Helminth incubation

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Introduction

This page is concerned with the incubation of the mutualisticMutualism is a type of symbiotic relationship between individuals of different species where each organism benefits from the other. helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] used in helminthic therapyThe reintroduction to the digestive tract of a controlled number of specially domesticated, mutualistic helminths (intestinal worms) in the form of microscopic eggs or larvae to reconstitute a depleted biome to treat and prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy..

Of the four species of helminth being used in therapy, three are suitable for home cultivation.

  1. Rat tapewormA helminth with a flat, ribbon-like, segmented body. Only the murine (rat) tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta, is used in helminthic therapy and this generally does not reach adulthood in humans so requires regular dosing of HDC., Hymenolepis diminuta (HDCHymenolepis diminuta cysticercoids (Hi-men-o-lep'is dim-a-nu-ta sis-ti-sur-koid) - the larval cysts of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta)
  2. Human hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin., Necator americanus (NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus)
  3. Human whipwormA helminth with a tapering whiplike body that lives in the colon. In helminthic therapy, the microscopic eggs of either the human Trichuris trichiura (TTO) or pig Trichuris suis (TSO) are taken in a drink., Trichuris trichiura (TTthe human whipworm, Trichuris trichiura/TTOthe ova (eggs) of the human whipworm, Trichuris trichiura)

The only therapeutic helminth that is not suitable for cultivation at home is the pig whipwormA helminth with a tapering whiplike body that lives in the colon. In helminthic therapy, the microscopic eggs of either the human Trichuris trichiura (TTO) or pig Trichuris suis (TSO) are taken in a drink., Trichuris suis. The incubation of this helminth involves a complex process spanning many months, and also necessitates the use of pigs, which introduces a potential risk for TSOthe ova (eggs) of the porcine (pig) whipworm, Trichuris suis recipients in that they may become infected with the porcine tapewormA helminth with a flat, ribbon-like, segmented body. Only the murine (rat) tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta, is used in helminthic therapy and this generally does not reach adulthood in humans so requires regular dosing of HDC., Taenia solium, which can cause epileptic seizures and other neurological problems in humans as a result of its larvaeThe active immature form of an insect, or an animal such as a helminth, which develops from an egg and eventually transforms again into its adult state. entering the bloodstream and forming cysts in the brain. Due to this risk, donor pigs must be maintained in sterile conditions, as they are by Tanawisa, the only commercial producer of TSOthe ova (eggs) of the porcine (pig) whipworm, Trichuris suis.

In terms of risk, HDCHymenolepis diminuta cysticercoids (Hi-men-o-lep'is dim-a-nu-ta sis-ti-sur-koid) - the larval cysts of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta is arguably the least problematic, since only a small number of cysticerciThe larval (immature) stage of a tapeworm. - perhaps between 0 and 60 - will be found in each beetle dissected, whereas a single batch of TTOthe ova (eggs) of the human whipworm, Trichuris trichiura or NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus may contain thousands of infectious organisms, with a potential to cause serious illness if not very carefully managed during incubation and inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation]. For example, one of the risks with TTOthe ova (eggs) of the human whipworm, Trichuris trichiura is that, if too large a dose ingested, this could cause rectal prolapse. TTOthe ova (eggs) of the human whipworm, Trichuris trichiura is also more challenging to grow that either HDCHymenolepis diminuta cysticercoids (Hi-men-o-lep'is dim-a-nu-ta sis-ti-sur-koid) - the larval cysts of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta or NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus.

There is additional risk attached to using organisms obtained from private growers, due to the possibility that some, or all, of these may not be the species they are claimed to be, or that they, or the liquid containing them, may be contaminated by other microorganisms. It is therefore recommended that any incubation process is begun by obtaining a dose of the organism to be cultivated from a reputable commercial source that guarantees its product contains only the specified species and that this is free from contamination by any other organism.

HDCHymenolepis diminuta cysticercoids (Hi-men-o-lep'is dim-a-nu-ta sis-ti-sur-koid) - the larval cysts of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta and NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus are both available for purchase as a single dose. See the list of helminth providers.

An online group [1] was set up to facilitate the exchange of materials between private hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. growers, although willing donors are difficult to find.

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I am in the US and have had no luck in finding a donor and just gave in and bought my doses... [2]

Before sourcing any products from a private grower, the would-be incubator should explore the legality of doing this in their particular locality. What regulations there are are often imprecisely defined, so are open to interpretation, making it difficult to predict exactly how a regulatory authority might react if someone in their jurisdiction were identified as having supplied or received helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths], or been involved in their cultivation.

While the precise legal position concerning helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] is still uncertain and untested in many countries, it is clearer in the US, where hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin., whipwormsA helminth with a tapering whiplike body that lives in the colon. In helminthic therapy, the microscopic eggs of either the human Trichuris trichiura (TTO) or pig Trichuris suis (TSO) are taken in a drink. and rat tapewormsA helminth with a flat, ribbon-like, segmented body. Only the murine (rat) tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta, is used in helminthic therapy and this generally does not reach adulthood in humans so requires regular dosing of HDC. are currently classified by the Food and Drug Administration as biological agents (i.e. drugs), as defined in Section 351 of the Public Health Service Act, and subject to an Import Alert.

HookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. incubation issues

Infection risk

Some would-be hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. hosts may consider traveling to an area where these worms are endemic, in the hope of acquiring their larvaeThe active immature form of an insect, or an animal such as a helminth, which develops from an egg and eventually transforms again into its adult state. in the same way that the locals do - by walking barefoot in open-air latrines. For a number of reasons, this is a not a good idea, as is explained here by the only Westerner who has done this.

Anyone seeking hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. larvaeThe active immature form of an insect, or an animal such as a helminth, which develops from an egg and eventually transforms again into its adult state. from someone who is already cultivating their own supply, or faeces containing hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. ova, needs to consider several issues. Included amongst these is the risk of inadvertently acquiring a different type of helminthAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths], such as the less desirable species of hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin., Ancylostoma duodenale, which causes nine times more blood loss than the therapeutic hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin., NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus, and can be passed in a mother’s milk and even cross the placenta to infect a foetus. Even more risky is the roundworm, Strongyloides stercoralis, which is autoinfective and potentially hyperinfective, with a risk of fatality. The eggs of both these species are virtually identical to those of NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus, and a novice would be unlikely to be able to distinguish between the larvaeThe active immature form of an insect, or an animal such as a helminth, which develops from an egg and eventually transforms again into its adult state. produced by them.

Another issue is that an untested donor may prove to be a source of any one of a range of pathological bacterial and viral infections. Commercial providers of hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. ensure the safety of the products they supply by regularly testing their donors for Hepatitis A, B & C and for HIV, and by employing a method similar to the one detailed below, which has been used by researchers since the 1950s and in the original studies into the efficacy of the anthelminthic drug, albendazole.

  1. The sample, obtained from an individual that has been tested for Hepatitis and HIV, is cultured in a temperature- and humidity-controlled environment to facilitate development of the embryos to stage 2 larvaeThe active immature form of an insect, or an animal such as a helminth, which develops from an egg and eventually transforms again into its adult state., which takes 8-10 days.
  2. The larvaeThe active immature form of an insect, or an animal such as a helminth, which develops from an egg and eventually transforms again into its adult state. are forced to migrate through a 3 inch layer of activated charcoal, taking advantage of the larvaeThe active immature form of an insect, or an animal such as a helminth, which develops from an egg and eventually transforms again into its adult state.'s instinctive behavior to migrate up and through whatever they are covered by or contained in. This takes a further 1-2 days.
  3. Once sufficient numbers of the larvaeThe active immature form of an insect, or an animal such as a helminth, which develops from an egg and eventually transforms again into its adult state. have gathered on the surface of the charcoal, they are removed by placing two layers of fabric over the charcoal. Once they have migrated through this, removal of the top layer will bring the larvaeThe active immature form of an insect, or an animal such as a helminth, which develops from an egg and eventually transforms again into its adult state. along.
  4. The sample is washed in buffered saline solution by agitating it mechanically for twenty minutes.
  5. The larvaeThe active immature form of an insect, or an animal such as a helminth, which develops from an egg and eventually transforms again into its adult state. are extracted from the saline by pipetting them from the surface (they float in saline). They are then placed on the surface of a piece of filter paper.
  6. The larvaeThe active immature form of an insect, or an animal such as a helminth, which develops from an egg and eventually transforms again into its adult state. are submerged and flushed ten times using a solution of Chlorohexidine 0.2% by weight.
  7. The larvaeThe active immature form of an insect, or an animal such as a helminth, which develops from an egg and eventually transforms again into its adult state. are washed from the filter paper into a solution of sterile saline. After allowing them to recover, motile individuals are individually pipetted onto a dressing for application to the user's skin, or placed into a suitable container for dispatch.

In addition to these steps, current providers of NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus also add an antibiotic to the solution in which doses of larvaeThe active immature form of an insect, or an animal such as a helminth, which develops from an egg and eventually transforms again into its adult state. are shipped.

Legal risks

Yet another often overlooked issue is the risk of legal action against a donor of hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. or hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin.-infected materials.

The donation of larvaeThe active immature form of an insect, or an animal such as a helminth, which develops from an egg and eventually transforms again into its adult state. or infected faeces could expose the person supplying them to legal action by the recipient’s relatives in the event of that recipient dying after using the donated material. The grieving relatives might sue the donor in the belief, whether right or wrong, that the donation was somehow responsible for the death of their loved one. Someone contemplating the use of donated materials may think that their relatives would never react in this way, but death can spark unpredictable and irrational behaviour in family members, and the fact that the organisms had been given away rather than being sold would not necessarily free the donor of liability. The outcome of such a scenario would only be revealed after it had been tested in a court of law, and this could be a very costly and stressful process for all those involved.

Some find incubation surprisingly difficult

Some people find the cultivation of hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. larvaeThe active immature form of an insect, or an animal such as a helminth, which develops from an egg and eventually transforms again into its adult state. simple and straightforward, especially those living in a suitable climate, but others have failed, some of them repeatedly, even with the help of good instructions.

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It took me about 6 months and I have prior lab experience. For some reason it's just tricky. [3]
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I have a bio degree and took several micro labs and it still took me over 40 hours and several months to get incubation done right. Fortunately i was highly educated on safety.
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Although this is not rocket science, it is actually far more difficult to successfully incubate viable HWhookworm, usually referring to the human hookworm, Necator americanus and produce safe doses than people realise. If nothing else, someone with no laboratory background is probably going to spend so much of their time getting this to work, it would actually work out far cheaper and much quicker to get a job on the side to pay for the therapy. Even with a strong scientific/laboratory background it will probably take many months at least to get your first dose, and that is assuming a significant amount of work each day on the incubations. Working with live organisms requires some art. It is not purely science.

A few people, including some with a high level of education, have found that they just can’t grow any larvaeThe active immature form of an insect, or an animal such as a helminth, which develops from an egg and eventually transforms again into its adult state. at all, whatever they try.

The risk of attracting unhelpful and potentially damaging publicity

There are some people who choose the DIYDo-It-Yourself. Literally to bypass the professional and do it yourself. hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. culture route because they object to having to pay for the treatment, even though the cost of a dose of hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. larvaeThe active immature form of an insect, or an animal such as a helminth, which develops from an egg and eventually transforms again into its adult state. is now minimal. Unfortunately, the sometimes reckless attitude displayed by some in this group not only threatens their own safety and possibly that of those around them, but could also have much wider implications.

A number of reports have already surfaced about people who have successfully incubated hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. larvaeThe active immature form of an insect, or an animal such as a helminth, which develops from an egg and eventually transforms again into its adult state. but, then, due to a failure to carry out the appropriate research, sloppy technique, undue haste, or just plain carelessness, have taken unbelievable risks with their health. One individual attempted to collect larvaeThe active immature form of an insect, or an animal such as a helminth, which develops from an egg and eventually transforms again into its adult state. for inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation] without a microscope, using only a magnifying glass. Others have chosen not to even bother counting out a number of larvaeThe active immature form of an insect, or an animal such as a helminth, which develops from an egg and eventually transforms again into its adult state. with which to inoculate, and, in one case, someone who had incubated larvaeThe active immature form of an insect, or an animal such as a helminth, which develops from an egg and eventually transforms again into its adult state. proceeded to smear faeces from the sample, along with liquid from its container, directly onto his skin, potentially giving himself a dose of hundreds, if not thousands of hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin.!

A medical doctor, who hosts therapeutic helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] himself, has reported seeing the arm of another individual who he estimated had probably inoculated with at least many hundreds of hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. larvaeThe active immature form of an insect, or an animal such as a helminth, which develops from an egg and eventually transforms again into its adult state. on a single occasion, resulting in a rash covering the individual's entire upper arm. Since Infection with more than 1,000 NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus can be lethal [4] it was fortunate that this individual sought medical assistance. He was treated immediately with steroids, and followed the advice he was given to eliminate the worms.

This experience serves as an example to all who might consider DIYDo-It-Yourself. Literally to bypass the professional and do it yourself. hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. culture. Even though this individual is well educated and has a job requiring intelligence, his research, and the level of care he applied to the task, had obviously not been sufficient to ensure even his own safety, and this scenario is unfortunately repeated all too often.

What is perhaps of greatest concern about incidents like this, is that their ramifications could extend well beyond the people who are directly involved. If news of such a story were to be picked up by the media, it would undoubtedly be seized upon by news-hungry journalists and milked for profit by publishers. This publicity could result in regulatory crackdowns that could well impact the ability of others to access this therapy, and there are now thousands whose health depends on them being able to obtain helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths]. There are also millions of others who are desperately ill but have not yet heard about this therapy, who, as a result of the actions of some thoughtless individual, might never get the chance to try it.

So it is hoped that anyone intent on incubating hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. themselves will take great care in sourcing their live materials, and then proceed with the utmost caution, conscious of their responsibility for the health and safety of others.

Helminth incubation discussion groups

See the following page section.

Helminth incubation methods

The following incubation protocols were written by members of the helminthic therapyThe reintroduction to the digestive tract of a controlled number of specially domesticated, mutualistic helminths (intestinal worms) in the form of microscopic eggs or larvae to reconstitute a depleted biome to treat and prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy. community.

Necator americanusThe species of human hookworm used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin.

  • NA incubation: very detailed method by Alana. This page provides information about every aspect of hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. incubation.

Hymenolepis diminutaA murine (rat) tapeworm used in helminthic therapy that generally does not mature in humans and is taken as cysticerci (HDC) in a drink every 2 or 3 weeks.

Trichuris trichiuraThe human whipworm used in helminthic therapy and taken periodically as microscopic eggs (TTO) in a drink.

DIYDo-It-Yourself. Literally to bypass the professional and do it yourself. biology support

Expert help with incubation can be found in bio-hackers clubs (DIYDo-It-Yourself. Literally to bypass the professional and do it yourself. biology, DIYDo-It-Yourself. Literally to bypass the professional and do it yourself. bio) which are often located in university science departments and form part of a growing biotechnological social movement (‘Do-it-yourself biology’) in which individuals with extensive research training mentor and oversee DIYDo-It-Yourself. Literally to bypass the professional and do it yourself. biologists with little or no formal training.

DIYDo-It-Yourself. Literally to bypass the professional and do it yourself. bio clubs can be found on this list, through Meetup, or by googling “community science" groups, or “meetup" science groups.

Additional resources for helminth incubation

Stool testing

Checking one's stool for eggs will reveal whether or not one is hosting helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths].

Microscopes

Advice on selecting and using a microscope for helminth incubation.

Pipettes and pipetting technique

Buffer solution

A buffer solution suitable for washing hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. larvaeThe active immature form of an insect, or an animal such as a helminth, which develops from an egg and eventually transforms again into its adult state. (e.g., from the gauze into a beaker before counting and extracting them from the solution) and for storing them.

  • 4.1g Sodium Chloride (Table salt)
  • 7.1g Disodium hydrogen phosphate
  • 3.0g Potassium dihydrogen phosphate

Mix these ingredients individually into 1 Litre of distilled water. Store the buffer solution long term in a fridge as it contains no preservatives.

"Larvae were retrieved from the suspension by gravitational sedimentation, and stored in BU buffer (50 mM Na2HPO4, 22 mM KH2PO4, 70 mM NaCl) at 12oC to preserve their infectivity.[5]" [6]

Sterilisation of leftover live materials

A study reported in 2017 [7] shows that Virkon®S and Dettol® (Chloroxylenol) outperformed four other commercial disinfectants against Toxascaris leonina eggs and larvaeThe active immature form of an insect, or an animal such as a helminth, which develops from an egg and eventually transforms again into its adult state., and the study authors highly recommend the use of these two agents against other potentially zoonotic helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths]. This suggests that Virkon®S and Dettol® may be the most effective disinfectants for use in sterilisation by worm growers. Another option is to place the leftover materials in a freezer for 24 hours, [8] and, for other suggestions, see the penultimate paragraph of this page section: Storage and clean-up.

Further incubation resources

NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus

HDCHymenolepis diminuta cysticercoids (Hi-men-o-lep'is dim-a-nu-ta sis-ti-sur-koid) - the larval cysts of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta

Building incubators

HookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. eggs hatch best between 25-35 C (77 - 95 F) with relative humidity above 60%. Low cost incubators can be rigged from Styrofoam coolers, or if you wish to do a little more work, constructed from Styrofoam insulation from a home improvement store, and glued together with silicon sealant.

Alternatively, an effective incubator can be made from a beer 12-pack box and a cat heater.

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I have been successful with a cat heater buffered with a piece of cardboard and a large thermometer. I keep this in a beer 12-pack box (Crooked Tree IPA works best 😉). It stays at 75-76 degrees F. [9]

If a source of humidity is needed, this can be provided by placing a pan of water in the incubator. Or humidity can be controlled remotely by using a small aquarium pump and an airstone in a pan of water. The air bubbles carry humidity out of the pan much more rapidly than just evaporation.

Aquarium stores and pet shops have several items that will be useful in constructing incubators. Resistive heaters with standard light bulb sockets are available as are infrared bulbs. HookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. don't like light but many people report success using standard light bulbs for heaters, so this appears to be fairly unimportant. Inexpensive remote thermometers for use in fish tanks and aquariums are very useful.

Controlling the heat source is an issue. It is possible to use an "open-loop" type of control over the heat source by controlling the heat, with a light dimmer say, and simply monitoring the temperature, while very slowly raising the power level. However there is an element of danger that should be carefully considered in putting a heat source in an enclosed place and we strongly recommend one of the inexpensive thermostatic controllers made for reptile terrariums (they have a wider range than aquarium heaters and also have useful remote sensors). Controllers with digital control and humidity reporting are available for a little more money. Other users have reported finding useful (and possible better-made) thermostatic controllers on ebay for about the same price.

Conservative design principles would still indicate that heaters should be sized as small as possible (similar to the open-loop method), in case of thermostat failure, so that peak temperatures remain as low as possible, with the heater on all of the time.

Inexpensive timers - that will control on-off cycles in as small an increment as 10 minutes are also available in aquarium or pet stores.

It may also be effective to buy an entire incubator with temperature and humidity control. This one was designed for reptile eggs but looks like it could be made to work well. There are others that have been designed for poultry but can also be used for reptiles. They can be very inexpensive but would probably work fine for incubating hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin.. They may not control humidity, but humidity could be increased by incubating in a semi enclosed container within the incubator.

See also: Building an incubator

Shipping biological materials

There are several categories of biological materials regarding the manner in which they can be properly shipped. A human sample infected with nematodeA category of worms with slender, unsegmented, cylindrical bodies that include roundworms and threadworms. parasites would be a class B biological substance. Details about the correct way to package and label a specimen can be found at the following link.

SimpleHTLogo(18x18).gif Helminthic Therapy Wiki: documenting the science, management, experience and results of helminth replacement therapy.