Helminthic therapy and eosinophils

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EosinophilsEosinophils are a specialised type of white blood cell with a variety of both harmful and beneficial functions. Their numbers rise temporarily following inoculation with helminths., sometimes called eosinophiles or, less commonly, acidophils, are a variety of white blood cells and one of the immune system components responsible for combatting multicellular parasites and certain infections in vertebrates. Along with mast cells and basophils, they also control mechanisms associated with allergy and asthma. [1]

The positive role of eosinophilsEosinophils are a specialised type of white blood cell with a variety of both harmful and beneficial functions. Their numbers rise temporarily following inoculation with helminths.

EosinophilEosinophils are a specialised type of white blood cell with a variety of both harmful and beneficial functions. Their numbers rise temporarily following inoculation with helminths. numbers usually increase following exposure to helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths], but this is not an undesirable development. The interactions between eosinophilsEosinophils are a specialised type of white blood cell with a variety of both harmful and beneficial functions. Their numbers rise temporarily following inoculation with helminths. and intestinal worms are now recognised to be complex and, rather than being detrimental, eosinophilsEosinophils are a specialised type of white blood cell with a variety of both harmful and beneficial functions. Their numbers rise temporarily following inoculation with helminths. may in fact be an essential component in immunity. They have an important role in cell growth and cell-to-cell interactions. They synthesise, store and secrete cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors, as well as stimulating T cells, interacting with B cells, functioning as antigen-presenting cells, and regulating processes associated with both T1 and T2 immunity. [2] They also perform many other essential biological functions.

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… besides their roles in Th2 responses, eosinophilsEosinophils are a specialised type of white blood cell with a variety of both harmful and beneficial functions. Their numbers rise temporarily following inoculation with helminths. also regulate homeostatic processes at steady state, thereby challenging the exclusive paradigm of the eosinophilEosinophils are a specialised type of white blood cell with a variety of both harmful and beneficial functions. Their numbers rise temporarily following inoculation with helminths. as a destructive and inflammatory cell. Indeed, under baseline conditions, eosinophilsEosinophils are a specialised type of white blood cell with a variety of both harmful and beneficial functions. Their numbers rise temporarily following inoculation with helminths. rapidly leave the bloodstream to enter tissues, mainly the gastrointestinal tract, lungs, adipose tissue, thymus, uterus, and mammary glands, where they regulate a variety of important biological functions, such as immunoregulation, control of glucose homeostasis, protection against obesity, regulation of mammary gland development, and preparation of the uterus for pregnancy. [3]

One of the contributions made to immune regulation by eosinophilsEosinophils are a specialised type of white blood cell with a variety of both harmful and beneficial functions. Their numbers rise temporarily following inoculation with helminths. is the production of the cytokine Interleukin-5 (II-5 cytokine) which induces the body’s T-cell front-line defences and has, itself, been shown to be an effective treatment for autoimmune disease. [4] EosinophilsEosinophils are a specialised type of white blood cell with a variety of both harmful and beneficial functions. Their numbers rise temporarily following inoculation with helminths. may act as mediators of inflammatory resolution [5] and have a crucial role in the prevention of autoimmune diseases such as colitis. [6]

Small intestinal eosinophilsEosinophils are a specialised type of white blood cell with a variety of both harmful and beneficial functions. Their numbers rise temporarily following inoculation with helminths. play a pivotal role in the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis, [7] including by the regulation of Th17 cells via production of IL-1Ra. [8]

HookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin.-induced eosinophilsEosinophils are a specialised type of white blood cell with a variety of both harmful and beneficial functions. Their numbers rise temporarily following inoculation with helminths. may contribute to a reduced prevalence of latent TB infection. [9]

An absence of eosinophilsEosinophils are a specialised type of white blood cell with a variety of both harmful and beneficial functions. Their numbers rise temporarily following inoculation with helminths. may have a significant impact on the nature of the endogenous gut microflora and responses to gut pathogens, notably Clostridium difficile. [10]

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... although all the beneficial roles of eosinophilsEosinophils are a specialised type of white blood cell with a variety of both harmful and beneficial functions. Their numbers rise temporarily following inoculation with helminths. have yet to emerge, eosinophilsEosinophils are a specialised type of white blood cell with a variety of both harmful and beneficial functions. Their numbers rise temporarily following inoculation with helminths., on balance, must be considered friends and not foes. [11]

The eosinophilEosinophils are a specialised type of white blood cell with a variety of both harmful and beneficial functions. Their numbers rise temporarily following inoculation with helminths. response to helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths]

In the case of helminth infection, eosinophilsEosinophils are a specialised type of white blood cell with a variety of both harmful and beneficial functions. Their numbers rise temporarily following inoculation with helminths. are produced by the body to try to rid itself of the invader. The helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] then respond by secreting chemicals to counter the eosinophilsEosinophils are a specialised type of white blood cell with a variety of both harmful and beneficial functions. Their numbers rise temporarily following inoculation with helminths. and thus protect themselves from being ejected. This produces a typical pattern of firstly increased, and then decreased, eosinophilEosinophils are a specialised type of white blood cell with a variety of both harmful and beneficial functions. Their numbers rise temporarily following inoculation with helminths. counts. However, there is not always an eosinophilEosinophils are a specialised type of white blood cell with a variety of both harmful and beneficial functions. Their numbers rise temporarily following inoculation with helminths. response to helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths].

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Neither 30 HDCHymenolepis diminuta cysticercoids (Hi-men-o-lep'is dim-a-nu-ta sis-ti-sur-koid) - the larval cysts of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta biweekly nor low doses of HWhookworm, usually referring to the human hookworm, Necator americanus caused increased EosinophilsEosinophils are a specialised type of white blood cell with a variety of both harmful and beneficial functions. Their numbers rise temporarily following inoculation with helminths.. My EosinophilsEosinophils are a specialised type of white blood cell with a variety of both harmful and beneficial functions. Their numbers rise temporarily following inoculation with helminths. always remained low normal. [12]

Raised eosinophilEosinophils are a specialised type of white blood cell with a variety of both harmful and beneficial functions. Their numbers rise temporarily following inoculation with helminths. numbers should always be investigated because they can be a sign of pathology other than a reaction to an allergen or parasite.

Where eosinophilEosinophils are a specialised type of white blood cell with a variety of both harmful and beneficial functions. Their numbers rise temporarily following inoculation with helminths. levels had been raised prior to inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation] with helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths], for example in response to harmless substances such as food proteins, these will typically also be controlled eventually by the action of the worms. Once helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] have been hosted continuously for a period of time, eosinophilEosinophils are a specialised type of white blood cell with a variety of both harmful and beneficial functions. Their numbers rise temporarily following inoculation with helminths. numbers usually decline and can eventually disappear with chronic helminth exposure, although they usually remain slightly elevated indefinitely in helminth hosts.

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My eos were elevated for a while, but they did eventually go back to normal. [13]

EosinophilEosinophils are a specialised type of white blood cell with a variety of both harmful and beneficial functions. Their numbers rise temporarily following inoculation with helminths. levels vary according to the species and number of helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] being hosted, and the genetics of the host. In the case of NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus, they usually begin to rise from week 2 following inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation], then rise more rapidly from week 4 and peak at around weeks 6-7, before reducing gradually again and returning to normal at around 14 weeks, or remaining slightly elevated thereafter. The lower eosinophilEosinophils are a specialised type of white blood cell with a variety of both harmful and beneficial functions. Their numbers rise temporarily following inoculation with helminths. levels seen at 14 weeks and beyond are an indication that the worms are doing their job and moderating the body's immune response.

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(From: Dose-ranging study for trials of therapeutic infection with Necator americanus in humans)

Measurement scales vary according to geographic location, and someone from the US reported that, after his first inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation] with hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin., his eosinophilEosinophils are a specialised type of white blood cell with a variety of both harmful and beneficial functions. Their numbers rise temporarily following inoculation with helminths. counts rose from a baseline of about 300 to a peak of 4100 at 5 weeks, dropped to 2300 at 12 weeks, and then reduced to 1300 at 14 weeks. After a 2nd inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation], his eosinophilsEosinophils are a specialised type of white blood cell with a variety of both harmful and beneficial functions. Their numbers rise temporarily following inoculation with helminths. rose to 2300 at week 8, dropped back to 2100 at week 12, and then down to 1300 at week 14. Following a 3rd inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation], his eosinophilsEosinophils are a specialised type of white blood cell with a variety of both harmful and beneficial functions. Their numbers rise temporarily following inoculation with helminths. reached 1700 at 7 weeks before falling to 600 at week 11.

Someone else has reported that, eight months before introducing NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus, they had an eosinophilEosinophils are a specialised type of white blood cell with a variety of both harmful and beneficial functions. Their numbers rise temporarily following inoculation with helminths. level of 300/mm3. Nine weeks after their first dose of NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus (and while also taking HDCHymenolepis diminuta cysticercoids (Hi-men-o-lep'is dim-a-nu-ta sis-ti-sur-koid) - the larval cysts of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta), their eosinophilsEosinophils are a specialised type of white blood cell with a variety of both harmful and beneficial functions. Their numbers rise temporarily following inoculation with helminths. had increased to 2449/mm3 and, by 22 weeks, they had reduced to 1360/mm3. At almost 15 weeks after a second dose, their eosinophilsEosinophils are a specialised type of white blood cell with a variety of both harmful and beneficial functions. Their numbers rise temporarily following inoculation with helminths. had risen back up to 2900/mm3. [14]

An eosinophilEosinophils are a specialised type of white blood cell with a variety of both harmful and beneficial functions. Their numbers rise temporarily following inoculation with helminths. count of, say, 600, prior to infection with helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths], might be indicative of allergies, but counts in the thousands are more suggestive of the presence of helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths]. However, a high eosinophilEosinophils are a specialised type of white blood cell with a variety of both harmful and beneficial functions. Their numbers rise temporarily following inoculation with helminths. level does not necessarily indicate that a person is currently infected with helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths], only that they may have been exposed to helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] within the last few weeks or months.

Having an eosinophilEosinophils are a specialised type of white blood cell with a variety of both harmful and beneficial functions. Their numbers rise temporarily following inoculation with helminths. level somewhat elevated above 'normal' values does not automatically lead to adverse symptoms.

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Last time I had mine tested they were about double the normal level - and I'm feeling better all the time. [15]
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I've been at 6x normal levels and felt no worse than usual. [16]

Once human helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] (NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus or TTthe human whipworm, Trichuris trichiura) have been established for three months - the immune response to them, whether to those already in place, or to supplementary doses, is reduced and, the larger the number of worms hosted the smaller the resulting rise in eosinophilsEosinophils are a specialised type of white blood cell with a variety of both harmful and beneficial functions. Their numbers rise temporarily following inoculation with helminths. will be. This is probably the reason why one study found that, out of a total of 621 cases of helminth infection, only 66 cases (10.6%) had related eosinophilia. [17]

This is also why side effects - which are dependent on the host’s immune response - are much less likely and, if they do occur, are so much milder, with subsequent doses when compared with the first dose.

See also


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