Introduction to helminthic therapy

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Helminthic therapyThe reintroduction of a controlled number of carefully selected benign intestinal worms in the form of larvae or eggs to reconstitute a depleted microbiome in order to treat or prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy. involves the deliberate hosting of a controlled number of carefully selected, benign intestine-dwelling nematodesA category of worms with slender, unsegmented, cylindrical bodies that include roundworms and threadworms. (worms) known as helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths]. This is a type of organism with which people living in developed countries have gradually lost contact during the past 150 years as a result of the increasing use of shoes and toilets, and of changes in medical, agricultural and food preparation and storage practices.

Viewed from a medical perspective, helminthic therapyThe reintroduction of a controlled number of carefully selected benign intestinal worms in the form of larvae or eggs to reconstitute a depleted microbiome in order to treat or prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy. is an experimental form of immunotherapy used in the treatment of chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy. It can also be seen simply as a form of probioticMicroorganisms that are believed to provide health benefits when consumed. treatment, using tiny animals instead of bacteria to reconstitute and enrich a depleted intestinal biome.

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We think of these worms as kind of big probioticsMicroorganisms that are believed to provide health benefits when consumed.. (Dr Paul Giacomin, Australian Institute of Tropical Health and Medicine.) [1]

It is recommended that anyone contemplating the use of helminthic therapyThe reintroduction of a controlled number of carefully selected benign intestinal worms in the form of larvae or eggs to reconstitute a depleted microbiome in order to treat or prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy. should read this entire page very carefully, along with the material at the links within it. This will help to increase the likelihood of a satisfactory outcome.

A brief history of helminthic therapyThe reintroduction of a controlled number of carefully selected benign intestinal worms in the form of larvae or eggs to reconstitute a depleted microbiome in order to treat or prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy.

HelminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] are among the heirloom species that have coexisted and coevolved with humans and our primate ancestors over hundreds of millions of years, to the point where their presence is now essential for optimal immune function. HelminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] train the developing immune system in infancy and continue to regulate immunity throughout adulthood for as long as they remain with us.

Evidence pointing to the importance of helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] for human health began to emerge in the 1970s, and included a report of higher levels of allergic disease in urban communities than in rural indigenous areas where levels of helminth infection were much higher. [2]

By 1990, it had become clear from further scientific studies that, while autoimmune, inflammatory and allergic conditions have escalated in developed countries during the past century, they have remained much less common in parts of the world where helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] are still prevalent. It was this realisation that gave rise to the idea of reintroducing helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] into patients who have developed one or more of these conditions, in the hope that this intervention might rebalance their immune system and restore their health. The first indication that this might be an effective approach had already appeared in the Lancet in 1976, when a researcher had reported putting his own seasonal allergies into remission by infecting himself with hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin.. [3]

Researchers began to consider the importance to health of what has become known as the microbiome, and the theories formed by these pioneers have been refined through several stages, each being given a new title, viz. the Hygiene Hypothesis, the Old Friends' Hypothesis and, most recently, Biome Depletion Theory and Evolutionary Mismatch Theory.

During this process, helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] have been identified as being of special significance, and they are now considered to be keystone species of the human multibiome, with profound importance for health. So much so that there are calls for them to be employed not only as a treatment for established disease, but also as a preventative to help eliminate the epidemics of allergic, inflammatory and autoimmune diseases that are today afflicting the populations of developed countries, and possibly also to offer protection against many degenerative diseases such as atherosclerosis, diabetes and cancer.

Most members of the medical profession remain sceptical about the use of live helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths], and some are overtly hostile, with the result that the use of these organisms in medical practice is being delayed until validated in each target disease by clinical trials. Unfortunately, where helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] have been the subject of studies, these have often employed methods that were designed to test pharmaceutical products and are unsuitable for the assessment of a natural therapeutic, especially one whose beneficial effects do not become consistent for at least twelve weeks - the typical duration of drug trials - and, in a few cases, have taken as long as two years to materialise. Unsurprisingly, some of these trials have failed to show efficacy, in contrast to the experience being reported by the thousands of individuals who are self-treating with helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths].

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Although self-treatmentMedication or treatment of one's own disease or condition without medical supervision. with helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] cannot be recommended by medical professionals due to a lack of blinded, placebo controlled trials, neither should it be discouraged since the available evidence suggests that it is beneficial in most cases when practiced by knowledgeable individuals. (Parker and Morey, 2015)

As a consequence of the current medical approach, millions of patients are being forced to continue to suffer the often devastating effects of immunological disorders, along with the frequently serious side effects produced by many of the pharmaceutical therapies currently prescribed to treat them. And this is in spite of the fact that four helminth species have already been identified as suitable and safe for use in therapy and are currently being used by an estimated 7,000 individuals.

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What was a costly and sometimes risky venture into the unknown, undertaken by only a few 10 years ago, is rapidly becoming a readily available and well-established resource currently used by thousands of individuals. (Cheng et al, 2015)

A wide range of inflammation-related conditions, allergies, autoimmune diseases, and even neuropsychiatric disorders such as depression, anxiety, migraine headaches, bipolar disorder and Parkinson’s disease have been effectively ameliorated by self-treaters using the available therapeutic helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths]. See Helminthic therapy personal stories.

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The results strongly support previous indications that helminth therapyThe reintroduction of a controlled number of carefully selected benign intestinal worms in the form of larvae or eggs to reconstitute a depleted microbiome in order to treat or prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy. can effectively treat a wide range of allergies, autoimmune conditions and neuropsychiatric disorders... (Liu et al, 2016)

Several of the researchers who have examined the effects of helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] on autoimmune disease admit privately that, were they or a member of their family to succumb to an autoimmune disease, they would not hesitate to use one of the available therapeutic helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths]. A few have even said this publicly.

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In developed countries, where we are well nourished, worms are potentially good... If I had Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitisUlcerative colitis (Colitis ulcerosa, UC) is a form of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) which specifically affects the large intestine, or colon, causing characteristic ulcers, or open sores. The main symptom of active disease is constant diarrhea mixed with blood, of gradual onset. or multiple sclerosis, I would infect myself without hesitation. (Alex Loukas, Australian Institute of Tropical Health & Medicine, in Life On Us, 2014)

While citizen scientists continue to refine the therapeutic use of live helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths], the vast majority of medical researchers have their sights set on the creation of drugs employing helminthAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths]-derived molecules. However, some researchers have suggested that no worm-derived pharmaceutical will ever match the efficacy of a live worm.

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It is difficult to imagine a single pharmaceutical or even a collection of pharmaceuticals that could recapitulate the vast complexity of the interaction between helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] and the host immune system. While pharmaceuticals are generally directed at one component in the immune apparatus, a single helminth species produces dozens if not more molecules that each target specific components of host immunity. (Bilbo et al, 2011)
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When you give someone a live worm, it’s like giving them the factory that makes the products and letting the factory do what it needs to do… Evolution has already created this thing. (David Elliott, University of Iowa.)

HelminthAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths]-derived pharmaceutical products are still many years away, and if and when they do become available, some, if not all of them, are likely to present adverse side effects, as are seen frequently with other single molecule drugs.

The use of live worms could greatly reduce the cost of medical treatment.

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Using worms to treat diseases could be a possible way to lower treatment costs, since the era of immunobiologic agents is responsible for a significant rise in expenses.” [4]

Although acceptance of helminthic therapyThe reintroduction of a controlled number of carefully selected benign intestinal worms in the form of larvae or eggs to reconstitute a depleted microbiome in order to treat or prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy. by the medical establishment is currently being hindered by the strong pharmaceutical bias of modern Western medicine, this therapy is nevertheless predicted to become an essential part of healthcare in the future.

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Twenty years from now everybody is going to have a helminthAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths], and no insurance company will begin to cover you if you don’t have your helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] ... We’re very confident in the science, that every single human being needs a helminthAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths]. It’s part of our biology. (William Parker, 2016)

Helminthic therapyThe reintroduction of a controlled number of carefully selected benign intestinal worms in the form of larvae or eggs to reconstitute a depleted microbiome in order to treat or prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy. science

Here is a short selection of scientific papers that provide a good overview of the therapeutic potential of controlled colonisation by benign helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths].

For a full list of scientific papers and articles from the media documenting the history and development of helminthic therapyThe reintroduction of a controlled number of carefully selected benign intestinal worms in the form of larvae or eggs to reconstitute a depleted microbiome in order to treat or prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy. from its beginnings up until the present day, see:

Helminthic therapyThe reintroduction of a controlled number of carefully selected benign intestinal worms in the form of larvae or eggs to reconstitute a depleted microbiome in order to treat or prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy. safety

See the separate page:

Therapeutic helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths]

For a helminth to be suitable for use in therapy, it must meet a number of generally agreed criteria. The following list is a composite drawn from several sources, including [5] & [6].

  1. should not cause disease in humans at therapeutic doses
  2. should not be a potential vector for other parasites, viruses, or bacteria
  3. should not cause long-term symptoms in humans at therapeutic doses
  4. should not alter its behaviour in patients with depressed immunity
  5. should not be easily transmissible from the host to other people
  6. should not be able to reproduce in a host, and thus prevent dosage from being controlled
  7. should be easily eradicated from the host, if required
  8. should be compatible with commonly used medications
  9. should be easy to administer
  10. should be amenable to production in large numbers
  11. should be amenable to storage and transportation

There are currently four types of helminth available commercially for use in self-treatmentMedication or treatment of one's own disease or condition without medical supervision..

  1. Pig whipwormA helminth with a tapering whiplike body that lives in the colon. In helminthic therapy, the microscopic eggs of either the human Trichuris trichiura (TTO) or pig Trichuris suis (TSO) are taken in a drink., Trichuris suis (TSthe porcine (pig) whipworm, Trichuris suis)
    Introduced for therapy in 2004. Sold as ova (TSOthe ova (eggs) of the porcine (pig) whipworm, Trichuris suis) and taken as a drink.
  2. Human hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin., Necator americanus (NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus)
    Introduced for therapy in 2006. Sold as microscopic larvaeThe active immature form of an insect, or an animal such as a helminth, which develops from an egg and eventually transforms again into its adult state. which are applied to the skin.
  3. Human whipwormA helminth with a tapering whiplike body that lives in the colon. In helminthic therapy, the microscopic eggs of either the human Trichuris trichiura (TTO) or pig Trichuris suis (TSO) are taken in a drink., Trichuris trichiura (TTthe human whipworm, Trichuris trichiura)
    Introduced for therapy in 2009. Sold as ova (TTOthe ova (eggs) of the human whipworm, Trichuris trichiura) and taken in a drink.
  4. Rat tapewormA helminth with a flat, ribbon-like, segmented body. Only the murine (rat) tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta, is used in helminthic therapy and this generally does not reach adulthood in humans so requires regular dosing of HDC., Hymenolepis diminuta (HDHymenolepis diminuta, a murine (rat) tapeworm.)
    Introduced for therapy in 2011. Sold as cysticercoids (HDCthe cysticercoids (larval cysts) of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta) and taken in a drink.

Selecting a therapeutic helminthAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths]

The scientific evidence

There have been no head-to-head clinical trials comparing any of the currently available therapeutic helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths], and there may never be any, due to the extremely high cost of mounting such studies and the lack of incentive for anyone to fund them. There is also little scientific evidence for the efficacy of individual helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths].

In the groundbreaking Correale and Farez study of 2007 in patients with multiple sclerosis, [7] all the helminthAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths]-infected subjects benefited, even though they had 5 different species of helminth between them. Therefore the type of worm used may not make a great deal of difference to the outcome of helminthic therapyThe reintroduction of a controlled number of carefully selected benign intestinal worms in the form of larvae or eggs to reconstitute a depleted microbiome in order to treat or prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy..

The only organism to be studied in the treatment of autoimmune disease in well designed trials at therapeutic doses is TSOthe ova (eggs) of the porcine (pig) whipworm, Trichuris suis, and this has been shown to be safe and effective in ulcerative colitisUlcerative colitis (Colitis ulcerosa, UC) is a form of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) which specifically affects the large intestine, or colon, causing characteristic ulcers, or open sores. The main symptom of active disease is constant diarrhea mixed with blood, of gradual onset., [8] (PDF) promising in the management of Crohn's diseaseAlso known as regional enteritis, this is an inflammatory disease of the intestines that may affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract from mouth to anus, causing a wide variety of symptoms. It primarily causes abdominal pain, diarrhea (which may be bloody if inflammation is severe), vomiting or weight loss, but may also cause complications outside the gastrointestinal tract such as skin rashes, arthritis, inflammation of the eye, tiredness and lack of concentration. [9] as well as in the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) [10] and also in dampening allergic airway hyper-reactivity. [11] TSOthe ova (eggs) of the porcine (pig) whipworm, Trichuris suis has also shown significant results in 70% of subjects with the inflammatory subtype of autism spectrum disorder (I-ASD) who took TSOthe ova (eggs) of the porcine (pig) whipworm, Trichuris suis in its original pH2.7 form. [12]

Several other trials of TSOthe ova (eggs) of the porcine (pig) whipworm, Trichuris suis were conducted by the now defunct company, Coronado Biosciences, prior to the termination of its research programme early in 2015 following what appeared to be disappointing results. However, the apparent failure of these trials may have been due to poor trial design, including an inadequate duration of only 12 weeks and, in particular, the insistence by researchers on the use of a novel formulation of TSOthe ova (eggs) of the porcine (pig) whipworm, Trichuris suis with a higher pH than the product that had been employed successfully in previous studies and used to good effect by self-treaters for more than a decade. [13], [14]

The first trial of the hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin., NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus, to use a realistic dose and duration of colonisation was completed in early 2016 at Nottingham University in subjects with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), [15] but the results from this trial had not been published when this page was last updated.

There have been no clinical trials in humans using the other available therapeutic organisms, TTOthe ova (eggs) of the human whipworm, Trichuris trichiura and HDCthe cysticercoids (larval cysts) of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta, although there was a detailed case study of an individual with ulcerative colitisUlcerative colitis (Colitis ulcerosa, UC) is a form of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) which specifically affects the large intestine, or colon, causing characteristic ulcers, or open sores. The main symptom of active disease is constant diarrhea mixed with blood, of gradual onset. who experienced almost complete remission of his symptoms after self-infecting with TTOthe ova (eggs) of the human whipworm, Trichuris trichiura, [16] and a further case study showing several indicators of mucosal and systemic immune modulation following self infection with TTOthe ova (eggs) of the human whipworm, Trichuris trichiura. [17] A study in mice showed that Infection with HDCthe cysticercoids (larval cysts) of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta was superior to daily corticosteroids in the prevention of colitis in this species, and that this did not result in any additional side effects. [18]

The anecdotal evidence

While data from clinical trials is still limited, the anecdotal evidence gathered by the self-treaters who have pioneered helminthic therapyThe reintroduction of a controlled number of carefully selected benign intestinal worms in the form of larvae or eggs to reconstitute a depleted microbiome in order to treat or prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy. for more than a decade is already significant and compelling. (See Helminthic therapy personal stories and this paper [19] [PDF]) Apart from the study at the second of these links, there is little recorded anecdotal evidence for TSOthe ova (eggs) of the porcine (pig) whipworm, Trichuris suis and HDCthe cysticercoids (larval cysts) of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta, largely because users of these two organisms, and especially TSOthe ova (eggs) of the porcine (pig) whipworm, Trichuris suis, have been much less active on helminthic therapyThe reintroduction of a controlled number of carefully selected benign intestinal worms in the form of larvae or eggs to reconstitute a depleted microbiome in order to treat or prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy. social media sites. In contrast, NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus has been discussed extensively online since 2007, and TTOthe ova (eggs) of the human whipworm, Trichuris trichiura since 2009, originally on the Yahoo Helminthic Therapy Forum [20] and, more recently, in the Facebook Helminthic Therapy Support Group [21].

NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus (Necator americanusThe species of human hookworm used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin.)

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There is perhaps no better example of a therapeutic parasite than the hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin., Necator americanusThe species of human hookworm used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin.. [22]

NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus, which has the longest lifespan of the currently available therapeutic helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths], produces powerful systemic immunomodulation and it’s use appears to be effective in approximately 70-80% of cases of autoimmune disease, inflammation and allergy. [23] [24] [25] The extent of its benefits can be seen in the hundreds of reports in the compilation of Helminthic therapy personal stories, most of which are from users of NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus.

This organism causes a short-lived, but often itchy, rash at the inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation] site in most subjects, and may produce a very pleasant, if brief, “bounce” (see below) in the first few weeks following inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation], as well as causing other well documented transient side effects during the first few months. (See The hookworm timeline) However, it does not cause any long-term ill effects.

Concern is sometimes expressed about the safety of self-infection with NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus, and it has been claimed that this species can act as a vector for pathogens and mis-migrate to organs outside the digestive tract, but neither of these claims is true. Nor is anaemia/anemia an issue for the vast majority of well-nourished NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus hosts, and the “tissue damage” caused by hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. needs to be seen in context. For more detail about all these issues, see The safety of NA.

TTOthe ova (eggs) of the human whipworm, Trichuris trichiura (Trichuris trichiuraThe human whipworm used in helminthic therapy and taken periodically as microscopic eggs (TTO) in a drink. ova)

The colon-dwelling Trichuris trichiuraThe human whipworm used in helminthic therapy and taken periodically as microscopic eggs (TTO) in a drink., which has an effect that is less systemic than that of NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus, and more localised in the colon, is most frequently employed in the treatment of ulcerative colitisUlcerative colitis (Colitis ulcerosa, UC) is a form of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) which specifically affects the large intestine, or colon, causing characteristic ulcers, or open sores. The main symptom of active disease is constant diarrhea mixed with blood, of gradual onset. and colonic Crohn’s disease, with or without the addition of NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus.

TTthe human whipworm, Trichuris trichiura can cause allergies to flare temporarily, [26] and may cause transient allergic-type reactions in people who normally don’t have allergies. [27] These may include skin reactions or rashes, which typically start a few days after taking the ova and may continue for 3-6 weeks but are usually mild and short-lived. In a few cases, these side effects can persist for longer, even up to 8 weeks after taking TTOthe ova (eggs) of the human whipworm, Trichuris trichiura. [28] The worst recorded allergic reaction to TTthe human whipworm, Trichuris trichiura is described here, but such a severe response is extremely rare.

Some other conditions may flare temporarily after taking TTOthe ova (eggs) of the human whipworm, Trichuris trichiura, including herpes. Someone who already suffers frequent or severe outbreaks of herpes may see these worsen and increase in frequency for up to three months after inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation] with TTOthe ova (eggs) of the human whipworm, Trichuris trichiura, [29] before returning to the pattern seen before inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation]. Constipation can be another short-term consequence of adopting human whipwormsA helminth with a tapering whiplike body that lives in the colon. In helminthic therapy, the microscopic eggs of either the human Trichuris trichiura (TTO) or pig Trichuris suis (TSO) are taken in a drink.. [30], [31]

In general, any side effects following inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation] with TTOthe ova (eggs) of the human whipworm, Trichuris trichiura are likely to be mild, subside quickly, and be easier to cope with than those produced by NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus.

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I had light side effects with TTOthe ova (eggs) of the human whipworm, Trichuris trichiura. On doses 1-3, I had some diarrhea, but by dose 4, I was diarrhea free. [32]

The side effects following supplementary inoculations with TTOthe ova (eggs) of the human whipworm, Trichuris trichiura typically become less severe with each successive dose but, in a few people taking larger doses, side effects may continue to appear briefly after each new dose in the long term.

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WhipwormsA helminth with a tapering whiplike body that lives in the colon. In helminthic therapy, the microscopic eggs of either the human Trichuris trichiura (TTO) or pig Trichuris suis (TSO) are taken in a drink. have much less side effects (than hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin.), for me, and last a month at the very extreme. I can take a dose of 500 human whipwormA helminth with a tapering whiplike body that lives in the colon. In helminthic therapy, the microscopic eggs of either the human Trichuris trichiura (TTO) or pig Trichuris suis (TSO) are taken in a drink. and the side effects last a week (5 days). Mostly gut upset then I'm back to my usual self. [33]

There is an extremely small possibility that human whipwormsA helminth with a tapering whiplike body that lives in the colon. In helminthic therapy, the microscopic eggs of either the human Trichuris trichiura (TTO) or pig Trichuris suis (TSO) are taken in a drink. might cause anaemia (anemia) over time. However, the type of anaemia involved is not due to low iron levels, so cannot be treated by iron supplementation. It has been speculated that this form of anaemia might be due to active suppression of the formation of blood cellular components in the bone marrow, rather than as a result of bleeding. The likelihood of this phenomenon occurring in someone using therapeutic doses of human whipwormA helminth with a tapering whiplike body that lives in the colon. In helminthic therapy, the microscopic eggs of either the human Trichuris trichiura (TTO) or pig Trichuris suis (TSO) are taken in a drink. is thought to be vanishingly small, and, if it were to occur, it may - according to one physician member of the helminthic therapyThe reintroduction of a controlled number of carefully selected benign intestinal worms in the form of larvae or eggs to reconstitute a depleted microbiome in order to treat or prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy. community - be amenable to remediation by taking Erythropoietin (EPO).

In spite of the eventualities mentioned above that may follow inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation] with TTOthe ova (eggs) of the human whipworm, Trichuris trichiura, the potential benefits of hosting the human whipwormA helminth with a tapering whiplike body that lives in the colon. In helminthic therapy, the microscopic eggs of either the human Trichuris trichiura (TTO) or pig Trichuris suis (TSO) are taken in a drink. are such that it can be well worth persisting with. [34], [35], [36] If necessary, NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus can be hosted in addition to TTthe human whipworm, Trichuris trichiura in order to reduce the possibility of an allergic reaction to the latter and to provide additional systemic inflammation control. [37]

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The TTOthe ova (eggs) of the human whipworm, Trichuris trichiura I think help my colonic issues the most and the NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus help with some of the systemic/allergic issues I've had and my overall mood (they help me feel relaxed and often euphoric). [38]

Although most people with ulcerative colitisUlcerative colitis (Colitis ulcerosa, UC) is a form of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) which specifically affects the large intestine, or colon, causing characteristic ulcers, or open sores. The main symptom of active disease is constant diarrhea mixed with blood, of gradual onset. seem to do best using TTOthe ova (eggs) of the human whipworm, Trichuris trichiura, with or without NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus, colitis has also been treated successfully using NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus alone. A few people have felt less well after adding NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus on top of TTOthe ova (eggs) of the human whipworm, Trichuris trichiura, while a few others have reported being less well after adding TTOthe ova (eggs) of the human whipworm, Trichuris trichiura to an existing colony of NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus. [39]

It has occasionally been suggested that TTthe human whipworm, Trichuris trichiura might be able to multiply within a host, but this is not the case since the eggs of the human whipwormA helminth with a tapering whiplike body that lives in the colon. In helminthic therapy, the microscopic eggs of either the human Trichuris trichiura (TTO) or pig Trichuris suis (TSO) are taken in a drink. need to be deposited in soil, where, given suitable conditions, they will embryonate after two to three weeks. It is only at this point that they become infective so, unless a user of TTthe human whipworm, Trichuris trichiura ingests further embryonated eggs, their colony will not increase.

TSOthe ova (eggs) of the porcine (pig) whipworm, Trichuris suis (Trichuris suisThe porcine (pig) whipworm used in helminthic therapy and taken as microscopic eggs (TSO) in a drink every two weeks. ova)

TSOthe ova (eggs) of the porcine (pig) whipworm, Trichuris suis has a localised effect in the colon [40] similar to that of TTOthe ova (eggs) of the human whipworm, Trichuris trichiura, so is particularly effective in the treatment of diseases affecting this section of the intestine, such as ulcerative colitisUlcerative colitis (Colitis ulcerosa, UC) is a form of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) which specifically affects the large intestine, or colon, causing characteristic ulcers, or open sores. The main symptom of active disease is constant diarrhea mixed with blood, of gradual onset.. It has also proved to be effective against autoimmune disorders affecting other parts of the body, especially Lupus and Crohn’s disease [41] but may not be as effective against MSMultiple sclerosis (also known as disseminated sclerosis) is a chronic, typically progressive disease involving damage to the sheaths of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord, whose symptoms may include numbness, impairment of speech and of muscular coordination, blurred vision and severe fatigue. as NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus. [42] TSOthe ova (eggs) of the porcine (pig) whipworm, Trichuris suis can also be effective in autism, [43][44][45] perhaps more so than any of the other worms, [46] although the extent of its effect is dependent on the sub-type of autism exhibited, [47] and NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus is reportedly helpful in addressing some of the medical co-morbidities that accompany autism. [48] TSOthe ova (eggs) of the porcine (pig) whipworm, Trichuris suis has been reported to efficiently dampen allergic airway hyper-reactivity [49] and has been claimed to be very effective in the treatment of food and contact allergies, [50] although less effective than NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus against seasonal allergies.

As with other helminth species, TSOthe ova (eggs) of the porcine (pig) whipworm, Trichuris suis may cause transient side effects when first introduced, especially, but not limited to, minor gastrointestinal problems and mild spasms.

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TSOthe ova (eggs) of the porcine (pig) whipworm, Trichuris suis caused me a few days of looser stools and a rumbling gut, then it settled down around the 4 to 5 day mark. [51]
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So, tomorrow I take dose 2 of TSOthe ova (eggs) of the porcine (pig) whipworm, Trichuris suis... My chronic sinus/eustachian issues seem to be flaring. [52]

In some people, temporary mild side effects may continue to be experienced following all doses in the long term.

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I feel fine after 3 days of gut upset. [53]

Approximately 80% of people who take at least one full course of TSOthe ova (eggs) of the porcine (pig) whipworm, Trichuris suis (10 doses, one of which is taken every 2 weeks) may achieve disease remission and, according to the producer of TSOthe ova (eggs) of the porcine (pig) whipworm, Trichuris suis, around 60% of these subjects will continue to experience remission for between 1 and 3 years. This was demonstrated by the experience of one TSOthe ova (eggs) of the porcine (pig) whipworm, Trichuris suis user.

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I finished taking them in mid 2013 and am seeing the effects starting to wear off now (late 2015), so the 10 doses appear to last for about 2 years.[54]

During this time, some users of TSOthe ova (eggs) of the porcine (pig) whipworm, Trichuris suis may not need any further doses at all, while others might need to take a periodic maintenance dose, for example 500 TSOthe ova (eggs) of the porcine (pig) whipworm, Trichuris suis every 2 months. [55] This has allowed some subjects to maintain remission for many years, although the level of success is likely to depend on the severity of a subject’s condition at the start of treatment. One individual with ulcerative colitisUlcerative colitis (Colitis ulcerosa, UC) is a form of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) which specifically affects the large intestine, or colon, causing characteristic ulcers, or open sores. The main symptom of active disease is constant diarrhea mixed with blood, of gradual onset. has reported being in remission for 9 years after taking a single course of TSOthe ova (eggs) of the porcine (pig) whipworm, Trichuris suis during a clinical trial.

There are, however, some users of TSOthe ova (eggs) of the porcine (pig) whipworm, Trichuris suis who do not continue to experience benefit after completing a course of 10 doses.

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I did not go into remission though with 10 doses of 2500 TSOthe ova (eggs) of the porcine (pig) whipworm, Trichuris suis. [56]

These individuals may need to maintain the treatment long-term.

HDCthe cysticercoids (larval cysts) of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta (Hymenolepis diminutaA murine (rat) tapeworm used in helminthic therapy that generally does not mature in humans and is taken as cysticerci (HDC) in a drink every 2 or 3 weeks. cysticercoids)

While anecdotal evidence about this latest addition to the list of therapeutic organisms is still limited in comparison with that available for NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus and TTthe human whipworm, Trichuris trichiura, posts to the helminthic therapyThe reintroduction of a controlled number of carefully selected benign intestinal worms in the form of larvae or eggs to reconstitute a depleted microbiome in order to treat or prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy. groups indicate that the HDCthe cysticercoids (larval cysts) of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta experience follows a similar course to that seen with other helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths], beginning with the possibility of initial transient side effects and leading to eventual success in many cases.

As with the other therapeutic helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths], HDCthe cysticercoids (larval cysts) of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta can cause initial side effects, some of which have been found to be quite challenging by a few users.

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HDCthe cysticercoids (larval cysts) of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta does not have less side effects for everyone, it caused me a huge amount of discomfort. [57]

And it has been reported that approximately 1% of paediatric patients may experience severe gastrointestinal pains with the use of HDCthe cysticercoids (larval cysts) of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta, although these symptoms are resolved by the administration of an anthelminthic drug. [58]

A number of successes have been reported by HDCthe cysticercoids (larval cysts) of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta users, e.g.,

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… my hay fever has been much better on HDCthe cysticercoids (larval cysts) of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta. Barely noticed it this year. [59]

as well as some failures, e.g.,

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… I’m on HDCthe cysticercoids (larval cysts) of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta and they do not seem to help with food reactions sadly, i was ready to run for a 1kg bar of chocolate in the name of science!

There are reports from subjects who have previously used NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus that the effects of HDCthe cysticercoids (larval cysts) of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta can be more gentle and subtle than those produced by hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin..

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HDCthe cysticercoids (larval cysts) of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta seemed gentler / more subtle all around than NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus

but others have obtained more relief after adding, or switching to, NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus.

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After I’d been taking HDCthe cysticercoids (larval cysts) of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta for a while and established that there is no extra benefit for me in hosting HDCthe cysticercoids (larval cysts) of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta as well as NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus, I killed off the hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. to see what the HDCthe cysticercoids (larval cysts) of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta could do on their own. Unfortunately, nasal congestion returned within 48 hours of terminating the NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus, and this persisted to such an extent that, after 5 weeks, I was desperate to restock with hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin.. Within two days of taking a dose of 40 HWhookworm, usually referring to the human hookworm, Necator americanus larvaeThe active immature form of an insect, or an animal such as a helminth, which develops from an egg and eventually transforms again into its adult state., the congestion receded. In the weeks that followed, I experienced symptoms that are typical after inoculating with NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus, indicating that the HDCthe cysticercoids (larval cysts) of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta, which I had continued to take, were not effectively modifying my immune response to the new NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus.

HDCthe cysticercoids (larval cysts) of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta users frequently report a welcome elevation in mood, especially in the first few days after inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation].

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I like how it (HDCthe cysticercoids (larval cysts) of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta) puts me in a good mood for a day or two when I first take it.

However, HDCthe cysticercoids (larval cysts) of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta can also have an adverse effect on mood.

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The response I had from the HDCthe cysticercoids (larval cysts) of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta was sweating, feeling sick but it was also especially agitation and depression. [60]
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I’m 1 week in, and the one HDCthe cysticercoids (larval cysts) of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta impact that I can be pretty certain of has been on my mood. The first night and into the following morning, I was ecstatically happy, like totally giddy, and it was great. Then on the fourth night and into the following morning I was in the throes of an anxiety greater than I have ever known… I have never experienced the kind of hopeless anxiety that I did that night. [61]

As larger numbers have begun using HDCsthe cysticercoids (larval cysts) of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta, more reports of adverse side effects have emerged. These have revealed transient problems very similar to those seen with hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin., but have also included reports of a need for larger doses once the “honeymoon period” of the first 6 months is over, and continuing into the long term.

The fact that a fresh dose of HDCthe cysticercoids (larval cysts) of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta needs to be taken every two weeks, coupled with their very short shelf life, means that maintaining a regular dosing schedule can be an issue with this species.

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I did once miss a dose for 30 days, and there was hell to pay on that account. My immune system went crazy for about a week, until I could get a new dose. [62]
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My supplier shipped the HDCthe cysticercoids (larval cysts) of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta to the wrong address and a second attempt did not arrive. [63]

More examples of users’ experience with HDCthe cysticercoids (larval cysts) of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta can be found in The HDC experience.

In June 2016, a researcher at Duke University commented that William Parker’s team had been unable to determine much difference between the effect of HDCthe cysticercoids (larval cysts) of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta and TSOthe ova (eggs) of the porcine (pig) whipworm, Trichuris suis. [64]

Comparing human helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] with non-human helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths]

NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus and TTthe human whipworm, Trichuris trichiura have both become very well adapted to living in humans during millions of years of cohabitation and coevolution with mankind. This longstanding relationship allows them to grow to maturity in the human gut and enter into an on-going, dynamic, two-way chemical dialogue with their host’s immune system. The resulting immune modulation prevents the worms from being overwhelmed, and provides their host with benefits that are maintained for as long as the worms survive.

The survival of human helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] depends to a large extent on the vigour of the host’s immune response. NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus is reported to survive for 3-10 years [65] [66] but to be capable of living for up to 15 years, [67] and possibly even 18 years. [68] However, in a few hosts, it may die in as little as three months. TTthe human whipworm, Trichuris trichiura can survive for more than 2 years, and occasionally in excess of 5 years [69] but may die in under a year.

TSOthe ova (eggs) of the porcine (pig) whipworm, Trichuris suis and HDCthe cysticercoids (larval cysts) of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta are both adapted to non-human species, the natural host of the former being the pig, and the latter normally being found in rats. As the human gut is an alien environment for both these organisms, they only survive in humans for a short time, typically just a couple of weeks, during which time the molecules they excrete/secrete distract the host’s immune system.

The fact that TSOthe ova (eggs) of the porcine (pig) whipworm, Trichuris suis and HDCthe cysticercoids (larval cysts) of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta rarely mature in humans has led some commentators to speculate that these nonhuman helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] may not be as effective, therapeutically, as the human-adapted worms, NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus and TTthe human whipworm, Trichuris trichiura, and it may be that helminth efficacy is enhanced in the case of mature, egg-producing worms. [70]

The view that human-adapted helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] such as NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus and TTthe human whipworm, Trichuris trichiura might be more effective, therapeutically, than nonhuman worms like TSOthe ova (eggs) of the porcine (pig) whipworm, Trichuris suis and HDCthe cysticercoids (larval cysts) of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta, was discussed in detail in a support group thread. [71] This idea has also received support from William Parker, who has referred to human helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] as our true “old friends”, and TSOthe ova (eggs) of the porcine (pig) whipworm, Trichuris suis, HDCthe cysticercoids (larval cysts) of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta and other helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] that prefer non-human hosts as, at best, our "old semi-acquaintances".

People who have switched from using TSOthe ova (eggs) of the porcine (pig) whipworm, Trichuris suis to either NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus or TTthe human whipworm, Trichuris trichiura have often done so because they are much cheaper. However, many who have made this transition have subsequently commented that they have found the therapeutic benefits of NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus and TTOthe ova (eggs) of the human whipworm, Trichuris trichiura to be greater than those of TSOthe ova (eggs) of the porcine (pig) whipworm, Trichuris suis.

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I previously tried TSOthe ova (eggs) of the porcine (pig) whipworm, Trichuris suis and it dampened the UCUlcerative colitis (Colitis ulcerosa, UC) is a form of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) which specifically affects the large intestine, or colon, causing characteristic ulcers, or open sores. The main symptom of active disease is constant diarrhea mixed with blood, of gradual onset. somewhat, but not to the extent that human whipwormsA helminth with a tapering whiplike body that lives in the colon. In helminthic therapy, the microscopic eggs of either the human Trichuris trichiura (TTO) or pig Trichuris suis (TSO) are taken in a drink. (TTthe human whipworm, Trichuris trichiura) have. [72]
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I tried pig whipwormA helminth with a tapering whiplike body that lives in the colon. In helminthic therapy, the microscopic eggs of either the human Trichuris trichiura (TTO) or pig Trichuris suis (TSO) are taken in a drink. way back but it had zero effect on me. It wasn’t until I got on human worms (both NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus and TTthe human whipworm, Trichuris trichiura) that I saw the extreme positive effects that the worms give. [73]

Response time

All four helminth species have shown themselves to be capable of producing surprisingly rapid results in some cases, although benefits rarely become consistent with the human helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths], NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus and TTOthe ova (eggs) of the human whipworm, Trichuris trichiura, until at least 12 weeks after the first inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation].

Some self-treaters have reported that the non-human helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths], TSOthe ova (eggs) of the porcine (pig) whipworm, Trichuris suis and HDCthe cysticercoids (larval cysts) of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta, have produced benefits more rapidly than NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus and TTOthe ova (eggs) of the human whipworm, Trichuris trichiura.

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TSOthe ova (eggs) of the porcine (pig) whipworm, Trichuris suis relieves my symptoms the quickest of all helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths]. [74]
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They (TSOthe ova (eggs) of the porcine (pig) whipworm, Trichuris suis) started working after the second dose. [75]
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I started with 2,500 TSOthe ova (eggs) of the porcine (pig) whipworm, Trichuris suis every two weeks and saw improvement in 11 days. It took me about 16 1/2 months to get to that same level of improvement with the human worms. [76]
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HDCthe cysticercoids (larval cysts) of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta is very fast acting for me... By the 3rd or 4th day my burning sore lungs are no longer sore. [77]

While evidence from clinical trials is still lacking, feedback reported by one researcher and a commercial supplier of HDCthe cysticercoids (larval cysts) of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta suggests that a significant proportion of people using this species seem to respond in days or weeks rather than months, and this provider advises clients that, if they have not experienced any benefit in 12-16 weeks, it is unlikely they will see a positive response.

However, HDCthe cysticercoids (larval cysts) of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta and TSOthe ova (eggs) of the porcine (pig) whipworm, Trichuris suis have not always delivered benefits so quickly.

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TSOthe ova (eggs) of the porcine (pig) whipworm, Trichuris suis took 4½ months to kick in for me...
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... about this assumption that HDCthe cysticercoids (larval cysts) of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta works faster. It definitely doesn't for me.” [78]

And there are reports of NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus delivering rapid benefits in some cases.

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It's been exactly a week since my first inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation] of 25 HWhookworm, usually referring to the human hookworm, Necator americanus... my asthma got much better at day 2. Also my allergies seem to have gotten a little better... I feel great right now actually. Its awesome to be able to breathe in a 100%! [79]
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On the second day after my new gut buddies (NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus) moved in, their ministrations brought significant relief from the nasal congestion that I had had, on and off, for most of my life.” [80]

Shelf life

After extraction from beetles, HDCsthe cysticercoids (larval cysts) of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta will not survive for more than 48 hours if kept in saline, or 2 to 3 weeks if stored in the special nutrient solution developed for this species by Biome Restoration. Doses of HDCthe cysticercoids (larval cysts) of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta from sources other than Biome Restoration will deteriorate rapidly after extraction, so should be used within 24 hours of being harvested - not 24 hours after receipt.

NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus larvaeThe active immature form of an insect, or an animal such as a helminth, which develops from an egg and eventually transforms again into its adult state. can remain viable for many weeks, but it is recommended that doses of NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus be used as quickly as possible, and preferably within 3 weeks of being shipped.

In contrast, whipwormA helminth with a tapering whiplike body that lives in the colon. In helminthic therapy, the microscopic eggs of either the human Trichuris trichiura (TTO) or pig Trichuris suis (TSO) are taken in a drink. ova (both TSOthe ova (eggs) of the porcine (pig) whipworm, Trichuris suis and TTOthe ova (eggs) of the human whipworm, Trichuris trichiura) can remain viable for a couple of years if stored in a refrigerator, so keeping a supply of these in reserve can be a useful insurance for users of NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus against the loss of their colony, or an interruption in its benefits following the use of antibiotics. Since TSOthe ova (eggs) of the porcine (pig) whipworm, Trichuris suis usually produces results more rapidly than TTOthe ova (eggs) of the human whipworm, Trichuris trichiura, this is the ideal species to keep for such an emergency.

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I keep TSOthe ova (eggs) of the porcine (pig) whipworm, Trichuris suis for emergencies, such as, if I have to take antibiotics, or I accidentally ingest something that harms my (human) helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths]. [81]

Dosing frequency

The non-human helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] (TSOthe ova (eggs) of the porcine (pig) whipworm, Trichuris suis and HDCthe cysticercoids (larval cysts) of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta) need to be re-dosed every 2 or 3 weeks in most cases. A disadvantage of the need for such regular re-dosing is that self-treaters can forget to take doses, and a few HDCthe cysticercoids (larval cysts) of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta users have reported experiencing a return of symptoms as a result of deviating from the usual fortnightly dosing regimen. These include the mother of a child with Crohn’s disease who reported that her son began to bleed on two occasions as a result of delays in taking his doses of HDCthe cysticercoids (larval cysts) of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta. Others have reported suffering a sudden return of symptoms due to delays in taking HDCthe cysticercoids (larval cysts) of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta.

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Missed a dose, no fault of anyone, life just got in the way... Been w/o for a month. Horrific dysautonomia, which is constant dizziness, neck pain... [82]
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I did once miss a dose for 30 days, and there was hell to pay on that account. My immune system went crazy for about a week, until I could get a new dose. [83]

It is also possible to forget to re-dose with NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus and TTOthe ova (eggs) of the human whipworm, Trichuris trichiura but, since human worms don’t usually all die at the same time, the return of symptoms in their case is normally much more gradual, so users of NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus and TTOthe ova (eggs) of the human whipworm, Trichuris trichiura can forget about dosing until they begin to see a gradual return of the symptoms of their disease, which typically only occurs every few years.

Hosting multiple worm species

It is clear, both from scientific studies and the personal experience of helminthic therapyThe reintroduction of a controlled number of carefully selected benign intestinal worms in the form of larvae or eggs to reconstitute a depleted microbiome in order to treat or prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy. self-treaters, that a single species of worm is all that is required in most cases to modulate host immunity and halt existing immune-related disorders, as well as protecting the host from the development of many other conditions associated with a helminthAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] deficiency. However, different species of helminth can produce different effects.

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I use 3 species of helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] and each one has particular characteristics and effects. [84]
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I reacted to HDCthe cysticercoids (larval cysts) of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta and HWhookworm, usually referring to the human hookworm, Necator americanus completely different... [85]

Researchers have hypothesised that exposure to multiple intestinal worms may promote even stronger immunological regulation. [86]

One particular benefit provided by hosting a second species of worm is that this may help to reduce the increased attrition sometimes experienced in cases where subjects have a disease affecting the preferred location of the worm species they’re already using. For example, subjects with Crohn’s disease are susceptible to inflammation in the small intestine, which is where NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus resides, with the result that this species can have more difficulty attaching in order to feed. Consequently, they tend not to survive in Crohn’s patients for as long as they might do in hosts with other diseases.

It may therefore be advantageous for Crohn’s sufferers to host a second species that lives elsewhere, such as TTthe human whipworm, Trichuris trichiura or TSOthe ova (eggs) of the porcine (pig) whipworm, Trichuris suis, both of which live in the colon. Similarly, subjects using TTthe human whipworm, Trichuris trichiura to treat colitis may have difficulty maintaining a whipwormA helminth with a tapering whiplike body that lives in the colon. In helminthic therapy, the microscopic eggs of either the human Trichuris trichiura (TTO) or pig Trichuris suis (TSO) are taken in a drink. colony due to colonic inflammation hampering attachment by these worms, in which case they might benefit from also hosting NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus which contribute systemic inflammation control.

Another possible reason for users of NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus and TTthe human whipworm, Trichuris trichiura to add a further species would be to ensure a more rapid response when first commencing therapy. Temporarily using either TSOthe ova (eggs) of the porcine (pig) whipworm, Trichuris suis or HDCthe cysticercoids (larval cysts) of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta at this point might speed remission, since these species produce rapid results more reliably.

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I do think starting with TSOthe ova (eggs) of the porcine (pig) whipworm, Trichuris suis is great because you get a therapeutic colony right away. Also, I think having the TSOthe ova (eggs) of the porcine (pig) whipworm, Trichuris suis on board minimizes side effects from the human worms.” [87]

However, starting more than one species at the same time can result in greatly increased side effects.

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I got crazy side effects when I started the HDCthe cysticercoids (larval cysts) of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta and NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus close together. The worm flu phase can be brutal if you start them about the same time. [88]

A self-treaterSomeone who treats their own disease or condition without medical supervision. with MCASMast cell activation syndrome, also referred to as mast cell activation disorder (MCAD). An immunological condition. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mast_cell_activation_syndrome Wikipedia:Mast_cell_activation_syndrome] who combined HDCthe cysticercoids (larval cysts) of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta with NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus also found that this combination was too much for him and caused increased anxiety for 6-8 weeks, until he cancelled the HDCthe cysticercoids (larval cysts) of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta. [89]

TSOthe ova (eggs) of the porcine (pig) whipworm, Trichuris suis or HDCthe cysticercoids (larval cysts) of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta could be useful to hosts of NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus if their colony were to sustain accidental losses following the use of some types of antibiotic, for example. TSOthe ova (eggs) of the porcine (pig) whipworm, Trichuris suis is ideal for this purpose since, unlike HDCthe cysticercoids (larval cysts) of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta, this organism remains viable for years if kept in a refrigerator. A supply of TSOthe ova (eggs) of the porcine (pig) whipworm, Trichuris suis can therefore be kept in reserve by users of NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus to provide assurance that they will never be without the benefits of worms.

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… what really helped her … was 2 doses of TSOthe ova (eggs) of the porcine (pig) whipworm, Trichuris suis that she had while waiting for the (hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin.) colony to start working again. [90]
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Keeping TSOthe ova (eggs) of the porcine (pig) whipworm, Trichuris suis on hand to bridge the gap while rebuilding a (hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin.) colony works for me too. [91]

Keeping a different species of worm in reserve may not be necessary for users of TTthe human whipworm, Trichuris trichiura if they are dosing on a regular basis, in which case they will usually have a supply of TTOthe ova (eggs) of the human whipworm, Trichuris trichiura in their fridge that they can reach for if required.

If switching from one species to another, there may be a hiatus in benefits until the new species is able to fully take control of immune modulation, so it may be best to maintain the previous species until this point.

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I took HDCthe cysticercoids (larval cysts) of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta for a year. HDCthe cysticercoids (larval cysts) of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta worked really great. I felt very well... Changing from HDCthe cysticercoids (larval cysts) of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta to TSOthe ova (eggs) of the porcine (pig) whipworm, Trichuris suis was like starting from scratch. All my symptoms came back and took 4½ months to get back to where my best was while taking HDCthe cysticercoids (larval cysts) of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta. [92]

Helminthic therapyThe reintroduction of a controlled number of carefully selected benign intestinal worms in the form of larvae or eggs to reconstitute a depleted microbiome in order to treat or prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy. in practice

Helminthic therapyThe reintroduction of a controlled number of carefully selected benign intestinal worms in the form of larvae or eggs to reconstitute a depleted microbiome in order to treat or prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy. is contraindicated for subjects with certain diseases, and some conditions require a much more gradual approach to dosing, for example fibromyalgia. The helminth providers can help self-treaters determine their suitability for the therapy and help guide them towards a dosing regimen that will allow progress to be made as quickly and cheaply as possible while avoiding the worst side effects. The Hookworm dosing and response page contains a great deal of detail about the use of NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus and is essential reading for anyone considering self-treatmentMedication or treatment of one's own disease or condition without medical supervision. with this species.

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I now realise that the dosage, intervals and maintenance of Helminthic Therapy is ongoing and requires lots of attention, which if I’m being honest I wasn’t expecting.
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Self treatment is hard. I'm still figuring out the right species and number of worms best for me, 5 years into this. For some of us, it's much more complicated than 'take worms, get better.'

Helminthic therapyThe reintroduction of a controlled number of carefully selected benign intestinal worms in the form of larvae or eggs to reconstitute a depleted microbiome in order to treat or prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy. is typically very slow to deliver benefits when compared with drugs. For the majority who do respond, significant improvements do not usually materialise until at least 3 months after the first inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation], with most people only seeing improvement in their condition between 3 and 5 months. Some may only start to improve between 6 and 12 months and a few may even have to wait for as long as 18-24 months.

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18 month update. After hitting the one year mark with no improvement I was starting to get discouraged… Finally, a couple weeks ago, everything changed. I was able to eat regular foods again. [93]
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I was a year and a half into HThelminthic therapy and flaring. My GIGastroenterology is the branch of medicine concerned with disorders of the digestive system which includes all the organs of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract (alimentary canal) from mouth to anus. Physicians practicing in this field of medicine are called gastroenterologists or GI specialists. wouldn't do my colonoscopy because I was so inflamed he thought I would perf. He thought I should be admitted for IV steroids and started on Remicade. (but, at almost 2 years) I have been in complete remission for the past two months and have never felt as good. [94]

Once improvements do begin to materialise, some people can experience a sudden and dramatic reduction in symptoms, while others may respond more gradually over a period of time, possibly three years or more. Improvements during the first 2 years are not always continuous because there can be periods of exacerbation during which symptoms may worsen again, albeit temporarily. And approximately 25% of those who try helminthic therapyThe reintroduction of a controlled number of carefully selected benign intestinal worms in the form of larvae or eggs to reconstitute a depleted microbiome in order to treat or prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy. do not respond at all.

Helminthic therapyThe reintroduction of a controlled number of carefully selected benign intestinal worms in the form of larvae or eggs to reconstitute a depleted microbiome in order to treat or prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy. is also not a one-size-fits-all solution, nor a one dose fix. Dosing needs to be tailored to the unique needs of each individual, and continued indefinitely in the vast majority of cases.

It is not yet possible to predict exactly who is likely to benefit from helminthic therapyThe reintroduction of a controlled number of carefully selected benign intestinal worms in the form of larvae or eggs to reconstitute a depleted microbiome in order to treat or prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy., but statistics compiled from responses to a survey carried out by one provider of NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus showed that 70-80% of those who self-treated with this species experienced an improvement in their health. [95][96][97] The report of a survey conducted by researchers at Duke University showed that treatment with HDCthe cysticercoids (larval cysts) of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta was effective in more than 90% of cases, although this apparently higher efficacy of HDCthe cysticercoids (larval cysts) of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta in comparison with NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus is likely to be at least partly due to the fact that users of HDCthe cysticercoids (larval cysts) of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta tend to be relatively less ill than those who use other therapeutic helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths].

Helminthic therapyThe reintroduction of a controlled number of carefully selected benign intestinal worms in the form of larvae or eggs to reconstitute a depleted microbiome in order to treat or prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy. is not always a complete solution on its own, and some self-treaters need to combine this therapy with other treatments, either complementary or pharmaceutical. For example, one self-treaterSomeone who treats their own disease or condition without medical supervision. has said:

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My personal efficacy is quite low without entocort. Without it, I need to take the HDCthe cysticercoids (larval cysts) of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta about weekly to get any effect on my sinuses, and the effect still isn't as good as with it.

There are many examples of both successful and unsuccessful outcomes in the Helminthic therapy personal stories collection, which presents thumbnails and links to more than 500 accounts by people who have used helminthic therapyThe reintroduction of a controlled number of carefully selected benign intestinal worms in the form of larvae or eggs to reconstitute a depleted microbiome in order to treat or prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy. to treat over 100 different medical conditions.

Since this therapy is still at the experimental stage, there are not yet any definitive guidelines for its use and there are very few doctors who understand helminthic therapyThe reintroduction of a controlled number of carefully selected benign intestinal worms in the form of larvae or eggs to reconstitute a depleted microbiome in order to treat or prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy., let alone have any practical experience with it. A few medics are using HDCthe cysticercoids (larval cysts) of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta in some client groups, especially children with autism (video) and a few doctors may recommend that patients with various autoimmune conditions try TSOthe ova (eggs) of the porcine (pig) whipworm, Trichuris suis, but experience with the human helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths], NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus and TTthe human whipworm, Trichuris trichiura, is almost entirely limited to self-treaters and their commercial suppliers, who, together, know far more about how to use these species to improve health than the vast majority of doctors and medical researchers.

Before proceeding, each would-be helminth self-treaterSomeone who treats their own disease or condition without medical supervision. should make full use of this site to familiarise themselves with as much information as possible, and read the FAQs published by the helminth providers.

  • Autoimmune Therapies FAQ (NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus and TTOthe ova (eggs) of the human whipworm, Trichuris trichiura)
  • Worm Therapy FAQ (NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus and HDCthe cysticercoids (larval cysts) of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta)
  • Biome Restoration FAQ (HDCthe cysticercoids (larval cysts) of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta)
  • Wormswell FAQ (NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus)
  • Symmbio FAQ (NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus and TTOthe ova (eggs) of the human whipworm, Trichuris trichiura)

Obtaining helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths]

Newcomers to helminthic therapyThe reintroduction of a controlled number of carefully selected benign intestinal worms in the form of larvae or eggs to reconstitute a depleted microbiome in order to treat or prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy. will often ask in the support groups for personal recommendations about the best place to buy helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths]. Unfortunately, purchasing worms for therapy needs to be approached on an individual basis rather than taking an “I’ll have what she’s having” approach.

There are four different species of helminth available with two different methods of application, widely differing lifespans and somewhat different effects. None of the helminth providers sell all the species or ship to all global destinations, and some only offer 2 or 3 year contracts while the rest sell individual doses.

Details from all of the following three pages will therefore need to be considered in conjunction in order to make the best decisions about which organism(s) will meet each user’s unique needs and circumstances, and where to purchase them.

Working with a doctor

Using helminthic therapyThe reintroduction of a controlled number of carefully selected benign intestinal worms in the form of larvae or eggs to reconstitute a depleted microbiome in order to treat or prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy. is very similar to taking a bacterial probioticMicroorganisms that are believed to provide health benefits when consumed., which most people do without involving their doctor, but it can be helpful to have the support of a physician while self-treating with helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths]. They will be able to prescribe an immunosuppressant drug to ease helminth side effects if these were to become unduly troublesome, or prescribe an anthelminthic drug if termination of a worm colony became necessary. But exactly how much to involve a physician is a matter for each self-treaterSomeone who treats their own disease or condition without medical supervision. to decide for themselves, based on their knowledge of their own practitioner.

Privately, most medics are dismissive of helminthic therapyThe reintroduction of a controlled number of carefully selected benign intestinal worms in the form of larvae or eggs to reconstitute a depleted microbiome in order to treat or prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy., and some are even hostile. Many intensely dislike patients taking matters into their own hands and trying any unapproved treatment and, since helminthic therapyThe reintroduction of a controlled number of carefully selected benign intestinal worms in the form of larvae or eggs to reconstitute a depleted microbiome in order to treat or prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy. is not approved anywhere in the world, few doctors are willing to condone it, fearing the loss of their licence if they do. So it is important not to ask for a doctor's permission to pursue the therapy, nor request their co-operation in it, as this could place them in a difficult position. All that is required from a doctor is that, while the patient is using helminthic therapyThe reintroduction of a controlled number of carefully selected benign intestinal worms in the form of larvae or eggs to reconstitute a depleted microbiome in order to treat or prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy., they continue to provide their patient with the routine medical care that they would normally provide.

Doctors should not disparage helminthic therapyThe reintroduction of a controlled number of carefully selected benign intestinal worms in the form of larvae or eggs to reconstitute a depleted microbiome in order to treat or prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy. nor try to dissuade their patients from using it, and any physician who does arbitrarily discourage self-treatmentMedication or treatment of one's own disease or condition without medical supervision. with helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths], in disregard of all the available evidence, (see here and here) would clearly be violating the Hippocratic principle of primum non nocere (first, do no harm) and, in doing this, would arguably be committing medical abuse.

If a helminthic therapyThe reintroduction of a controlled number of carefully selected benign intestinal worms in the form of larvae or eggs to reconstitute a depleted microbiome in order to treat or prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy. self-treaterSomeone who treats their own disease or condition without medical supervision. decides to tell their doctor what they are doing, the language used can be important because, if a doctor thinks that their permission or approval is being sought, they may feel they have no choice but to refuse to cooperate with the patient in any way. However, if they are simply informed of the patient’s intention to pursue the therapy, this lets the doctor off the hook and gives them the option of ending the relationship if they feel uncomfortable about it.

One HThelminthic therapy self-treaterSomeone who treats their own disease or condition without medical supervision. who found it necessary to locate a new doctor in order to obtain a prescription for prednisone to help ease the initial side effects after inoculating with too many hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. did this by identifying all the most alternative and “hippie-looking” doctors in his area and emailing them. While most of them declined to help him, two agreed, and the one he selected carried out before-and-after blood tests and was willing to prescribe whatever he needed.

Combining helminthic therapyThe reintroduction of a controlled number of carefully selected benign intestinal worms in the form of larvae or eggs to reconstitute a depleted microbiome in order to treat or prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy. with drug treatments

No problems have been reported by anyone starting HThelminthic therapy while already taking one of the following immunosuppressive medications.

Cyclosporin; synthetic corticosteroids including prednisone and its active metabolite, prednisolone; the thiopurines, azathioprine and mercaptopurine/6-MP (purinethol); the TNF inhibitors, infliximab (Remicade), adalimumab (Humira), certolizumab pegol (Cimzia) and golimumab (Simponi); humanized antibody drugs, e.g., omalizumab (Xolair); humanized monoclonal antibody drugs such as natalizumab (Tysabri); and recombinant fusion protein drugs such as etanercept (Enbrel).

In fact, it can be an advantage to be taking one of these drugs in the early stages of helminthic therapyThe reintroduction of a controlled number of carefully selected benign intestinal worms in the form of larvae or eggs to reconstitute a depleted microbiome in order to treat or prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy. because they reduce, and often completely prevent, the transient side effects often caused by the introduction of helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths].

People who are already taking a daily dose of prednisone when they begin helminthic therapyThe reintroduction of a controlled number of carefully selected benign intestinal worms in the form of larvae or eggs to reconstitute a depleted microbiome in order to treat or prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy. - often 15 or 20 mg per day - experience little or no side effects after inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation], and those who have used this drug on a short-term basis specifically to reduce side effects have found that 5 or 10 mg per day is usually sufficient for this purpose.

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We've found that a half-pill (5 or 10 mg?) of Prednisone per day is enough to kill any of those symptoms from dosing. [98]
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I was having bad diarrhea every day from worm flu starting around week three or four. 5mg of prednisone per day helped a lot (I'm 135 pounds). I am in week 7 now and stopped taking prednisone a few days ago (after tapering off).[99]
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5-10 mg/day completely alleviated my GIGastroenterology is the branch of medicine concerned with disorders of the digestive system which includes all the organs of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract (alimentary canal) from mouth to anus. Physicians practicing in this field of medicine are called gastroenterologists or GI specialists. symptoms after my first inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation]. [100]

If prednisone is used specifically to relieve side effects, the prescribing doctor will determine a taper to wean their patient off the drug and, if the symptoms return, they may be willing to defer the taper.

Since immunosuppressive drugs can help human helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] to become established by reducing intestinal inflammation, anyone who is already on one of these drugs should resist the temptation to stop taking them too soon after starting helminthic therapyThe reintroduction of a controlled number of carefully selected benign intestinal worms in the form of larvae or eggs to reconstitute a depleted microbiome in order to treat or prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy. and, since the majority of those who respond to this therapy don’t see significant or consistent benefits until at least 3 months after their first inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation], it would arguably be unwise to stop taking an immunosuppressant drug before this. In fact, many users have found it best to continue with the drug treatment beyond this point because some people only start to improve between 6 and 9 months, some only after 9 months, and a few not until between 18 and 24 months. And even helminth hosts who see early benefits can continue to experience periodic exacerbations or flares of their disease for up to 2 years.

In view of this wide variation in experience, each individual must decide, in consultation with their physician, how long into their therapy to continue with an immunosuppressive drug before beginning, very slowly, to taper the dose. However, one helminth provider has been very specific about this and advised waiting until at least five months have elapsed after achieving a substantial improvement in symptoms. [101]

This is particularly important for subjects with Crohn’s disease, or one of the other intestinal diseases, because they tend to have a very vigorous immune response to helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths], so suddenly stopping a drug that has been keeping this response in check may cause a rebound effect that could result in a flare and, potentially, a loss of worms.

One individual with IBDInflammatory bowel disease is a group of conditions affecting the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, particularly the colon and small intestine. The major types of IBD are Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis (UC).-related arthritis found that reducing prednisone too soon caused her joints to ache and stiffen, so she continued to take azathioprine (Imuran) on its own after stopping prednisone, and this provided an intermediate step which allowed her to wean herself off drugs altogether, a process that took between 8 months and a year. [102]

A few drugs are harmful to helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths], and those that can adversely affect NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus and TTthe human whipworm, Trichuris trichiura are listed in the Human Helminth Care Manual. These drugs include oral and injected antibiotics, the effects of which can be such that there may be little point in anyone using NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus, and possibly TTthe human whipworm, Trichuris trichiura, if they need to take antibiotics regularly, or on a longterm basis. Those drugs that are incompatible with TSOthe ova (eggs) of the porcine (pig) whipworm, Trichuris suis are listed here, and those that are best avoided by users of HDCthe cysticercoids (larval cysts) of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta are listed briefly here.

Considering the cost of helminthic therapyThe reintroduction of a controlled number of carefully selected benign intestinal worms in the form of larvae or eggs to reconstitute a depleted microbiome in order to treat or prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy.

At first sight, helminthic therapyThe reintroduction of a controlled number of carefully selected benign intestinal worms in the form of larvae or eggs to reconstitute a depleted microbiome in order to treat or prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy. may appear to be expensive, especially to those who live in countries with free health care, but a number of factors need to be taken into consideration, including the following.

1. Compared with other treatments used for the conditions that helminthic therapyThe reintroduction of a controlled number of carefully selected benign intestinal worms in the form of larvae or eggs to reconstitute a depleted microbiome in order to treat or prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy. treats, it is extremely cost-effective. For example, TSOthe ova (eggs) of the porcine (pig) whipworm, Trichuris suis, which is the most expensive of the therapeutic helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths], is only 1/5th of the cost of Remicade, and the other helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] are considerably cheaper than this.

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What we ended up paying for 3-years worked out to be cheaper than any hospital bill we would ever get. [103]
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I've spent a fortune trying to get well with very little success. My human helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] will be $2900 for 3 years. That seems like a bargain at a little less than $1000 a year.
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It may sound like a lot up front, but depending on the health issues you are treating it can save money in the long run. I have been on HWs for about a year and I have decreased my medication, stopped my twice monthly IV therapy that cost $145/bag, and reduced my visits to the doctor. In addition I feel better and my quality of life has improved tremendously, for which there is no price tag.
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I have actually spent more on various probioticsMicroorganisms that are believed to provide health benefits when consumed. each month.

2. There is a good chance that helminthic therapyThe reintroduction of a controlled number of carefully selected benign intestinal worms in the form of larvae or eggs to reconstitute a depleted microbiome in order to treat or prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy. users will be able to earn more after treatment than they could before.

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Since taking helminth therapyThe reintroduction of a controlled number of carefully selected benign intestinal worms in the form of larvae or eggs to reconstitute a depleted microbiome in order to treat or prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy. I am able to work, full time and then some, allowing me to make money to support myself and have a meaningful life of contribution and giving, instead of going broke, being a burden and dependent on charity. For those who think Helminthic therapyThe reintroduction of a controlled number of carefully selected benign intestinal worms in the form of larvae or eggs to reconstitute a depleted microbiome in order to treat or prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy. is expensive I suggest you recalculate the cost of your health care bills and the value of quality of life. I am grateful for helminthic therapyThe reintroduction of a controlled number of carefully selected benign intestinal worms in the form of larvae or eggs to reconstitute a depleted microbiome in order to treat or prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy. and for those who make it possible. It has literally saved my life! (From someone with Crohn’s disease.)
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Coming up to 3 year anniversary of starting Helminthic therapyThe reintroduction of a controlled number of carefully selected benign intestinal worms in the form of larvae or eggs to reconstitute a depleted microbiome in order to treat or prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy.. Overall things very good. No significant relapses. Holding down very well paid job and loving it. (From someone with Multiple Sclerosis.)

3. People who smoke, and many others with a variety of interests and hobbies, often pay out far more than the cost of helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] just to provide themselves with pleasure and entertainment.
4. Please look *carefully* at the details for each of the companies on the Helminth providers page. There is considerable variation in what is on offer and the options include discounts and payment plans. You may be able to work out something more manageable if you talk to each of the providers who are offering the species of worm that you want and will ship to your location.

If you still can’t find an affordable solution, there is always the option to grow your own NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus, HDCthe cysticercoids (larval cysts) of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta or TTOthe ova (eggs) of the human whipworm, Trichuris trichiura. Incubating the first two of these is well within the ability of most people if they follow the detailed instructions on the Helminth incubation page.

DIYDo-It-Yourself. Literally to bypass the professional and do it yourself. helminth incubation

Three of the four species of helminth that are used in therapy are suitable for DIYDo-It-Yourself. Literally to bypass the professional and do it yourself. incubation at home. See Helminth incubation. However, if you intend to incubate hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin., it is recommended that you obtain your starter dose from an established provider because this will obviate the risk of acquiring a different and possibly harmful species of worm, or some other unwanted infection, from another self-treaterSomeone who treats their own disease or condition without medical supervision.. See Hookworm incubation issues for more about these risks.

Online support

See the separate page:

Further information

Enquirers who use a search engine to locate information about helminthic therapyThe reintroduction of a controlled number of carefully selected benign intestinal worms in the form of larvae or eggs to reconstitute a depleted microbiome in order to treat or prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy. will find some good sources, such as research papers and the main sites of the Helminth providers. Unfortunately, mixed in amongst these are many less good sources, including a veritable graveyard of neglected websites and blogs, many of which were created several years ago by self-treaters experiencing early bursts of enthusiasm for the therapy but who have since reduced, or even ceased, their active involvement in the helminthic therapyThe reintroduction of a controlled number of carefully selected benign intestinal worms in the form of larvae or eggs to reconstitute a depleted microbiome in order to treat or prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy. community. Some of the information on these sites is therefore out of date and may be misleading. In a few cases, they may be perpetuating misconceptions about the therapy that date from a time when much about it was still a matter of conjecture.

Some of the larger health information websites carry pages about helminthic therapyThe reintroduction of a controlled number of carefully selected benign intestinal worms in the form of larvae or eggs to reconstitute a depleted microbiome in order to treat or prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy. but many of these contain factual errors, some of which can create serious misconceptions.

For example, an article entitled, Helminthic Treatment for Crohn's Disease speaks of worm eggs being “injected” into patients, and helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] causing dangerous side effects over time, including anaemia, protein deficiency and stunted growth. However, none of these claims are true in the case of therapeutic helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths], as can be seen from the following wiki pages.

Editors of this wiki have made several attempts to have the errors in the Healthline article corrected, but no one has ever responded to any communication about the article, and this is typical for most of the large health information websites.

In view of these issues with online health sites, anyone who is seeking information about helminthic therapyThe reintroduction of a controlled number of carefully selected benign intestinal worms in the form of larvae or eggs to reconstitute a depleted microbiome in order to treat or prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy. is urged to use this wiki as their primary source. It is the definitive database of information about all aspects of the therapy and is updated daily by volunteer citizen scientists who are directly involved in pioneering its use.

External links

  • Colony of Me
    A helminthic therapyThe reintroduction of a controlled number of carefully selected benign intestinal worms in the form of larvae or eggs to reconstitute a depleted microbiome in order to treat or prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy. and microbiomeAll the microorganisms living in and on the body, or the genome of these microorganisms. "Microbiota" refers to the specific population of microorganisms living in a certain part of the body, such as the gut. These two terms are often used interchangeably. immune support resource centre that’s friendly to those who are brain fogged, exhausted or in pain.
  • Don't let worms give you the squirms!
    An article for those who are interested in helminthic therapyThe reintroduction of a controlled number of carefully selected benign intestinal worms in the form of larvae or eggs to reconstitute a depleted microbiome in order to treat or prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy. but are reluctant to try it because of an aversion to worms.
  • Helminth Therapy For Intestinal & Immune Health
    A pin board featuring links to more than 1,300 articles about helminthic therapyThe reintroduction of a controlled number of carefully selected benign intestinal worms in the form of larvae or eggs to reconstitute a depleted microbiome in order to treat or prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy., gut health and their relationship with autoimmune diseases.
SimpleHTLogo(18x18).gif Helminthic Therapy Wiki: documenting the science, management, experience and results of helminth replacement therapy.