Helminths and the gut microbiota

From Helminthic Therapy wiki
Jump to: navigation, search

Home>Effects of helminthic therapy>Helminths and the gut microbiota

Home>HT research>Helminths and the gut microbiota

HelminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] and bacteria form a complex, interactive ecosystem involved in immunity

Quotein.gif
The gut and its inhabitants should be considered a complex ecosystem, not only involving bacteria but also parasitesAn organism that lives in or on another organism (its host) and benefits at the host’s expense. (The organisms used in helminthic therapy are, strictly speaking, not parasites, but mutualists, because they have a mutually beneficial symbiotic relationship with their hosts.), not just sitting together but interacting. (Prof Richard Grencis, Manchester University) [1]
Quotein.gif
It is like a three-legged stool - the microbes, worms and immune system regulate each other. The worms have been with us throughout our evolution and their presence, along with bacteria, in the ecosystem of the gut is important in the development of a functional immune system. (Prof Ian Roberts, Manchester University) [2]
Quotein.gif
Our findings show that murine intestinal helminth infection not only alters the intestinal bacterial communities but that intestinal bacteria contribute to the ability of helminth infection to attenuate allergic airway inflammation. (Zaiss, et al) [3]

Scientific papers and articles relating to helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] and the gut microbiotaThe specific population of microorganisms living in a certain part of the body, such as the gut. "Microbiome" refers to all the microorganisms living in and on the body, or the genome of these microorganisms. These two terms are often used interchangeably.

2019

HelminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] prevented weight gain in laboratory mice on a high-fat diet. They did this by boosting populations of bacteria - notably certain species of Bacillus and Escherichia - that produce compounds which trigger increased energy consumption.
This study contributes to understanding of how microbial communities differ between individuals infected by soil-transmitted helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] and those who are uninfected.
In a very detailed “HelminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths]” section (pages 26-35), this paper discusses evidence that host-associated microbes may impact helminth infection success, that helminth colonization may impact the diversity and composition of the gut microbiomeAll the microorganisms living in and on the body, or the genome of these microorganisms. "Microbiota" refers to the specific population of microorganisms living in a certain part of the body, such as the gut. These two terms are often used interchangeably., and that both can have impacts on immune function.

2018

Trichuris suisThe porcine (pig) whipworm used in helminthic therapy and taken as microscopic eggs (TSO) in a drink every two weeks. and dietary inulin co-operatively mediate beneficial changes in microbiotaThe specific population of microorganisms living in a certain part of the body, such as the gut. "Microbiome" refers to all the microorganisms living in and on the body, or the genome of these microorganisms. These two terms are often used interchangeably. composition in pigs to enhance anti-inflammatory immune responses.
Monospecific, chronic infection with the helminthAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths], S. stercoralisThe roundworm that causes strongyloidiasis and is known as 'pinworm' in the UK and 'threadworm' in the US. Infection with S. stercoralis [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30898993 can be fatal]., were found to be associated with global shifts in the composition of the human faecal microbiotaThe specific population of microorganisms living in a certain part of the body, such as the gut. "Microbiome" refers to all the microorganisms living in and on the body, or the genome of these microorganisms. These two terms are often used interchangeably., as well as subtle changes in faecal metabolic profiles.
The helminthAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths], A. suum, uses a variety of factors with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity to affirm itself within its microbe-rich environment in the gut.
While this study focused on the parasitesAn organism that lives in or on another organism (its host) and benefits at the host’s expense. (The organisms used in helminthic therapy are, strictly speaking, not parasites, but mutualists, because they have a mutually beneficial symbiotic relationship with their hosts.), Dientamoeba fragilis and Blastocystis, rather than helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths], its conclusions are nevertheless interesting.
“Presence of parasitesAn organism that lives in or on another organism (its host) and benefits at the host’s expense. (The organisms used in helminthic therapy are, strictly speaking, not parasites, but mutualists, because they have a mutually beneficial symbiotic relationship with their hosts.) was associated to a rich and diverse microbiomeAll the microorganisms living in and on the body, or the genome of these microorganisms. "Microbiota" refers to the specific population of microorganisms living in a certain part of the body, such as the gut. These two terms are often used interchangeably. in healthy controls and individuals with unspecific GIGastroenterology is the branch of medicine concerned with disorders of the digestive system which includes all the organs of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract (alimentary canal) from mouth to anus. Physicians practicing in this field of medicine are called gastroenterologists or GI specialists. symptoms… Observations of parasiteAn organism that lives in or on another organism (its host) and benefits at the host’s expense. (The organisms used in helminthic therapy are, strictly speaking, not parasites, but mutualists, because they have a mutually beneficial symbiotic relationship with their hosts.) colonization being associated to healthy features of the gut microbiomeAll the microorganisms living in and on the body, or the genome of these microorganisms. "Microbiota" refers to the specific population of microorganisms living in a certain part of the body, such as the gut. These two terms are often used interchangeably. should differentiate our view of intestinal parasitesAn organism that lives in or on another organism (its host) and benefits at the host’s expense. (The organisms used in helminthic therapy are, strictly speaking, not parasites, but mutualists, because they have a mutually beneficial symbiotic relationship with their hosts.) beyond the focus on pathogenicity.”
This is a good review of studies investigating the interactions of the intestinal microbiotaThe specific population of microorganisms living in a certain part of the body, such as the gut. "Microbiome" refers to all the microorganisms living in and on the body, or the genome of these microorganisms. These two terms are often used interchangeably., gut parasitesAn organism that lives in or on another organism (its host) and benefits at the host’s expense. (The organisms used in helminthic therapy are, strictly speaking, not parasites, but mutualists, because they have a mutually beneficial symbiotic relationship with their hosts.) and their host, and how these interactions may affect the overall health of the host.
The eggs of T. muris that hatch in sterile conditions are free from bacteria.
T. muris maintains its own distinct microbiotaThe specific population of microorganisms living in a certain part of the body, such as the gut. "Microbiome" refers to all the microorganisms living in and on the body, or the genome of these microorganisms. These two terms are often used interchangeably., comprising bacteria selected from the intestine of its host, regardless of the surrounding bacterial populations.
Infection with T. muris causes significant restructuring of the host cecal microbiotaThe specific population of microorganisms living in a certain part of the body, such as the gut. "Microbiome" refers to all the microorganisms living in and on the body, or the genome of these microorganisms. These two terms are often used interchangeably. and a reduction in total bacterial diversity.
T. muris-induced changes in the host microbiotaThe specific population of microorganisms living in a certain part of the body, such as the gut. "Microbiome" refers to all the microorganisms living in and on the body, or the genome of these microorganisms. These two terms are often used interchangeably. suppresses subsequent parasiteAn organism that lives in or on another organism (its host) and benefits at the host’s expense. (The organisms used in helminthic therapy are, strictly speaking, not parasites, but mutualists, because they have a mutually beneficial symbiotic relationship with their hosts.) egg hatching, consequently controlling parasiteAn organism that lives in or on another organism (its host) and benefits at the host’s expense. (The organisms used in helminthic therapy are, strictly speaking, not parasites, but mutualists, because they have a mutually beneficial symbiotic relationship with their hosts.) numbers in the infected host intestine independently of the host adaptive immune system.

2017

Highlights findings concerning responses to bacterial stimuli, antimicrobial peptides and the reciprocal influences between nematodesA category of worms with slender, unsegmented, cylindrical bodies that include roundworms and threadworms. and their environmental bacteria. Also discussed are the microbiotaThe specific population of microorganisms living in a certain part of the body, such as the gut. "Microbiome" refers to all the microorganisms living in and on the body, or the genome of these microorganisms. These two terms are often used interchangeably. of nematodesA category of worms with slender, unsegmented, cylindrical bodies that include roundworms and threadworms. and alterations in the intestinal microbiotaThe specific population of microorganisms living in a certain part of the body, such as the gut. "Microbiome" refers to all the microorganisms living in and on the body, or the genome of these microorganisms. These two terms are often used interchangeably. of mammalian hosts by helminth infections.

2016

Helminth infection protects mice deficient in the Crohn’s disease susceptibility gene Nod2 from intestinal abnormalities by inhibiting colonization with an inflammatory Bacteroides species.
Discusses at length the interrelationships between intestinal helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] and microbiotaThe specific population of microorganisms living in a certain part of the body, such as the gut. "Microbiome" refers to all the microorganisms living in and on the body, or the genome of these microorganisms. These two terms are often used interchangeably., in both humans and mice, and highlights the fact that certain microbiotaThe specific population of microorganisms living in a certain part of the body, such as the gut. "Microbiome" refers to all the microorganisms living in and on the body, or the genome of these microorganisms. These two terms are often used interchangeably. species can determine the outcomes of helminth infection.
"... although intestinal helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] are generally accepted to possess potent immuno-modulatory activity, it is unknown whether this capacity requires interactions with intestinal bacteria. We propose that this 'ménage à trois' situation is likely to have exerted a strong selective pressure on the development of our metabolic and immune systems."

2015

HelminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] and bacterial microbiotaThe specific population of microorganisms living in a certain part of the body, such as the gut. "Microbiome" refers to all the microorganisms living in and on the body, or the genome of these microorganisms. These two terms are often used interchangeably. act in bi-directional synergy to modulate immune responses.
HelminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] move the balance of the intestinal flora to favour “probioticMicroorganisms that are believed to provide health benefits when consumed.” microorganisms.
"Notably, we observed a significant increase in microbial species richness over the course of the trial, which could represent a potential mechanism by which hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. can regulate gluten-induced inflammation and maintain intestinal immune homeostasis."
"Dynamic interactions between the host and gastrointestinal microbiotaThe specific population of microorganisms living in a certain part of the body, such as the gut. "Microbiome" refers to all the microorganisms living in and on the body, or the genome of these microorganisms. These two terms are often used interchangeably. play an important role for local and systemic immune homeostasis."
"In general, helminth presence is linked with high microbiotaThe specific population of microorganisms living in a certain part of the body, such as the gut. "Microbiome" refers to all the microorganisms living in and on the body, or the genome of these microorganisms. These two terms are often used interchangeably. diversity, which may confer health benefits to the host… The most pronounced helminthAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths]-microbiotaThe specific population of microorganisms living in a certain part of the body, such as the gut. "Microbiome" refers to all the microorganisms living in and on the body, or the genome of these microorganisms. These two terms are often used interchangeably. association was between the presence of tapewormsA helminth with a flat, ribbon-like, segmented body. Only the murine (rat) tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta, is used in helminthic therapy and this generally does not reach adulthood in humans so requires regular dosing of HDC. in the small intestine and increased S24-7 (Bacteroidetes) family in the stomach."
"In this article, we review recent progress in the elucidation of host-parasiteAn organism that lives in or on another organism (its host) and benefits at the host’s expense. (The organisms used in helminthic therapy are, strictly speaking, not parasites, but mutualists, because they have a mutually beneficial symbiotic relationship with their hosts.)-microbiotaThe specific population of microorganisms living in a certain part of the body, such as the gut. "Microbiome" refers to all the microorganisms living in and on the body, or the genome of these microorganisms. These two terms are often used interchangeably. interactions in both animal models of chronic inflammation and humans, and provide a working hypothesis of the role of the gut microbiotaThe specific population of microorganisms living in a certain part of the body, such as the gut. "Microbiome" refers to all the microorganisms living in and on the body, or the genome of these microorganisms. These two terms are often used interchangeably. in helminthAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths]-induced suppression of inflammation."
Colonisation by Hymenolepis diminutaA murine (rat) tapeworm used in helminthic therapy that generally does not mature in humans and is taken as cysticerci (HDC) in a drink every 2 or 3 weeks. led to several changes in rat cecal microbiomeAll the microorganisms living in and on the body, or the genome of these microorganisms. "Microbiota" refers to the specific population of microorganisms living in a certain part of the body, such as the gut. These two terms are often used interchangeably. that were mostly within the Firmicutes phylum, involved about 20% of the total bacteria, and entailed a shift from Bacilli to Clostridia species.
"... infection of T. muris causes a significant and substantial impact on intestinal microbiotaThe specific population of microorganisms living in a certain part of the body, such as the gut. "Microbiome" refers to all the microorganisms living in and on the body, or the genome of these microorganisms. These two terms are often used interchangeably. and digestive function of mice with affects in long term immune regulation."

2014

HookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. infection produces a minor increase in microbial species richness, but has no detectable effect on community structure, diversity or relative abundance of individual bacterial species. (NB. Testing was done at only 8 weeks, so the worms were not yet fully engaged.)
“… helminthAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths]-induced immunomodulation occurs independently of changes in the microbiotaThe specific population of microorganisms living in a certain part of the body, such as the gut. "Microbiome" refers to all the microorganisms living in and on the body, or the genome of these microorganisms. These two terms are often used interchangeably. but is dependent on Ym1.”
Discusses changes occurring in the microbiotaThe specific population of microorganisms living in a certain part of the body, such as the gut. "Microbiome" refers to all the microorganisms living in and on the body, or the genome of these microorganisms. These two terms are often used interchangeably. upon helminth infection and the underlying mechanisms leading to these changes.
HelminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] may have an impact on the diversity, bacterial community structure and function of the gut microbiotaThe specific population of microorganisms living in a certain part of the body, such as the gut. "Microbiome" refers to all the microorganisms living in and on the body, or the genome of these microorganisms. These two terms are often used interchangeably..
Some bacteria and nematodeA category of worms with slender, unsegmented, cylindrical bodies that include roundworms and threadworms.-trapping fungi form mutually beneficial relationships to victimise nematodesA category of worms with slender, unsegmented, cylindrical bodies that include roundworms and threadworms..
The bacterium, B. animalis, significantly decreased the S. venezuelensis worm burden and egg output.

2013

"… by inducing an immune response that includes IL-22, intestinal helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] may enhance the mucosal barrier function of the intestinal epithelium. This may restore the mucosal microbiotaThe specific population of microorganisms living in a certain part of the body, such as the gut. "Microbiome" refers to all the microorganisms living in and on the body, or the genome of these microorganisms. These two terms are often used interchangeably. populations from dysbiosis associated with colitis and improve intestinal homeostasis."

2012

WhipwormsA helminth with a tapering whiplike body that lives in the colon. In helminthic therapy, the microscopic eggs of either the human Trichuris trichiura (TTO) or pig Trichuris suis (TSO) are taken in a drink. can restore the balance of gut bacterial communities in sick monkeys.

2011

Some probioticMicroorganisms that are believed to provide health benefits when consumed. strains have been shown to be effective in controlling some species of parasiticAn organism that lives in or on another organism (its host) and benefits at the host’s expense. (The organisms used in helminthic therapy are, strictly speaking, not parasites, but mutualists, because they have a mutually beneficial symbiotic relationship with their hosts.) worm. NB. This study was not concerned with helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] used in therapy, but other types of parasiteAn organism that lives in or on another organism (its host) and benefits at the host’s expense. (The organisms used in helminthic therapy are, strictly speaking, not parasites, but mutualists, because they have a mutually beneficial symbiotic relationship with their hosts.).

2010

Helminth infection shifts the composition of intestinal bacteria.
"It is like a three-legged stool - the microbes, worms and immune system regulate each other. The worms have been with us throughout our evolution and their presence, along with bacteria, in the ecosystem of the gut is important in the development of a functional immune system."
SimpleHTLogo(18x18).gif Helminthic Therapy Wiki: documenting the science, management, experience and results of helminth replacement therapy.