is stronger in the winter months. [123]

Colony size

The number of worms required to achieve remission varies greatly between individuals and it is impossible to determine how many worms are being hosted. So, rather than aiming for a notional colony size, the best approach is for each individual to observe their response to the doses they add over time and to use this experience to determine what size and frequency of top-up doses will enable them to keep their disease in remission.

Since a few hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. hosts may not achieve remission for up to 2 years, it may be impossible for them to see any obvious connection during this time between the number of worms inoculated and their effects, so a lack of benefits within this period may not necessarily indicate a need to add more worms. However, people with a higher attrition rate may lose their worms long before they reach 2 years, so it is essential during this period to maintain the colony by adding supplementary doses as discussed above.

Some people do extremely well with a relatively small number of hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin..

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For the last 2 weeks my son has been able to stroke and even hug the dogs without getting a severe allergic reaction. Plus he hasn’t needed to use anti-histamines for weeks now - by just hosting 5 hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin.!! [124]
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I took one batch of 25 NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus last year because I was experiencing pain and swelling every day from Graves and Hashimoto's diseases. I had a dramatic reduction in swelling and pain (and) lost about 15lbs of water weight. A few months later, I got pregnant, and did not have a miscarriage (I had 3 earlier that might have had something to do with the thyroid diseases). My TSH, T3 & T4 levels stabilized right before the pregnancy, they followed the "textbook" levels through the pregnancy and stabilized right after as well. My antibody levels for both diseases dropped. My Endo ... said - ‘the improvements are real - and they are unexpected.’ [125]
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I am 7 months in to treatment for dermatomyositis and other autoimmune problems. I have 35 hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. and have recovered almost completely. I had sun sensitivity, food allergies and skin problems which are all gone. [126]
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I'm doing better on 25 than I did on 100. [127]

Others have claimed they needed to establish a colony of between 100 and 150, and even as many as 200 hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin.. However, since there is no reliable way to establish how many worms are being hosted, and since attrition rates very widely between individuals, it cannot be assumed that someone who has inoculated with 4 doses of 25 NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus over a year will have a colony of 100 at the end of that period. Any improvement in such cases may actually have been the result of the gradually increasing period of time that these individuals had been hosting worms, rather than their number. It is known that, in some cases, benefits can continue to accrue during the first two years, even after starting with only a small dose and without any supplementary doses.

Overdosing on hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin.

There is a risk that attempting to increase the size of a colony without an obvious need to do so may cause a loss of benefits.

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I dosed up to around 100 hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. (for total food intolerance) and lost all my tolerance to foods again. We killed the hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. off and I've had 3 new doses so I now have 35 hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin.. It took a while but I am back to eating a lot broader range of foods. So when it comes to hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. dosing, It seems (for me anyway) that a smaller amount of worms works better. [128]
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I have lost 80% of benefits in the 14 weeks since (my third) dose. [129]
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I've been hosting N. Americanus for about a year with significant relief for asthma. I put in three innocculations over about 9 months. The highest remission was when I had 50 worms. Hence, I'm thinking the effect of the worms on asthma symptoms may show some hormesis. Anyway, I'm planning to kill the worms I have with mebendazole and start over. [130]
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I think that I may have been able to get into a much better place by knocking the hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. back. I definitely had an aggravation from too many hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. (at six months into my treatment, and after a dose of 50). But I had felt so good on them at their best I was very hesitant to eliminate them. I did the abendazole 100mg caps twice per day for three days but doubt I killed them all… now my aggravation symptoms (anxiety and diarrhea) are greatly diminished. [131]

This loss of benefits as a result of exceeding a personal limit is seen particularly in those on the hypersensitivity spectrum.

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For me too many worms causes exactly the same symptoms as no worms at all! When I started, I dosed with 5+5+25+25+25 worms because I assumed that was what I would need to tackle my severe food intolerance, but after being able to eat everything I wanted for 2 amazing years, cracks started to appear and eventually I crashed and was back to just 10 foods. It took a long time to work out that this was the result of too many worms (180 added over a period of several years) rather than too few. From my diary I know that I was doing well with 50-75 worms on board, so maybe that is the number that I need in order to get stable. After killing my previous colony I started afresh with 10 worms, later adding another 10. About 4 weeks after the second inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation] I could again eat everything I wanted! (Edited from three posts, all now deleted.)

A loss of benefits may not be the only risk from overdosing on hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin., since, in these cases, side effects - especially diarrhoea - can persist for some time after a colony has been terminated.

Reducing the size of a hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. colony

If too many worms have been added, resulting in unmanageable side effects, it may not be necessary to terminate the entire colony. Carrying out a partial cull should reduce the severity of the side effects while leaving some worms to continue the therapy.

A partial cull can be achieved by using any of the substances categorised in the Human helminth care manual as being potentially lethal to human helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] (marked with an ❌), although the effects of these substances will not be as predictable as those of an anthelminthic drug. The details on the Terminating a helminth infection page can be used to tailor a cull to meet the individual self-treaterSomeone who treats their own disease or condition without medical supervision.’s particular needs. For example, a single 500mg dose of mebendazole may kill approximately 30% of a colony of NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus and, if this doesn't provide sufficient relief from the side effects, a further dose of the drug can be taken.

Is there a constitutive limit on colony size?

Croese, et al., observed that the size of hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. colony returned to the pre-inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation] level by week 21 and, even though this study using capsule endoscopyExamination using an endoscope - an instrument used to view the interior of a hollow organ or cavity within the body. had involved only two subjects, it’s authors opined that there is a colony size status quo that is constitutively set by the host.

This assertion by Croese, et al., appears to be contradicted by the findings of more recent studies in which hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. colonies observed in patients were described as "massive".

There may also be different degrees of predisposition to hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. infection in different groups, e.g., young/old, male/female, [132] and other influences on colony size may include blood group. [133]

Before these more recent studies were published, the earlier paper by Croese, et al., had prompted the following discussion in one of the helminthic therapyThe reintroduction to the digestive tract of a controlled number of specially domesticated, mutualistic helminths (intestinal worms) in the form of microscopic eggs or larvae to reconstitute a depleted biome to treat and prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy. support groups.

Read the full discussion... 

DD

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It has recently come to my attention that two Australian researchers, Drs Croese and Speare, inoculated with hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. and then did capsule endoscopyExamination using an endoscope - an instrument used to view the interior of a hollow organ or cavity within the body. (swallowed a pill camera). It seems that no matter how many they inoculated with (50-100), Dr. Croese always ended up with 6-9 living adult worms and Dr. Speare always ended up with about 16.

TC

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this doesn't quite made sense to me. we already know many people in countries where hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. are endemic have too many of them, to the point of becoming anemic.

LE

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It doesn't really make sense to me either, but OTOH, anecdotally, I've read similar things, that maybe the established worms have a way of preventing new ones from doing well. There is a lot of contradictory information. The other issue is that people in the developing world can be getting inoculated on a daily basis. It doesn't seem to me that a pill camera would necessarily image every square millimeter of intestine, though.

DD

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I understand that most people 'in the wild' have a small number too. It is only a few who can't seem to control the number and have enough for anemia. This could also explain why nobody is reporting anemia among us users even though several have inoculated with relatively large doses. I agree LE, that perhaps some could be missed by pill cam. But I wouldn't think it would be many.

LE

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Then the issue, too, if you start out low and slow is what is the carrying capacity going to be? If you only got 7, maybe your carrying capacity is 15. Or is it going to lock at 7 because that's what you started with? My daughter definitely seems better after a significant top off, the rest of us, it's hard to see much difference yet.

DD

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I suspect that if your carrying capacity was 15 then it wouldn't change if you started with 7. I imagine it could change though based on other factors. For instance, I suspect it might grow with age as our immune systems become less robust.

KK

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since it was only two guys who did the pill cam, that is not a very big representation of any population. u all have seen so many variables amongst us all, and wherein, for example, some seem to only be able to carry their worms for a relatively short time period and then they die, repeatedly, that this could just be an individual thing that these two men happened to share.

BS

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It is a fascinating thing to speculate on how many we actually have and whether our immune systems or the worms themselves regulate our worm carrying capacity.

If this is the rule for hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin., though, such that a dose of 15 or 50 or 100 or repeated top up doses all result in the same worm load, I wonder how to account for a few things from the historical record.

1) The Italians building the Gotthard tunnel in the late 19th century - they not only got very sick, but many of them died of congestive heart failure. If the worm load is independent of repeated doses and only depends on the individual's predetermined load based on genetics or whatever, what would explain such an epidemic? The tunnel workers likely mostly already had hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. (how else would it have got into the tunnel in the first place?), so if repeated doses did not increase their loads, why did they go from asymptomatic as a group to sick enough to lead to the discovery of ADAncylostoma duodenale. A species of roundworm, aka the Old World hookworm, that is not suitable for use in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ancylostoma_duodenale Wikipedia:Ancylostoma duodenale]?

2) I have the same question for the history of the southern US and NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus. HookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. overloading due to repeated dosing was supposed to be significant enough to cause anemia in enough people to decimate the economy and motivate founding of the rockefeller commission to combat it. Moreover, if repeated dosing does not increase the worm load for most of the population, why was the rockefeller solution, which primarily involved latrines to limit re-infection, so effective that the whole economy was successfully recovered. They did not give everyone multiple doses of mebendazole, so it's not like hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. was being eliminated. The effect could only be due to reduced worm loads. If the ultimate equilibrium load is not affected by repeated dosing, how can it then go down so profoundly merely be stopping the repeat dosing?

If either hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. species really behaves in such a benign way, it would also be unique among parasitic eukaryotes.

I suppose it's also possible that even if the adult equilibrium population is independent of dosing magnitude and frequency, that the therapeutic effect may still depend more on how many helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] you are dosed with than how many survive.

Then the situation with NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus would be more analogous to TSOthe ova (eggs) of the porcine (pig) whipworm, Trichuris suis - in TSOthe ova (eggs) of the porcine (pig) whipworm, Trichuris suis it the immune response to the attempted infestation that must be doing the trick as there is no persistent infection with adult TSthe porcine (pig) whipworm, Trichuris suis? The effects we get with NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus may be similarly be related to the transit of larvaeThe active immature form of an insect, or an animal such as a helminth, which develops from an egg and eventually transforms again into its adult state.

So it does not follow that even if equilibrium worm load remains the same that it is useless to top up or that larger doses are not more effective.

But I still am skeptical that worm load is a zero order function with respect to dose magnitude and frequency. I'm sure it's not perfectly linear, but there is no other way to account for populations being devastated by poor sanitation than that there is some increase in load with increasing area under the curve for dose....

There is a way that I might trust to actually count worms and it would not be that hard to do. One could make a monoclonal antibody to NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus and then bind it to radioactive technetium. Lay down under a gamma camera and you might be able to resolve the number of worms if they were somewhat spread out.

I am a bit skeptical that a pill cam will see them all, given the size of colonic lesions I've seen missed by colonoscopy.

And then there is the Pritchard dose ranging study. Although the numbers were small, the people getting larger doses were pretty reliably sicker and had larger immune responses to match. One would have to believe that the worms were having attrition well after the establishment of enteritis-causing adults in the gut - an attrition that is proportional to the initial dose. More than proportional to the initial dose, actually.

IOW, the immune response is more than proportional to the initial dose, but does not prevent adults attaching to the mucosa long enough to cause eosinophilic enteritis.

And then one would have to further believe that most of the adults attached to the mucosa are then later successfully eliminated, and that the higher the initial dose, the higher fraction of worms are killed by the immune system. Otherwise, the higher the initial dose, the higher the ultimate worm load and we are back to square one.

JL

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Whether new worms displace old ones has been documented in those with Crohn's taking very large doses (50 at a shot), but I doubt it occurs in anyone without either Crohn's, Coeliac or UCUlcerative colitis (Colitis ulcerosa, UC) is a form of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) which specifically affects the large intestine, or colon, causing characteristic ulcers, or open sores. The main symptom of active disease is constant diarrhea mixed with blood, of gradual onset.. Or intestinal allergies and perhaps IBSIrritable bowel syndrome is a widespread condition involving recurrent abdominal pain and diarrhoea or constipation. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Irritable_Bowel_Syndrome Wikipedia:Irritable Bowel Syndrome], too.

MDDoctor of Medicine (MD, from the Latin Medicinæ Doctor meaning "Teacher of Medicine").

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I did read the Croese paper quite a long time ago but really did not take much notice of it for the following reasons. I can not see how HWhookworm, usually referring to the human hookworm, Necator americanus could pose any sort of risk to health in environments where infection is uncontrolled if there were some mechanism which allowed the body to keep numbers so low.

So if we are capable of limiting HWhookworm, usually referring to the human hookworm, Necator americanus number it is clear that even in someone who was malnourished the presence of approx 20 HWhookworm, usually referring to the human hookworm, Necator americanus is going to have almost no effect, therefore either the observation that HWhookworm, usually referring to the human hookworm, Necator americanus have historically been a major cause of morbidity and mortality is incorrect, and people were developing anaemia and other health problems attributed to HWhookworm, usually referring to the human hookworm, Necator americanus but actually due to other causes.

Or final HWhookworm, usually referring to the human hookworm, Necator americanus numbers are a direct result of the number of exposures and there is no limiting factor to the final population, allowing numbers that are large enough to cause or contribute to pathology. If this is the case, which I believe it is, there must simply be some factor or variable in Croese's experiments that resulted in numbers being limited. Just because something gets into print does not mean that it is not open to mistakes (experimental) and misinterpretation of experimental data.

Colony collapse

Occasionally, hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. hosts may experience the total loss of their colony, possibly as a result of taking certain antibiotics or consuming one of the other substances that are capable of harming hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin.. (For more details, see the Human Helminth Care Manual.) Colony collapse is uncommon, as is the need to deliberately terminate a colony and start over, but, if it does occur, disease symptoms may return rapidly.

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When I lost mine, it was apparent the next day. [134] Because I felt as though I had been hit by a truck ... and it didn't go away. [135]

Some subjects have reported a more gradual loss of benefits after a colony collapse, this difference perhaps being due to these individuals having hosted worms for a longer period.

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During about 5 weeks after the Albendazole, she felt OK but little by little allergy symptoms started to appear. [136]
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I gradually began to notice increased brain fog, my lips became drier than usual and my skin slightly more itchy. Then, at around three weeks after the severe diarrhoea (induced by excessive binging on sauerkraut), I began to experience a return of nasal congestion... Daily headaches also returned around this time, my appetite was non-existent, and food tolerance was somewhat reduced... My concentration got worse and I was needing more sleep again... Then, I noticed definite hints of Restless Leg Syndrome when I took a nap, and my gut began to become sore after eating. [137]

When a colony is lost before any benefits have been experienced, the host may not know that their worms have succumbed. This is one reason why it's important to continue to add supplementary doses at 12 week intervals until benefits have become obvious.

In the absence of any existing worms to modulate the immune response to a replacement dose following a colony collapse, this dose should be of an appropriately limited size, perhaps similar to the dose that was used at the very beginning of treatment, if this proved to be effective without causing undue side effects.

A full return of benefits in this situation may take a while, with some benefits possibly returning more quickly than others.

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Almost two weeks after the new team of 40 worms went in, I was again enjoying a degree of relief, though I still had some way to go before I was back to my usual wormy bliss. I was still getting a little nasal congestion, some brain fog and a lot of headaches, but I was once again free from the Restless Leg Syndrome. The last symptom to go was nasal congestion, which continued to be a problem until 12 weeks, when it became significantly easier, though it didn't go completely until almost week 20, at which point I was pretty much back to how I had been before the explosive diarrhoea (induced by excessive binging on sauerkraut) that had flushed out my worms. [138]

Anaemia (anemia)

There is a small risk of hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. hosts developing anaemia, but this is unusual in well-nourished subjects living in industrialised countries who are only hosting a therapeutic number of worms.

Necator americanusThe species of human hookworm used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin., the only species of hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. used therapeutically, is reported to take an average of approximately 0.03ml of blood per worm, per day, [139] and it has been found that at least 300 worms are required to produce a noticeable effect on iron status in individuals eating a normal First World diet. [140]

In the absence of any existing worms to modulate the immune response to a replacement dose following a colony collapse, this dose should be of an appropriately limited size, perhaps similar to the dose that was used at the very beginning of treatment, if this proved to be effective without causing undue side effects.

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i got blood test results back from my dr today... no signs of anemia whatsoever, no mineral deficiencies at all. cal, mag, potassium, all good. [141]

There are individuals who have a pre-existing tendency to iron deficiency due to other causes and it might be expected that, in these cases, there would be a greater risk of anaemia after hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. are introduced. However, subjects with Crohn’s disease, who tend to have anaemia due to their poor absorption of nutrients, often find that hosting hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. helps to reduce anaemia as a result of improved absorption due to better gut health.

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My iron was low prior to HThelminthic therapy, so prior to beginning therapy, I raised my levels with supplements and continue to use supplements... I have not had any difficulty in maintaining my levels since using HThelminthic therapy, and I can easily become anaemic... In fact, my general gut health has improved, which improved my gut absorption of nutrients. [142]

In view of the small possibility of anaemia developing in a few cases, it is important for all hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. hosts to periodically check their iron levels and take supplemental iron if required, in consultation with their healthcare provider.

For more detail about hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. and anaemia, see the following page.

See also

SimpleHTLogo(18x18).gif Helminthic Therapy Wiki: documenting the science, management, experience and results of helminth replacement therapy.