Human helminth care manual

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Key

These classification codes are intended as a general guide only. The effects of a substance can vary considerably depending on factors such as quantity, concentration and, in the case of herbal extracts, the part of the plant used. Even the method of extraction can make a difference, so it is important to read the details for each item.

Will or may kill, or cause the loss of, human helminths.
May cause harm to human helminths in some people.
May cause a temporary reduction in the benefits provided by human helminths.
Insufficient evidence exists to support a judgement on possible effects.
Safe, or likely to be safe, for human helminths.

Note that a section marked, for example, ✅ "safe" indicates that all substances listed in that section are also "safe" unless marked otherwise.


Contents

Introduction

This manual is only concerned with the two human helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] (NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus & TTthe human whipworm, Trichuris trichiura/TTOthe ova (eggs) of the human whipworm, Trichuris trichiura)

  • Human hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. - Necator americanusThe species of human hookworm used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. (NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus)[1]
  • Human whipwormA helminth with a tapering whiplike body that lives in the colon. In helminthic therapy, the microscopic eggs of either the human Trichuris trichiura (TTO) or pig Trichuris suis (TSO) are taken in a drink. - Trichuris trichiuraThe human whipworm used in helminthic therapy and taken periodically as microscopic eggs (TTO) in a drink. (TTthe human whipworm, Trichuris trichiura/TTOthe ova (eggs) of the human whipworm, Trichuris trichiura)[2]

For non-human helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] (TSOthe ova (eggs) of the porcine (pig) whipworm, Trichuris suis & HDCthe cysticercoids (larval cysts) of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta) please see the 'Helminth care' page.
Non-human helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] only live in humans for a short time and so need to be replaced every few weeks. Thus there is less concern with their long-term health.

  • Pig whipwormA helminth with a tapering whiplike body that lives in the colon. In helminthic therapy, the microscopic eggs of either the human Trichuris trichiura (TTO) or pig Trichuris suis (TSO) are taken in a drink. ova - Trichuris suisThe porcine (pig) whipworm used in helminthic therapy and taken as microscopic eggs (TSO) in a drink every two weeks. (TSOthe ova (eggs) of the porcine (pig) whipworm, Trichuris suis)[3]
  • Rat tapewormA helminth with a flat, ribbon-like, segmented body. Only the murine (rat) tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta, is used in helminthic therapy and this generally does not reach adulthood in humans so requires regular dosing of HDC. cysticerciThe larval (immature) stage of a tapeworm. - Hymenolepis diminutaA murine (rat) tapeworm used in helminthic therapy that generally does not mature in humans and is taken as cysticerci (HDC) in a drink every 2 or 3 weeks. (HDCthe cysticercoids (larval cysts) of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta)[4]

HelminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] are just one type of parasite. Among the many types in existence, there is a wide range of responses to substances claiming to be antiparasitic. What kills one type of parasite may not kill or even harm another, and substances listed on the internet as being antiparasitic may not affect the worms used in helminthic therapyThe reintroduction of a controlled number of carefully selected benign intestinal worms in the form of larvae or eggs to reconstitute a depleted microbiome in order to treat or prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy..

Using this manual

  • After reading this introduction use your device's search function to find specific information on a substance. Both UK and US spellings have been included.
  • If no search results are found (and your spelling is correct) it is more likely to be safe than unsafe for human helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths], although this cannot be guaranteed.

Updates & disclaimers

  • This page is updated regularly. Use the page history for a list of amendments.
  • Although the most damaging substances have been identified, this manual is a work in progress and thus should be viewed as a guide only (not definitive). See the general disclaimer.
  • Details in this manual are based on first hand reports posted in Helminthic therapy support groups. Additional reports and comments on this topic are welcomed, and should be posted to either of these groups [5], [6].

General advice

  • Most foods, drugs and other substances are perfectly safe for use while hosting helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths], including normal dietary amounts of most unprocessed foods, spices and herbs. However, medicinal quantities of concentrates, extracts or tinctures, especially of certain herbs, are more likely to have an adverse effect, particularly in people who have a robust immune response to helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths]. These individuals are the ones who need to top up their human helminth colonies more frequently in order to maintain remission from their disease. Typically, they have Crohn's, or one of the other intestinal diseases, but a few with other conditions, such as allergies, [7] may also be in this group.
  • The phytochemical compounds, isomyristicin and bergaptenix, are a good example of how the concentrated form of a substance can be harmful to helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] while foods containing the same substances are not. While the concentrated forms of isomyristicin and bergaptenix have shown significant anthelmintic activity against the two helminth species. Myristicin (the parent chemical from which isomyristicin is derived) and bergapten are both found in several of the fruits, herbs and vegetables consumed by humans on a daily basis, e.g., parsley, celery, lemons, figs, carrots, grape juice, Earl Grey tea, nutmeg and dill, but the risk of an anthelmintic effect from this very limited dietary intake is negligible. [8]
  • Even substances that have shown an anthelminthic effect in test tube studies do not necessarily have an adverse affect on worms being hosted by humans. [9]
  • Due to the way that TTthe human whipworm, Trichuris trichiura feeds and attaches to the colonic mucosa, it is not likely to be as vulnerable as NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus, as is exemplified by the fact that three times more mebendazole may be required to kill TTthe human whipworm, Trichuris trichiura than is needed to kill NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus. The effects that foods and other substances have on helminth egg production may not be the same as the effects they have on the prophylactic or therapeutic benefits of adult helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths]. Consequently, the details below may not be relevant to the practice of helminth incubation. A tentative examination of the effect of substances on the production of hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. ova and larvaeThe active immature form of an insect, or an animal such as a helminth, which develops from an egg and eventually transforms again into its adult state. can be found under the heading, “Promotion of egg viability by dietary manipulation,” in this document[10].
  • This post [11] has good general advice on how to manage exposure to substances that can harm human helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths].
  • NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus and TTthe human whipworm, Trichuris trichiura are robust organisms [12] and only a few things will kill them, e.g., anthelminthic drugs.
  • It is unlikely that anything will harm NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus before it attaches to the gut mucosa towards the end of the third week post inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation], as it does not feed until this point. Beyond this, NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus will always be vulnerable to anything that will stun it long enough for it to be carried away from its feeding area in the small intestine, or when the host has diarrhoea/diarrhea that is very severe.

Pharmaceuticals

Anaesthetics (anesthetics), General [13]

✅Nitrous oxide (N2O) (E942) [14]

As a result of reports posted in the early days of the therapeutic use of NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus, [15] [16] [17] [18] nitrous oxide (aka laughing gas or nitrous) was assumed to kill hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin.. However, at least three people who have attempted to use nitrous oxide to deliberately kill their hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. colonies have found that it was not effective. One subject reported inhaling “almost a full can of whipped cream” at 3 weeks post inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation] in an attempt to resolve severe side effects, but with no obvious effect on his hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin.. In another case, a ballon full of nitrous oxide failed to have any effect on a hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. colony, some members of which were later confirmed by stool test to still be alive. [19] Finally, in May 2017, someone tested the long-held assumption that N2O kills hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. by inhaling a lot of nitrous oxide over the course of an hour, and reported that, although he got a headache and giggled a lot, none of his worms were harmed. [20]

✅ The following forms of nitrogen are also unlikely to be a problem for hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin..

Other general anaesthetics

It has been suggested that the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that were used in the early days of anaesthesia might be a risk to hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin., especially if inhaled in excessive quantity, due to the possibility that they might stun them and cause them to be expelled from the gut before waking up. For example:

However, a clinical scientist has reported that, while hosting both NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus and TTthe human whipworm, Trichuris trichiura, he worked around more organic solvents, including dichloromethane (CH2Cl2) and chloroform (CHCl3), than most people are exposed to in a lifetime, and that his hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. and whipwormsA helminth with a tapering whiplike body that lives in the colon. In helminthic therapy, the microscopic eggs of either the human Trichuris trichiura (TTO) or pig Trichuris suis (TSO) are taken in a drink. continued egg production uninterrupted.

Propofol While propofol has been shown to adversely affect the mitochondria of roundworms in laboratory conditions, it is clear from the experience of hosts of both hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. and whipwormsA helminth with a tapering whiplike body that lives in the colon. In helminthic therapy, the microscopic eggs of either the human Trichuris trichiura (TTO) or pig Trichuris suis (TSO) are taken in a drink. that propofol does not harm human helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] in the concentrations used during surgery.

Regional nerve blocks are worm-safe.

Anaesthetics (anesthetics), local [26]

Local anaesthetics

Local anaesthetics interfere with the production of white blood cells as well as the functioning of the cells in circulation, but they appear not to affect ova production by helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] and they certainly don't kill them. While local anaesthetics can cause a temporary return of disease symptoms for up to 8 weeks, helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] generally recover after only a few days, although this varies by person, drug and dosage, making it difficult to predict exactly what will happen in any particular situation.

For dental procedures requiring a local anaesthetic, short-acting drugs are less likely to affect helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths], e.g.

  • Articaine (articadent, astracaine forte, septanest, septocaine, ubistesin forte, ubistesin, ultracaine, zorcaine)
  • Lidocaine (xylocaine, lignocaine)

These are a better choice than a longer-acting drug, such as

and one helminth host has reported[27] that the short-acting articaine had no adverse effect on his hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin.. If a patient explains that they don't want to be numb for several hours, the dentist will usually use one of the short-acting drugs, or one combined with a vasoconstrictor such as epinephrine, which helps to reduce the amount of the drug that reaches the systemic circulation.

If local anaesthetics are used, it can be a good idea to arrange for a small supplementary dose of worms (e.g., 10 hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. larvaeThe active immature form of an insect, or an animal such as a helminth, which develops from an egg and eventually transforms again into its adult state.) to be available for administration the day after exposure to the drug. This small additional inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation] usually helps to reduce the time that established helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] are out of action.

✅ Local anaesthetics continued

all appear to be harmless to helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths], so, taken orally at high strength, these may be a suitable substitute for local anaesthetics in many situations. For example, one helminth host has found that 30 mg dihydrocodeine, taken along with 1,000 mg of paracetamol (acetaminophen) an hour or two before a dental appointment can be effective in avoiding all but a few brief moments of mild, dull pain, which he found to be quite manageable. This subject even found that the combination of dihydrocodeine and paracetamol provided adequate pain relief when having a tooth sculpted to take a crown. Aspirin and ibuprofen are also harmless to helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths], so, if preferred, these might provide a suitable alternative to paracetamol.

Another option for completely avoiding any risk to helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] from local anaesthetics was the GumEase cryoallergenic mouthpiece. This device, which is apparently no longer available to purchase, provided pain relief for up to 20 minutes, and was appropriate for most procedures, including fillings, crowns, extractions and root canals. Previously available from two sources [28], [29] this device unfortunately never caught on with dentists who are firmly wedded to the use of injectable drugs.

Another pain-free alternative is laser dental surgery, which is likely to become increasingly available in the future. If more invasive dental surgery is required - where bone needs to be removed, for example - it may be best to request conscious sedation. This renders the patient unaware of what is taking place, but is not the same as a general anaesthetic. Conscious sedation might involve a combination of versed (a short acting IV benzodiazepine) and fentanyl (a short acting IV opiate), both of which are perfectly safe for worms.

Anaesthetics (anesthetics), topical [30]

✅ Topical anaesthetics such as lidocaine are unlikely to affect helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] because not enough of the drug will get into the blood stream to affect the worms. Topical lidocaine used before blood tests or the fitting of a catheter, or on the mucous membranes in the mouth or nose, are therefore worm-safe. Alternatively, an ice pack can be very effective on skin, including for punch biopsies, though some people may prefer lidocaine for a biopsy involving scalpel and stitches.

Anthelminthics [31]

❌ Antiparasitic drugs

A number of drugs are used to terminate helminth infections, but the effectiveness of different anthelminthics against a single species varies greatly. In one study, a triple dose of albendazole (3×400 mg over 3 consecutive days) showed a cure rate against hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. of 92%, whereas a triple dose of mebendazole (3×500 mg over 3 consecutive days) only achieved a cure rate of 58%.

Each anthelminthic drug may have varying degrees of effectiveness against different helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths]. For example, while a triple dose of albendazole (3×400 mg over 3 consecutive days) showed a cure rate against hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. of 92%, the same regimen only achieved a 56% cure rate against whipwormsA helminth with a tapering whiplike body that lives in the colon. In helminthic therapy, the microscopic eggs of either the human Trichuris trichiura (TTO) or pig Trichuris suis (TSO) are taken in a drink. [32] and, in patients with an excessive whipwormA helminth with a tapering whiplike body that lives in the colon. In helminthic therapy, the microscopic eggs of either the human Trichuris trichiura (TTO) or pig Trichuris suis (TSO) are taken in a drink. infection, albendazole may need to be taken for 5–7 days. [33]

Information about each of the anthelminthic drugs in use currently is readily available online, but, if it becomes necessary to terminate a colony of helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths], the subject should obtain the advice of a medical doctor and follow their directions. However, under no circumstances should mebendazole ever be combined with metronidazole (Flagyl), and this is something about which many doctors and pharmacists may be unaware. There is a risk that this combination may cause Stevens-Johnson Syndrome/Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis.

Bephenium hydroxynaphthoate (Alcopar, Alcopara, Befenium, Debefenium, Francin, Nemex). This is an anthelmintic agent once used to treat hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. and roundworm infections.

Isomyristicin and bergaptenix are two phytochemical compounds isolated from the Bhutanese medicinal plants, Corydalis crispa and Pleurospermum amabile, which have shown significant anthelmintic activity against the helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths], Schistosoma mansoni and Trichuris muris. In concentrated form, they may therefore be harmful to other whipwormsA helminth with a tapering whiplike body that lives in the colon. In helminthic therapy, the microscopic eggs of either the human Trichuris trichiura (TTO) or pig Trichuris suis (TSO) are taken in a drink. and possibly also hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin.. [34] However, it should be noted that myristicin (the parent chemical from which isomyristicin is derived) and bergapten are both found in very small quantities in the vegetables, herbs and fruits consumed by humans on a daily basis, e.g., parsley, celery, lemons, figs, carrots, grape juice, Earl grey tea, nutmeg and dill, but the risk of an anthelmintic effect from this very limited dietary intake is negligible. [35]

Nitazoxanide (Alinia, Nitaxide) is a broad-spectrum antiparasitic and broad-spectrum antiviral drug used to treat various helminthic, protozoal and viral infections. It has demonstrated activity against tapewormsA helminth with a flat, ribbon-like, segmented body. Only the murine (rat) tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta, is used in helminthic therapy and this generally does not reach adulthood in humans so requires regular dosing of HDC., [36] so may also have an adverse effect on hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. and whipwormsA helminth with a tapering whiplike body that lives in the colon. In helminthic therapy, the microscopic eggs of either the human Trichuris trichiura (TTO) or pig Trichuris suis (TSO) are taken in a drink..

Odanacatib (codenamed MK-0822) is an investigational treatment for osteoporosis and bone metastasis developed by Merck & Co., and possibly available for clinical use from 2016. Unfortunately, this drug has been shown to kill the hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin., Ancylostoma ceylanicum, in hamsters, decreasing worm burdens by 73%. [37] Consequently, it is likely to be trialled as a potential alternative to albendazole and may have an adverse effect on the human hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. as well as other helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths], so should be avoided by helminth self-treaters.

Pyrvinium (Vanquin, viprynium). This anthelmintic was previously used to treat pinwormRefers to Enterobius vermicularis in the US, and to Strongyloides stercoralis in the UK. (Enterobius vermicularisA human helminth known as 'pinworm' in the US, and 'threadworm' in the UK.) infections, but has been largely replaced by other anthelmintics, e.g., mebendazole or pyrantel pamoate.

Piperazine (also Piperazine hydrate and piperazine) citrate are anthelminthic drugs that kill 60-70% of adult roundworms.

❓ Piperazine-derived compounds

There are a whole raft of ⚡ piperazine-derived compounds that may potentially have an anthelmintic action.

However, this does not mean that all these piperazine derivatives will kill helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths]. For example, ✅ Viagra does not kill hookworms, and they can survive at least one 50mg dose of dimenhydrinate (Dramamine).

Anthelminthic residues may be encountered in farmed meats, especially the livers of cattle and fowl, but it is not known whether, or to what extent, these might affect therapeutic helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] in hosts who eat this meat.

Canine anthelminthics that have been applied to a dog’s skin should not be a problem for anyone who pets a treated animal so long as they wash their hands immediately after the contact. [38]

Antibiotics [39]

(Also see Alternative antibiotics)

❌ Antibiotics unsafe for HelminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths]

  • Amoxicillin
    While two hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. hosts have said that they did not lose their worms following treatment with 'amoxicillin, two others have reported losing their colonies after taking this drug. Combination drugs that contain amoxicillin e.g., amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (co-amoxiclav, Augmentin) may therefore also be a threat to human helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths].
  • Nitroimidazoles (metronidazole, tinidazole, nimorazole, dimetridazole)
    One hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. host has reported losing her colony to the nitroimidazole drug, metronidazole (Flagyl), which may be particularly harmful if taken in combination with clindamycin (Dalacin, Lincocin, Daclin), as discussed here [40]. Metronidazole and clindamycin are favoured by some dentists due to their proven efficacy against anaerobic bacteria. The nitroimidazoles also include tinidazole (another antiparasitic drug), and nimorazole.
  • Azithromycin (brand names include: AZIF-500, Azithral, Azithrocin, Azyth, Azin, Z pack, Zeto and Zithromax)
    Someone has reported losing her hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. to a combination of azithromycin (an azalide, a type of macrolide antibiotic) and doxycycline (see below) (a broad spectrum antibiotic of the tetracycline class), whereas a whipwormA helminth with a tapering whiplike body that lives in the colon. In helminthic therapy, the microscopic eggs of either the human Trichuris trichiura (TTO) or pig Trichuris suis (TSO) are taken in a drink. host did not lose her colony from taking this same combination of drugs. Azithromycin has been used on its own to treat a child with PANDAS and a female adult with an ear infection [41] without any worm loss, although its use did result in a temporary suspension of benefits in both cases.

⚡ General discussion

Doxycycline (Vibramycin, Monodox, Microdox, Periostat, Vibra-Tabs, Oracea, Doryx, Vibrox, Adoxa, Doxyhexal, Doxylin, Doxoral, Doxy-1 and Atridox, etc.) is a tetracycline antibiotic that also has antiprotozoal, antibacterial and some anthelminthic effects, although the latter have been claimed to only affect filarial nematodesA category of worms with slender, unsegmented, cylindrical bodies that include roundworms and threadworms.. In this case, the drug kills a symbioticSymbiosis is a close, long-term relationship between organisms of different species. Helminths are obligatory symbionts because they depend entirely on their host for survival, and they are also ectosymbionts because they live on their host’s body surface, albeit the inner surface of the digestive tract. The species used in helminthic therapy are also mutualists. bacterium in the worm’s reproductive tract, thus rendering it sterile. Moreover, an eight-week course of doxycycline may be necessary to achieve this effect. One hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. host has reported that he took doxycycline for a total of 5 weeks without noticeable effect on his worms [42], but another has said that her hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. “completely stopped working” after taking doxycycline for only three days. [43] She said that this happened “pretty much overnight”, and that, in spite of getting a supplementary dose of worms a month or so after taking the antibiotic, [44] she didn’t feel right again for the following 6 months. [45] (NB: doxycycline has also been found to have unexpected effects on mitochondria.)

Short courses of most other antibiotics will usually only cause a temporary loss of benefit for between 2 and 8 weeks (e.g., ➿ erythromycin [46]), although it is possible for efficacy to be reduced for longer, e.g., 4 months, and even 6 months, and there is anecdotal evidence suggesting a correlation between the length of a course of antibiotics and the length of time that affected helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] are out of action.

It is possible that even a small dose of antibiotic could cause a return of symptoms in some people. For example, one hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. host has reported experiencing a recurrence of significant disease symptoms after using 3 drops per day, for only 1½ days, of a solution of Tobramycin 3mg (0.3%) and Dexamethasone 1mg (0.1%), although this one-off occurrence could have been a coincidence.

In cases of dental infection that would routinely be treated by a course of an oral antibiotic, it might be possible to avoid the use of a drug if the dentist is able to use localised ozone injections. [47]

When it is essential to take oral antibiotics, the duration of their negative effect on hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. can be significantly reduced - perhaps to as little as 2 weeks - by taking a small top-up dose of 5-10 larvaeThe active immature form of an insect, or an animal such as a helminth, which develops from an egg and eventually transforms again into its adult state. after finishing the course of drugs. In most cases, this inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation] can be carried out 48 hours after the last dose of the drug, but it's worth asking a pharmacist exactly how long the drug that has been prescribed will take to clear completely from the body. Different antibiotics have different biological half-lives. For example, erythromycin's half-life is only a couple of hours, whereas penicillin's can be up to 56 hours.

It has been suggested that the reduction in the benefits derived from hosting human helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] that is seen after taking antibiotics might result, at least in part, from a loss from the gut microbiomeAll the microorganisms living in and on the body, or the genome of these microorganisms. "Microbiota" refers to the specific population of microorganisms living in a certain part of the body, such as the gut. These two terms are often used interchangeably. of helpful bacterial species and the proliferation of less beneficial ones. This suggestion, and the fact that taking probioticsMicroorganisms that are believed to provide health benefits when consumed. alongside antibiotics is known to help offset the gastrointestinal symptoms typically associated with these drugs, has led to the suggestion that the use of high doses (perhaps 5 or 10 times the normal dose) of good quality probioticsMicroorganisms that are believed to provide health benefits when consumed. might help to reduce the time that helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] are out of action after using these drugs. And this effect has been reported by one individual. [48] Similarly, a fecal microbiotaThe specific population of microorganisms living in a certain part of the body, such as the gut. "Microbiome" refers to all the microorganisms living in and on the body, or the genome of these microorganisms. These two terms are often used interchangeably. transplant (FMT) might also help to restore worm benefits more quickly. [49]

It is possible that the consumption of galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) while taking probioticsMicroorganisms that are believed to provide health benefits when consumed. may also help to restore the gut biome, as GOS has been shown to help support the recovery of beneficial bifidobacteria and increase the production of butyrate, after antibiotic treatment. GOS is available in the form of Bimuno Prebiotic Powder.

In the case of someone needing to take antibiotics regularly, or on a long-term basis, there would be little point in them using hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. until completely off these drugs. Some worm benefits may be maintained in users of the human whipwormA helminth with a tapering whiplike body that lives in the colon. In helminthic therapy, the microscopic eggs of either the human Trichuris trichiura (TTO) or pig Trichuris suis (TSO) are taken in a drink., so long as doses of this organism are being taken regularly, every few weeks. Another solution for those who need to take antibiotics frequently, or for prolonged periods, would be to switch to TSOthe ova (eggs) of the porcine (pig) whipworm, Trichuris suis as these are less likely to be adversely affected by antibiotics. While ciprofloxacin is capable of blocking the action of TSOthe ova (eggs) of the porcine (pig) whipworm, Trichuris suis, other antibiotics just slow them down. [50] HDCthe cysticercoids (larval cysts) of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta may also be less susceptible to antibiotics than human helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths], although two users of HDCthe cysticercoids (larval cysts) of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta have reported that the antibiotic, ⚡ Dapsone (diamino-diphenyl sulfone), causes a return of their disease symptoms.

Fosfomycin (also known as phosphomycin, phosphonomycin, Monurol and Monuril)
A single, one-off, 3g dose if this broad-spectrum antibiotic that was taken by a hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. host to treat a urinary tract infection had no obvious effect on her worms. [51] However, larger doses or a longer treatment period may produce a different result.

✅ Antibiotics that appear safe

  • Trimethoprim (Alprim)
    One hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. host has reported continuing to enjoy full benefits from her worms after taking seven 300 mg doses of this drug to treat a urinary tract infection. Another has reported that, when used to treat UTIs, Alprim not only did not affect her hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. colony, but did not even arrest the production of ova by her worms. [52]
  • Topical antibiotics
    If applied to the skin, or used as eye drops, these are unlikely to affect helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] in most cases. Four drops of cyloxan (0.3%) applied to each eye 3 times per day, for 2 weeks, had no effect on the colonies of two hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. hosts. [53] However, as mentioned above, one hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. host has reported experiencing a recurrence of significant disease symptoms after using 3 drops per day, for only 1½ days, of a solution of Tobramycin 3mg (0.3%) and Dexamethasone 1mg (0.1%).

➿ Antibiotics best to avoid

NB. Some antibiotics are arguably best avoided for other reasons. For example,

can be extremely dangerous for some people, while clarithromycin has been shown to increase the risk of a fatal heart attack by an estimated 76 per cent compared to penicillin V. No increased risk was seen with roxithromycin.

Anticoagulants [54]

✅ Safe anticoagulants unless otherwise marked

Anticoagulant medicines and herbs (which reduce the clotting ability of blood) do not harm helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths], but may prolong bleeding from the tiny feeding sites of hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin., which, themselves, secrete minute amounts of anticoagulants to help their digestive process. Anticoagulant drugs include

Other drugs that have an anticoagulant effect include

Herbs with an anticoagulant effect include

All of these compounds may prolong bleeding at hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. feeding sites to some extent, so may potentially contribute to anaemia (anemia) in susceptible individuals, especially if several of these drugs/supplements are taken at the same time.

Antifungals [55]

✅ Safe antifungals unless otherwise marked

These antifungal drugs appear to be safe for use with human helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths]

  • fluconazole (Diflucan and Trican)
  • nystatin
  • the fatty acid caprylic acid also appears safe[56]. However, anyone with a coconut allergy/intolerance should note that caprylic acid is a coconut/palm kernel derivative.
  • the enzyme-based anti-candida product candex is also worm-safe. One hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. host took 4 Candex capsules twice a day for over a month without any obvious harm to his worms. [57]
  • Chlorophyll. A chlorophyll-based solution has been found to be effective against candida albicans and there have been no reports to suggest this might be harmful to helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths]. (Also see ❓Chlorophyllin.)
  • Sodium butyrate is a powerful antifungal that inhibits pathogenic yeast growth[59]. It is available as a food supplement and is also manufactured in the human intestines by the fermentation of vegetables. The bacteria responsible for butyrate production are vulnerable to antibiotics, but can be reintroduced, or supplemented, by means of fecal microbiota transplants (FMT), or the addition of the butyrate-producing bacterial species, clostridium butyricum, which generates butyrate directly in the gut. C. butyricum is available as the probioticMicroorganisms that are believed to provide health benefits when consumed., Miyarisan Tablets[60], in Japan, and is available online, e.g., from eBay[61] and Amazon[62], and in the probioticMicroorganisms that are believed to provide health benefits when consumed. formulations, Bifilac and Bifilac HP[63], the first of which is available from here. C. butyricum is also available as an animal feed additive[64]. Nutrients that help to increase butyric acid concentrations in the colon include pectin[65] and larch arabinogalactan[66], which is available as a supplement[67], although arabinogalactan can worsen rheumatic conditions. [68], [69]
  • Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) may interfere with the yeast-to-hypha transition[70] of candida.
  • Apple cider vinegar has been revealed[71] as a possible treatment for Candida species involved in denture stomatitis, and there have been suggestions[72] that, if ingested, vinegar might induce the body's gut defence system to help combat a Candida albicans infection. Advice on using apple cider vinegar as part of an anti-candida treatment regimen can be found here: [73] and [74].
  • Iodine appears to have antifungal properties, is worm-friendly, and has proved effective against candida for one hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. host.[75]
  • Vitamin D turns on genes that make antimicrobial peptides, including cathelicidin[76], which has been shown to kill Candida. However, dosage with this vitamin may be critical, and excessive amounts might be counter-productive[77]. Aiming for the optimum blood level[78] of vitamin D would therefore appear to be ideal.
  • Some foods[79], eaten in normal dietary amounts, may help support an anti-candida programme, but see the separate notes on ⚡cayenne, ⚡coconut and ⚡ginger. Fresh ✅garlic may be particularly helpful[80], and dietary forms of garlic are known to be worm-safe. However, we don’t yet know what effect a garlic extract might have on helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths].
  • When candida is a problem, very low carbohydrate (VLC) diets are best avoided because these cause ketosis, and yeasts love ketones.
  • Monolaurin (also known as lauric acid, glycerol monolaurate, glyceryl laurate and 1-Lauroyl-glycerol) is a fatty acid found naturally in coconut oil and human breast milk. Shown in test tube studies to have antibacterial and antiviral activity, it is commonly used as a surfactant in cosmetics, including deodorants, and as an emulsifier in foods. While it is active against candida[81], one subject has reported that taking two teaspoons of monolaurin daily, for a few weeks, produced no obvious effect on his worms. [82] [83] Another believes that she probably ingested a significant dose of monolaurin by drinking full fat coconut milk daily, but that her hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. and whipwormsA helminth with a tapering whiplike body that lives in the colon. In helminthic therapy, the microscopic eggs of either the human Trichuris trichiura (TTO) or pig Trichuris suis (TSO) are taken in a drink. both survived this. [84] Others have also confirmed that monolaurin is worm-safe. [85] [86]

❓ More antifungals

  • Cellular silver (see Alternative therapies section). The manufacturers of Advanced Cellular Silver (ACS) 200 Extra Strength[87] claim that this product achieves a 99.9989% kill against C. albicans. Although there have been no reports to date of its possible effect on human helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths], its similarity to ➿colloidal silver (see Alternative therapies section) suggest that it may not kill the worms but only cause a temporary reduction of benefits.
  • Lactoferrin (also known as lactotransferrin [LTF]) is found naturally in secretory fluids, such as milk, saliva, tears and nasal secretions. It has antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal and antiparasitic properties, and is effective against candida. It’s antimicrobial properties are enhanced by the peptide, ❓lactoferricin, the anti fungal effects of which exceed those of lactoferrin. However, there have been no reports so far of the possible effect of lactoferricin on helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths].
  • Lavender has antifungal activity and may be of value in treating candida. [88]
  • Propolis (see Nutritional supplements section). Candida has been shown to be susceptible to propolis extract [89], and to red propolis alcoholic extract. [90]

Whilst polygodial has been shown to be effective against single-celled parasites such as protozoa, the only report so far that it might also have an adverse effect on helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] comes from a hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. host who suspects that she killed her colony by taking Kolorex, which contains a mixture of horopito and ⚡aniseed.

  • Sambucus, a form of elderberry, contains ❓ pinoresinol, which has antifungal properties[91]. However, the European elder, ❓ sambucus nigra, also known as European elderberry, European black elderberry, elder, elderberry and black elder, may not contain pinoresinol, so may not be an effective antifungal. There have been no reports as yet about the effect on helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] of any form of elderberry.
  • Undecylenic Acid. This is the common name for 10-Undecenoic Acid, which is used in the Thorne Research product, Formula SF722. It is a potent antifungal mono-unsaturated fatty acid extracted from coconut and the castor bean. It has been shown to be 11 times stronger than caprylic acid, and is also claimed to have antiparasitic properties, although there have been no reports about this from hosts of therapeutic helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths].
  • Curcumin inhibits candida[92], even at low concentrations, but see the main entry below for turmeric/curcumin for further details.
  • Black cumin (nigella sativa). Also known as blackseed, black caraway, fennel-flower, nutmeg flower, Roman coriander, and 'Love in the Mist'. Extracts of this herb have shown antifungal effects[93] against different strains of Candida albicans, but it has also been used as an anthelminthic since ancient times. In India, today, nigella seeds are combined with various purgatives to help kill and expel intestinal parasites.
  • Gymnema sylvestre is effective against candida[94], but hydroalcoholic extracts of this herb have been found to have anthelminthic activity against the Indian earthworm, Pheretima posthuma. [95] Even though the research worm, C. elegans, appears to be unaffected by gymnema[96] and there are genetic similarities[97] between C. elegans and N. americanus, one helminth host suspects that gymnema was responsible for the loss of his hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. colony.
  • Lufenuron is a benzoylurea pesticide used on crops and in veterinary medicine (in flea control, heartworm treatments and other anthelminthic products). Its powerful anti-fungal effects may be due to its ability to inhibit the synthesis of chitin, which is unfortunately an important constituent of the mouthparts of the hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin..

Some herbal antifungal products may adversely affect helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths], especially if they are in a concentrated form, so any herbal medicine that claims to have antifungal properties should be approached with caution.

Some foods are coated with edible films containing antifungal compounds such as ❓natamycin (pimaricin) and ❌ oregano oil (see Oregano leaf reference) but the quantities used in this application are probably insufficient to affect helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths], and there is no evidence[98] to date that natamycin harms intestinal flora.

NB. Prolonged treatment with antifungal drugs can disrupt commensalCommensalism is a relationship between two organisms where one benefits from the other without affecting it. fungal populations and cause an increase in the severity of disease states, as seen in one study[99] in acute and chronic models of colitis and allergic airway disease.

Antihistamines

Piperazine related antihistamines

Popular antihistamines derived from, or closely related to, the anthelminthic drug ❌ piperazine (See the separate entry for piperazine). These include:

  • cetirizine (Zyrtec, Reactine),
  • levocetrizine (Alcet, Allear, Curin, levcet, Seasonix, T-Day Syrup, Teczine, UVNIL, Vozet, Xaltec, Xozal, Xuzal, Xusal, Xyzal, Zilola, Zyxem),
  • phenylephrine,
  • desloratadine (NeoClarityn, Claramax, Clarinex, Larinex, Aerius, Dazit, Azomyr, Deselex and Delot)
  • and possibly ⚡ acrivastine (Semprex-D in the US).

While some people have taken cetirizine, levocetirizine or desloratadine concurrently with helminthic therapyThe reintroduction of a controlled number of carefully selected benign intestinal worms in the form of larvae or eggs to reconstitute a depleted microbiome in order to treat or prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy. - sometimes for very long periods - and had no loss of benefit from their worms (for example [100], [101]), there have been others who have suspected that these drugs have been responsible for adversely affecting or even killing their worms.

Less common antihistamines derived from, or related to piperazine. At the present time, there is no indication whether or not these affect human helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths]. They include:

Antihistamines as marked

  • Chlorphenamine (chlorpheniramine, piriton)
    While we don’t yet have any confirmation of the effect on helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] of this first-generation antihistamine, it has been suggested by someone who has investigated this that it is unlikely to be harmful to worms.
  • Cromoglicic acid (cromolyn, cromoglycate or cromoglicate, sodium cromoglicate [Nalcrom] or cromolyn sodium, plus Gastrocrom and Intercron)
    This is a mast cell stabiliser which prevents the release of histamine from mast cells and is used to treat some allergic conditions. One hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. host has taken 8x100mg capsules of Nalcrom daily for periods of up to 10 days without any adverse effect on her colony. [102]
  • Doxylamine (Dozile, Restavit, Valocordin-Doxylamine and Vomentin)
    One hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. host believes that an unexpected return of gut symptoms and dry skin may have been caused by taking a quarter of a tablet of this first-generation antihistamine every night for a couple of weeks. [103]
  • Ketotifen - This antihistamine and mast cell stabilizer, which has similar effects to cromoglicic acid (see separate listing), is sold under a large variety of trade names[104] that include Allerban, Allergan, Bentifen, Ketasma, Mastifen, Zaditen and Zylofen. In a small in vitro test, one hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. self-treaterSomeone who treats their own disease or condition without medical supervision. found that exposing a sample of Necator americanusThe species of human hookworm used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. larvaeThe active immature form of an insect, or an animal such as a helminth, which develops from an egg and eventually transforms again into its adult state. to Naziden left them “a bit lethargic but alive” [105] and that they were still alive the next day. [106] However, effects in vivo don’t always correspond with those observed in a petri dish, and ketotifen is a piperazine-related substance so it may have an adverse effect on human helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] in vivo in at least some users.
  • Promethazine (Phenergan, Promethegan, Romergan, Fargan, Farganesse, Prothiazine, Avomine, Atosil, Receptozine, Lergigan, and, in the UK, Sominex). This does not appear to kill helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths], especially when administered by intramuscular injection. However, one helminth host has reported that this drug reduced his worm benefits when taken orally.

Benadryl products sold in the UK all contain drugs with anthelminthic potential - either

✅ H2 antagonists are safe

H2 antagonists are a separate class of drugs from proton-pump Inhibitors (see separate section).

The term, “antihistamine” is usually reserved for H1 antagonists whose main therapeutic effect is mediated by negative modulation of histamine receptors, but H2 histamine receptor antagonists can also be considered to be a type of antihistamine. H2 antagonists include

  • ranitidine (Zantac) which works by blocking histamine and thus decreasing the amount of acid released by the cells of the stomach.

Other common H2 antagonists are

Antimalarials

✅ There has been no suggestion so far that any antimalarial medication might harm helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths], including Quinine.

One subject who has taken large quantities of the malaria drug hydroxychloroquine concurrently with HThelminthic therapy, did not observe any adverse effect on his worms.

Antiprotozoals

Metronidazole (Flagyl). This is one of three derivatives of ❌nitroimidazole that is used against anaerobic bacterial and parasitic, as well as protozoan, infections. One hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. host has reported[108] losing her colony to this drug, which should never be combined with mebendazole due a risk that, together, they may cause Stevens-Johnson Syndrome/Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis, something about which many doctors and pharmacists may be unaware, especially in the US.

Antivirals

  • Famciclovir (Famvir) -- One hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. host took Famciclovir (500mg) 3 times per day for many months without any noticeable effect on her colony. [109]
  • Valaciclovir/valacyclovir (Valtrex, Zelitrex) -- This antiviral drug was taken by one worm host for a week without any adverse effect on his hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. or whipwormsA helminth with a tapering whiplike body that lives in the colon. In helminthic therapy, the microscopic eggs of either the human Trichuris trichiura (TTO) or pig Trichuris suis (TSO) are taken in a drink..
  • ❌ Nitazoxanide (See separate entry under Anthelminthics)

Immunosuppressive drugs

✅ Immunosuppressive drugs reported to be safe for use by hosts of human helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] are:

It can be an advantage to be taking one of these drugs in the early stages of helminthic therapyThe reintroduction of a controlled number of carefully selected benign intestinal worms in the form of larvae or eggs to reconstitute a depleted microbiome in order to treat or prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy. because they can reduce, or even prevent, the transient side effects triggered by helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths], and their anti-inflammatory action can also help human helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] to become established. So anyone who is already taking one of these drugs should resist the temptation to stop taking it too soon after starting HThelminthic therapy.

This applies particularly to subjects with Crohn's and other intestinal diseases, who tend to have a very vigorous immune response to helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths]. Suddenly withdrawing a drug that has been keeping this response in check will likely cause a rebound effect that could result in a flare and, potentially, a loss of worms. This is explained in more detail here.

Immunotherapy

Allergen immunotherapy -- In the form of sublingual drops/tablets, subcutaneous injections, and allergy “shots”, this is safe to be used concurrently with helminthic therapyThe reintroduction of a controlled number of carefully selected benign intestinal worms in the form of larvae or eggs to reconstitute a depleted microbiome in order to treat or prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy.. In fact, many who have used the two therapies together have been very pleased with the combined effects.

Laxatives

It is possible to lose hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. to diarrhoea/diarrhea, but only if this is very severe, or severe and prolonged, i.e., lasting for several weeks. (More detail here[110]) People who get diarrhoea/diarrhea as a side effect following their first inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation] with hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. don't lose all their worms as as result of this, and hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. are able to withstand the typical colonoscopy prep.

It would seem logical to assume that hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. might be better able to resist being flushed out after the point at which they attach to the gut wall, which is towards the end of the third week, post inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation].

While adult hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. do move around to feed, and are therefore theoretically more likely to be lost if diarrhoea/ diarrhea strikes while they are on the move, this is unlikely to lead to any significant loss. So, as long as laxatives are taken in the recommended amounts, they should not pose a problem for hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin..

It is unlikely that laxatives would dislodge whipwormsA helminth with a tapering whiplike body that lives in the colon. In helminthic therapy, the microscopic eggs of either the human Trichuris trichiura (TTO) or pig Trichuris suis (TSO) are taken in a drink. once these are mature and embedded in the colonic mucosa, but laxatives could potentially flush them out before this, especially around 21-22 days post inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation]. It may therefore be best to avoid the use of laxatives around this time. After 28 days, they should not be affected at all.

Recreational drugs

❌ Piperazine-based recreational drugs

Piperazine-based recreational drugs are a group of stimulant drugs with similar effects to ecstasy. (See separate entry for details on piperazine) The main piperazine-derivatives that have been used for recreational purposes include

  • BZP (Benzylpiperazine, A2, Frenzy, Nemesis)
  • TFMPP (1-[3-(trifluoro-methyl) phenyl]piperazine)
  • mCPP (meta-chlorophenylpiperazine, 1- [3-Chlorophenyl]-piperazine).

These drugs were frequently mixed with caffeine and a range of vitamins and binders to make party pills that were marketed as “natural” or “herbal” highs, but were actually purely synthetic. Other piperazine-derived designer drugs include:

  • AcBZP (4-Acetyl-1-benzylpiperazine, AceticBenzylPiperazine)
  • MBZP (1-methyl-4-benzylpiperazine)
  • 2C-B-BZP (4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxy-1-benzylpiperazine)
  • DBZP (1,4-Dibenzylpiperazine)
  • MDBZP (3,4 Methylenedioxy-1-benzylpiperazine)

❌ Yaga (Ayahuasca)

It has been opined that anything that enters the bloodstream and disorients a host has a potential to do the same to hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. - since they feed on their host’s blood - and that, if the disorientation is excessive, it may cause the worms to lose their grip on the mucosa and possibly be flushed away from their home base in the small intestine, and be lost. However, the assumption that the worms will become inebriated by anything that inebriates their host has been questioned because the 'nervous system' of helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] is quite different from that of mammals.

There is one recreational drug in particular that might produce this effect and cause the loss of hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin., and this is the South American drug yaga

  • yage (also known as ayahuasca as well as by a number of other names[111])

This psychedelic brew, which is concocted by combining a variety of plant materials, was used as part of S. American native religious rituals and, since being commercialised, has become much more mainstream. Available in Europe and N. America through "churches" set up for its import, this drug causes a deep and immersive hallucinogenic experience during a “trip” lasting 4-8 hours, or 12-18 hours if the subject is re-dosed, which is not uncommon. Ayahuasca can also cause severe diarrhoea.

✅ Safe for worms unless marked

  • Opium, heroin, cannabis/marijuana/hashish, quat, etc., are all commonly and regularly used in areas where helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] are endemic - Africa, S.E. Asia, S. America, etc. If any of these were harmful to helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] they would have been identified as such long ago and would have become a folk remedy for one worm or another. One host of both hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. and whipwormsA helminth with a tapering whiplike body that lives in the colon. In helminthic therapy, the microscopic eggs of either the human Trichuris trichiura (TTO) or pig Trichuris suis (TSO) are taken in a drink. has confirmed the presence of eggs from both species after cannabis use, and another hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. host who used 10 drops of hemp CBD (cannabidiol]) oil twice daily, plus a few drops of THC (tetrahydrocannabinol) oil to help with sleep, has reported that her hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. were unaffected. [117] Someone else used CBD oil for several months and noticed no adverse effect on his hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin., [118] and this lack of any adverse effect has been confirmed by numerous other cannabis users. [119] [120]
  • Cocaine, in its pure, unadulterated state, could be added to this list of worm-safe drugs, but it is commonly adulterated with other substances that might harm helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths], particularly ❌ levamisole.
  • Betel leaves -- The leaves of the Piper betle vine (part of the Piperaceae family, which includes pepper and ⚡kava) are used as a mild stimulant and are thought likely to be safe for human helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths], although there have been no reports from helminth hosts to confirm or contradict this.
  • betel nut (or areca nut) seed of the areca palm (and also known as the areca nut palm, betel palm, Pinang palm and Indian nut) is often chewed wrapped in betel leaves - a combination known as paan that is used for its stimulant and psychoactive effects. Betel nuts contain the anthelminthic arecoline and have been used as a tapewormA helminth with a flat, ribbon-like, segmented body. Only the murine (rat) tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta, is used in helminthic therapy and this generally does not reach adulthood in humans so requires regular dosing of HDC. remedy. Fresh betel nuts are also known to be used very effectively by Torres Straight Islanders as a treatment for all types of intestinal worm, and surveys have found that the betel chewers were almost all worm-free, while others weren't. (Prolonged use of the betel nut can create addiction and the World Health Organization classifies the betel nut as a carcinogen.)

Most other recreational drugs should be safe for use by helminth hosts, including tobacco, nicotine and most forms of alcohol.

  • Alcohol -- Normal social drinking should not have any adverse effect on helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths], but there have been hints[121] that overindulging in alcohol may cause a temporary reduction in worm benefits, although this clearly isn’t the case for everyone and the effect is likely to be dose-dependent. Excessive consumption of alcohol that results in the user going into a coma due to alcohol poisoning may incur a greater risk to helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths].
    • Absinthe is one alcoholic drink that might present more of a risk, as it was traditionally made using herbs reported to have antiparasitic properties, including ❌wormwood. (See separate entry). However, the risk from absinthe has been questioned because it only contains the essential oil of wormwood, while the anthelminthic activity of this herb has been linked more to the bitter principles and the alkaloids, which are not included in absinthe.
  • MDMA (ecstasy) -- As primarily a serotonin and dopamine agonist, this is thought unlikely to have much effect on helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths]. However, serotonin agonism increases peristalsis, so using MDMA may not be a good idea until after the worms have attached to the intestinal mucosa. Once they are attached, the increased peristalsis alone would not dislodge them.
  • DMT (N,N-Dimethyltryptamine or N,N-DMT) is a psychedelic compound with powerful hallucinogenic effects. While this may be safe for use while hosting human helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths], there have been no reports to confirm this, and it is possible that high doses may have an impact on helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths].
  • LSD (Lysergic acid diethylamide) is unlikely to harm helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths], although there have been no reports to confirm this.
  • Myristicin -- This psychoactive drug, which is the traditional precursor for the psychedelic and empathogenic drug MMDA, is found in very small quantities in vegetables, herbs and fruits consumed by humans on a daily basis, e.g., parsley, celery, lemons, figs, carrots, grape juice, Earl grey tea, nutmeg and dill, but this dietary intake is unlikely to be harmful to helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths]. [122]
  • Peyote (Lophophora williamsii) -- This cactus, which contains psychoactive alkaloids, including mescaline, is thought unlikely to harm helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths], but there have been no reports to confirm this.
  • Psilocybin, a substituted tryptamine, is a naturally occurring psychedelic compound produced by more than 200 species of mushroom. Although illegal in most countries/states, psilocybin is used for the self-treatment of cluster headaches, and one hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. host has reported using this compound for two months to treat severe migraines, without noticing any apparent effect on his worms. However, it is possible that higher doses of this hallucinogenic may disorient hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. for long enough to cause their loss.

Miscellaneous pharmaceuticals and chemicals

✅ Safe for worms unless marked otherwise

  • Aciclovir (Cyclovir, Herpex, Acivir, Acivirax, Zovirax, Zoral, Xovir and Imavir). There have been no reported problems with this drug so far. See also the related drug, Valaciclovir/valacyclovir.
  • Baclofen (Kemstro, Lioresal, Liofen, Gablofen, Beklo and Baclosan) is a derivative of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). One host who took 20-30mgs of baclofen daily reported no loss of worm benefits.
  • Barbiturates have now largely been replaced in routine medical practice by ✅ benzodiazepines, but they may still be encountered in general anaesthesia, for epilepsy, and in the treatment of acute migraines. These drugs depress the central nervous system, producing effects ranging from mild sedation to total anaesthesia, so, taken in sufficient quantity, they may disorient hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. sufficiently to cause them to lose their grip on the intestinal mucosa and be flushed away from their feeding site.
  • Benzodiazepines (BZD, benzos). There have been no reports of this type of drug having any adverse effect on helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths]. The short-acting anti-anxiety drug, alprazolam (Xanax), was taken by one hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. host (0.5 mg 3 or 4 times over the course of a month) without any apparent effect on his worms. [123], [124] and the tranquillizer, clonazepam (Klonopin), was found to be worm-safe by another helminth self-treaterSomeone who treats their own disease or condition without medical supervision.. [125] Lorazepam (Ativan) has also been reported to be worm-safe. [126]
  • Bismuth subsalicylate (pink bismuth, the active ingredient in various stomach-settling medications such as Pepto-Bismol and Kaopectate)
    There has been one suggestion that bismuth may have a temporary adverse effect on human helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths], similar to that caused by local anaesthetics/anesthetics, but this has not been confirmed by others. Pepto-Bismol is listed as containing aspirin (acetylsalicylate) or an aspirin-like substance (see ✅ Anticoagulants section regarding this ingredient).
  • Carbamazepine (Tegretol, Equetro). This appears to be worm-safe. One host who took this for two weeks was still producing ample hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. ova at the end of this period.
  • Chlorine. As a constituent of chlorinated water, e.g., municipal water supplies and at swimming baths, this is no threat to helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths].[127].
  • Chlorine dioxide (CDCrohn's disease, also known as regional enteritis, is an inflammatory disease of the intestines that may affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract from mouth to anus, causing a wide variety of symptoms. It primarily causes abdominal pain, diarrhea (which may be bloody if inflammation is at its worst), vomiting, or weight loss, but may also cause complications outside the gastrointestinal tract such as skin rashes, arthritis, inflammation of the eye, tiredness, and lack of concentration., also known as MMS, CDS, CDH) is used as a water purifier and detoxifier. Users of CDCrohn's disease, also known as regional enteritis, is an inflammatory disease of the intestines that may affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract from mouth to anus, causing a wide variety of symptoms. It primarily causes abdominal pain, diarrhea (which may be bloody if inflammation is at its worst), vomiting, or weight loss, but may also cause complications outside the gastrointestinal tract such as skin rashes, arthritis, inflammation of the eye, tiredness, and lack of concentration. claim that it kills parasites, and that "rope worm" is often released during enemas. However medics and parasitologists say these rope-like forms are more likely to be pieces of gut lining, as they contain mostly human DNA. Researcher William Parker mentions CDCrohn's disease, also known as regional enteritis, is an inflammatory disease of the intestines that may affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract from mouth to anus, causing a wide variety of symptoms. It primarily causes abdominal pain, diarrhea (which may be bloody if inflammation is at its worst), vomiting, or weight loss, but may also cause complications outside the gastrointestinal tract such as skin rashes, arthritis, inflammation of the eye, tiredness, and lack of concentration. and parasites in this talk. The appearance of “rope worms” is also reported outside the CDCrohn's disease, also known as regional enteritis, is an inflammatory disease of the intestines that may affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract from mouth to anus, causing a wide variety of symptoms. It primarily causes abdominal pain, diarrhea (which may be bloody if inflammation is at its worst), vomiting, or weight loss, but may also cause complications outside the gastrointestinal tract such as skin rashes, arthritis, inflammation of the eye, tiredness, and lack of concentration. user community.
  • Cortifoam, a hydrocortisone rectal aerosol, uses propane and isobutane as propellants, neither of which is known to have any adverse effect on helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths].
  • COX-2 inhibitors, e.g., celecoxib (Celebrex), are safe for use with helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths].
  • Cromoglicic acid (cromolyn, cromoglycate or cromoglicate, sodium cromoglicate [Nalcrom] or cromolyn sodium)
    is a mast cell stabiliser with anti-allergy effects. One hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. host has taken 8x100mg capsules of Nalcrom daily for periods of up to 10 days without any adverse effect on her colony. [128]
  • Cry5B. This is one of a family of proteins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), a bacterium that has been engineered into food crops such as corn and rice to render them pest resistant, and residues of B. thuringiensisbased insecticides have been found on fresh fruits and vegetables. [129] Cry5B can kill intestinal worms and is used as a natural insecticide on crops on some organic farms. However, it is thought that the risk of therapeutic helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] being killed as a result of their hosts ingesting small amounts of the delta endotoxins produced by Bt is likely to be very low. When used as an insecticide, one of the many Bt strains available is selected for its specific toxicity against the target insect. The strains that produce toxins against nematodesA category of worms with slender, unsegmented, cylindrical bodies that include roundworms and threadworms. are therefore unlikely to be used as agricultural insecticides. In addition to this, the toxins produced need to be ingested by the target organism to become active and, as proteins, they may be denatured by heat during cooking. [130] The probioticMicroorganisms that are believed to provide health benefits when consumed. bacterium, Bacillus subtilis, can also be engineered to express the Cry5B protein, a small dose of which has been shown to kill intestinal nematodeA category of worms with slender, unsegmented, cylindrical bodies that include roundworms and threadworms. parasites, achieving a 93 percent elimination of human hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. in hamsters. [131], [132] Although researchers may be pursuing this development as a means of delivering anthelminthics via foods and food supplements, the strain of Bacillus subtilis currently used in probioticsMicroorganisms that are believed to provide health benefits when consumed. that have been manufactured for human consumption is not known to have been modified in this way, and one hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. host has reported that his worms were unaffected after eating a lot of natto (made using Bacillus subtilis) and taking the Bacillus subtilis-containing probioticMicroorganisms that are believed to provide health benefits when consumed. product, Megasporebiotic. [133]
  • DMPS (Dimercapto-propane sulfonate/2,3-Dimercapto-1-propanesulfonic acid) and its sodium salt, Unithiol. There have been no reports so far about possible anthelminthic effects following the use of this drug, but there do appear to be some serious risks attached to its use.
  • DMSA (Dimercaptosuccinic acid, also called succimer). The meso isomer form of this organosulfur compound is used as a chelating agent for the treatment of heavy metal toxicity. One hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. host has taken 25 mg DMSA every 3 hours around the clock for 5 days, and repeated this every 3 weeks for a year without harming her hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. colony. [134] DMSA is apparently such an effective chelator that it may deplete levels of beneficial minerals, so should arguably be used under the guidance of a practitioner. [135]
  • EDTA (Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid). There are, as yet, no reports from helminth hosts about the possible effects on intestinal worms of this heavy metal chelator.
  • Essential oils. These are also known as volatile oils, ethereal oils, aetherolea, or simply as the "oil of" the plant from which they were extracted. Certain essential oils contain some of the most potent antimicrobial compounds available and can be considered to be natural antibiotics. For example ❌oregano oil (see Oregano leaf reference) and ⚡peppermint oil can affect human helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] if ingested. However when essential oils are diffused into the air using a nebuliser, heated over a candle flame or burned, these should not harm helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths], even when using blends containing oregano or peppermint oil. [136], [137]
  • GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid). It has been reported[138] that the anthelminthic drug, ivermectin, causes paralysis in worms by increasing GABA, and a hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. host has mentioned[139] that she “used to do really well with GABA, but worms don't like it.” On the other hand, a child with Type 1 diabetes was given GABA (750mg x4 per day) alongside hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. therapy without any indication that the worms were affected by this [140], and another hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. host who took 20-30mgs per day of ✅baclofen (a derivative of GABA) reported no loss of worm benefits.
  • Genistein is an isoflavone (phytoestrogen) with antioxidant and anthelminthic properties that has been found to be the main substance responsible for the deworming activity of the root-tuber peel extract of Felmingia vestita, the plant traditionally used as an anthelminthic by the Khasi tribes of India. Genistein is a potent cestocide, being highly effective against several species of tapewormA helminth with a flat, ribbon-like, segmented body. Only the murine (rat) tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta, is used in helminthic therapy and this generally does not reach adulthood in humans so requires regular dosing of HDC., as well as a pork trematode and a sheep liver fluke. Given the strength of its effect against these other helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths], it is reasonable to assume that concentrated or synthesised forms of genistein (such as KBU2046 and B43-genistein) may also harm or even kill therapeutic human helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths], although there is no evidence that eating soy products might be harmful to human helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] as a result of the naturally occurring genistein they contain.
  • Guaifenesin. This oral expectorant and muscle relaxant is sold under various brand names, including Mucinex, and is added to many other medicines. There have been no reports of this drug having any ill effect on helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths], and one hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. host has reported[141] that he regularly takes between 2 and 6 x 400 mg guaifenesin tablets to treat congestion, without any apparent effect on his worms.
  • Helium appears to be worm-safe, based on the experience of one hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. host who deliberately inhaled a small volume of the gas (to enjoy the timbre-changing effect on his voice!) while blowing up balloons, and had no loss of effect from his worm colony.
  • Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). This may kill helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] in a petri dish but it is so highly reactive that, if ingested, there is likely to be little left by the time it reaches the stomach. It is therefore thought to be unlikely to be a problem for helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths], although no one has reported on this, one way or the other, so it may pay to be cautious with H2O2 until there is more certainty.
  • Isotretinoin (13-cis retinoic acid, Roaccutane, Accutane, Amnesteem, Claravis, Absorica, Isotroin and Epuris) is used to treat acne and other skin conditions. Although there have been no reports of harm to helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] as a result of taking this drug, anyone considering its use might appreciate knowing that it has been linked to autoimmune disease, which is of course what many readers of this website are already dealing with. The link is controversial, but this paper[142] sets out the facts.
  • Lactulose. This synthetic, non-digestible sugar used in the treatment of chronic constipation and as a test for small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) has not been reported to have any untoward effects on human helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths].
  • Loperamide (Immodium, Lopex, etc.) This drug has been taken by numerous worm hosts and there have been no reports of it harming their worms.
  • Low dose naltrexone (LDN). This is compatible with helminthic therapyThe reintroduction of a controlled number of carefully selected benign intestinal worms in the form of larvae or eggs to reconstitute a depleted microbiome in order to treat or prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy. and several people have had good results [143] from this combination, although this drug doesn’t suit everyone. [144]
  • Mepacrine (quinacrine [Atabrine]). This is an antiprotozoal drug that has also been used against tapewormsA helminth with a flat, ribbon-like, segmented body. Only the murine (rat) tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta, is used in helminthic therapy and this generally does not reach adulthood in humans so requires regular dosing of HDC., so it could harm hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. and whipwormsA helminth with a tapering whiplike body that lives in the colon. In helminthic therapy, the microscopic eggs of either the human Trichuris trichiura (TTO) or pig Trichuris suis (TSO) are taken in a drink.. No one has so far reported any problem with it, but it's likely that few, if any, helminth hosts will have taken it, especially as, "Mepacrine is not the drug of choice because side effects are common, including toxic psychosis, and may cause permanent damage."
  • Metformin [Glucophage], phenformin, and rosiglitazone [Avandia] are anti-diabetic medications (also known as oral hypoglycemic or antihyperglycemic agents) that have been shown to have antibiotic properties[145], so might therefore have some degree of anthelminthic effect when used in higher doses. However no reports of such an effect have been posted so far by hosts of therapeutic human helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths].
  • Methotrexate. Some people are able to take methotrexate alongside HThelminthic therapy without any problem [146] including one NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus host who combined these two treatments for 1½ years to good effect and was eventually able to get off the methotrexate because the helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] were working so well. [147] However, one individual got no benefit from his worms for over a year, until he stopped taking this drug.
  • Montelukast (Singulair, Montelo-10, Monteflo, Lukotas, Arokast and Pulmikast). This leukotriene receptor antagonist has been taken intermittently, in 10 mg doses, by one hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. hosts with no apparent effect on her colony. [148], [149]
  • Muscle relaxants. Anything that relaxes a worm host has the potential to do the same to his or her human helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths], conceivably affecting the ability of hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. to maintain their grip on the host’s mucosa, and therefore possibly causing their expulsion, although this effect will likely be dose-dependent. Carisoprodol (Soma, Sanoma and Carisoma) was suspected[150] by one worm host of causing the loss of his hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. population, although ✅Guaifenesin appears to be safe. WhipwormsA helminth with a tapering whiplike body that lives in the colon. In helminthic therapy, the microscopic eggs of either the human Trichuris trichiura (TTO) or pig Trichuris suis (TSO) are taken in a drink. may not be as vulnerable as hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin., due to the fact that they do not feed directly from the bloodstream and they anchor themselves in the colonic mucosa.
  • Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS, NSAIAs or NSAIMs) e.g: aspirin, diclofenac (sold under many trade names[151]), ibuprofen and naproxen, are safe for use with helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths], but see Anticoagulants section regarding aspirin.
  • Ozone. Ozone therapy is used as an alternative treatment for various diseases in humans but is still controversial. Ozone is also used to kill microorganisms, in some instances being employed in place of chlorine as a bactericide. It is also used to eradicate water borne parasites such as Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium, and to kill insects in stored grain. So there would appear to be a potential for ozone to have an adverse effect on human helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths], although this may depend on dosage and there have been no reports to date of the use of ozone by helminth hosts, so caution would seem to be warranted until more is known.
  • Paracetamol (acetaminophen. Also sold under names tylenol, panadol, etc). This is safe for use with helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths]
  • Pentobarbital (US), pentobarbitone (UK), e.g., Nembutal, is a short-acting barbiturate that has been used as a sleep aid, as well as to euthanise animals and to execute humans. It’s possible that the dosages used to encourage sleep might not have any deleterious effect on human helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths], but, if this drug were to disorientate hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin., they could lose their grip on the intestinal mucosa and be flushed away. So far, there have been no reports about this drug from any helminth host, although few, if any, will have taken it.
  • Piracetam. This nootropic, cognition- and memory-enhancing drug (Nootropil, Qropi, Myocalm, Dinagen) was suspected as the cause in one case of sudden worm loss.
  • Proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs). These gastric acid inhibiting drugs appear to be safe for use with helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths].
  • Pseudoephedrine is a stimulant nasal decongestant[152] that is sometimes added to antihistamine preparations and other products, including some formulations sold under the Sudafed brand. Pseudoephedrine has not been reported to have any adverse effect on helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths].
  • Radioactive iodine (also known as radioiodine), which is used in the treatment of hyperthyroidism, can adversely affect hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin., at least temporarily. One worm host found that isotope I-128 (used in diagnostics) put her colony out of action for a week or two, and has suggested that isotope I-131 (used to kill thyroid tissue) may have a similar effect.
  • Sildenafil (Viagra). This does not kill hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin.[153].
  • Simethicone. This anti-foaming agent is used in different dosages, and in combination with a variety of other drugs, in a huge number of products, including Gas-X, to reduce bloating and the discomfort caused by excessive gas. Simethicone has been tested directly on pig whipwormA helminth with a tapering whiplike body that lives in the colon. In helminthic therapy, the microscopic eggs of either the human Trichuris trichiura (TTO) or pig Trichuris suis (TSO) are taken in a drink. ova (TSOthe ova (eggs) of the porcine (pig) whipworm, Trichuris suis) and found to have no effect on them, but there have been no reports so far to suggest whether or not it might affect human helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths].
  • Sodium oxybate (Xyrem, Alcover) is the sodium salt of γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), which is unlikely to harm helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] because it’s an endogenous substance found naturally in the human body[154], and one hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin./whipwormA helminth with a tapering whiplike body that lives in the colon. In helminthic therapy, the microscopic eggs of either the human Trichuris trichiura (TTO) or pig Trichuris suis (TSO) are taken in a drink. host has confirmed that it did not affect her worms.[155]
  • Steroid hormones. One host of both hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. and whipwormsA helminth with a tapering whiplike body that lives in the colon. In helminthic therapy, the microscopic eggs of either the human Trichuris trichiura (TTO) or pig Trichuris suis (TSO) are taken in a drink. takes DHEA, progesterone and testosterone with no adverse effect on her worms.
  • Tetanus vaccine. Three helminth hosts have claimed that they may have lost their hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. after a tetanus shot, although others have had tetanus shots without any worm loss, and no problems have been reported with other vaccines.
  • Turpentine. Also known as spirit of turpentine, oil of turpentine, wood turpentine and, colloquially, turps, this is distilled from pine tree resins. If applied topically to the skin - for example as a treatment for lice - it is unlikely to harm helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths]. However, it has been used traditionally as an anthelminthic, so it may be harmful to human helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] if taken internally. It may, however, also be toxic to humans!
  • Vicks First Defence. This cold preventative nasal spray does not contain antiviral chemicals, but forms a microgel that coats the lining of the nose to trap the cold virus and prevent this from reaching, and infecting, the cells within the nose. The microgel also reduces the pH inside the nose, which further helps by making it harder for the cold virus to multiply. It seems unlikely that any of this product’s ingredients[156] would harm helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths], although there have been no reports to confirm this.
  • Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), as found in paints, felt tip markers, etc., are unlikely to harm helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths]. One helminth host who regularly worked with organic solvents (including CH2Cl2 and CHCl3) has reported that his helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] have not been affected.

Medical procedures

✅ Safe for worms unless marked otherwise

  • Colonoscopy
    As whipwormsA helminth with a tapering whiplike body that lives in the colon. In helminthic therapy, the microscopic eggs of either the human Trichuris trichiura (TTO) or pig Trichuris suis (TSO) are taken in a drink. live in the colon, they may be at some risk of being struck by a colonoscope, but much of their body is embedded in the soft mucosa, and they are well lubricated with mucus, so few, if any, are likely to be damaged. HookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. should not be affected by colonoscopy at all because they live in the small intestine, which is much higher up the GIGastroenterology is the branch of medicine concerned with disorders of the digestive system which includes all the organs of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract (alimentary canal) from mouth to anus. Physicians practicing in this field of medicine are called gastroenterologists or GI specialists. tract. HookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. might possibly be seen during a colonoscopy, but only if the colonoscope is advanced into the terminal ileum, and only then if any hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. have taken up residence in the ileum, which is not common as they normally concentrate in the upper part of the jejunum, which is above the ileum, and is shown in red in this representation.

    mouth ➤ oesophagus ➤ stomach ➤ duodenumjejunumileumcaecum ➤ colon ➤ rectum

    Anaesthesia for colonoscopy is likely to involve the use of opioid pain killers (fentanyl, etc.), benzodiazepine anaesthetics (Versed, etc.) and/or narcotic analgesics, all of which appear to be harmless to helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths].
  • Colonic Hydrotherapy
    This will not harm hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. and is unlikely to harm whipwormsA helminth with a tapering whiplike body that lives in the colon. In helminthic therapy, the microscopic eggs of either the human Trichuris trichiura (TTO) or pig Trichuris suis (TSO) are taken in a drink. unless the fluid used contains something to which the whipwormsA helminth with a tapering whiplike body that lives in the colon. In helminthic therapy, the microscopic eggs of either the human Trichuris trichiura (TTO) or pig Trichuris suis (TSO) are taken in a drink. are vulnerable.
  • Enemas
    These will not affect hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. at all, and the liquid used is unlikely to have any adverse effect on whipwormsA helminth with a tapering whiplike body that lives in the colon. In helminthic therapy, the microscopic eggs of either the human Trichuris trichiura (TTO) or pig Trichuris suis (TSO) are taken in a drink. unless this contains something to which they are susceptible.
  • Endoscopy
    A standard upper endoscopyExamination using an endoscope - an instrument used to view the interior of a hollow organ or cavity within the body. (via the mouth) will not reach past the duodenum, and probably only as far as the second of the four parts of this section of the small intestine. It would therefore not harm hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. or even allow a doctor to see the jejunum, which is the predominant location of hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. by 20 weeks post-inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation], shown in red in this representation.

    mouth ➤ oesophagus ➤ stomach ➤ duodenumjejunumileumcaecum ➤ colon ➤ rectum

    See also the anaesthesia section (anaesthesia for endoscopyExamination using an endoscope - an instrument used to view the interior of a hollow organ or cavity within the body.).
  • Magnetic resonance imaging An MRI is unlikely to harm helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths], but it can cause a temporary adverse reaction in the patient which may overshadow the benefits being provided by their helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths]. [158] The gadolinium-based contrast agents used for MRI may also have adverse effects on the patient. [159]
  • Radiation therapy (also known as radiotherapy, and abbreviated as RT, RTx, or XRT) is a treatment for cancer that used ionizing radiation. It had been thought unlikely that this would harm helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] [160] but one hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. host appears to have lost her colony after radiotherapy for breast cancer. [161]
  • Radiology
    Radiological procedures (e.g., radiography using X-rays) and the contrast materials used in these (e.g., barium and gadolinium) have been found to be safe by several hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. users. [162], [163]

Alternative therapies

Alternative antibiotics

  • Cellular silver. The manufacturers of Advanced Cellular Silver (ACS) 200 Extra Strength claim that it is “...effective against an enormous array of disease causing organisms; literally oxidizing the cell wall of gram positive and gram negative bacteria, spirochetes, virus, fungus, parasites and more without harming healthy flora or damaging human tissue”. Research[164] shows that this form of silver may be more effective than ➿colloidal silver (see local reference below), but, so far, there have been no reports from helminth hosts to suggest what effect, if any, it might have on human helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths].
  • Colloidal silver. Some sources have claimed that, if taken orally, this may kill parasite eggs and possibly harm adult worms, but many helminth hosts have taken colloidal silver and there have been no reports of worms being lost as a result. Colloidal silver appears to be the most worm-friendly of the more effective natural antimicrobials. Although it can reduce helminthic benefits in a dose-dependent manner while it is being taken, the benefits soon return after its use is discontinued - usually in a matter of days. (Use of this Silver Safety Auto-calculator will ensure that total silver intake remains at a safe level.)
  • Grapefruit seed extract (GSE). Also known as citrus seed extract and grapefruit seed oil, and often labelled as citrus seed oil. It is used in herbalism and natural therapies as an antibiotic and preservative, and is claimed to be a powerful broad spectrum bactericide, fungicide and antiviral that is effective against a large number of single-celled and multi-celled parasites. However, research has shown that many “natural” GSE products are adulterated with undeclared synthetic chemicals, commercially available preservatives and disinfectants, such as triclosan and benzethonium chloride. Some versions of GSE may not contain any authentic grapefruit seed extracts whatsoever, such that its sale may well be one of the most insidious herbal product scams ever. Even if genuinely pure, natural GSE could be found - which, given the evidence, seems doubtful - there may be little point in taking it as an antimicrobial because pure GSE has been shown to have no intrinsic antimicrobial action. And, as the makeup of proprietary GSE products varies so widely, these can not be recommended for worm hosts due to the possibility that one or more of the undeclared ingredients may harm human helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths]. (NB. The flesh of grapefruit will not harm helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths].)

Ayurvedic remedies [165]

The following ayurvedic remedies are used, in combination, to treat pinworms, so may also have an adverse effect on other helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths]:

  • Triphala. This is an Ayurvedic herbal formula combining three myrobalans: Amalaki (Emblica officinalis), Bibhitaki (Terminalia bellirica/Terminalia bellerica), and Haritaki (Terminalia chebula). The latter two of these are reported to be anthelminthic, but they also have laxative properties, and this latter characteristic, rather than actual wormkilling ability, may be the source of any ‘anthelminthic’ effects.

Chinese herbal medicines [166]

❌ Anthelminthic Chinese herbs

  • Bing Lang (Semen arecae). Used against roundworms and flukes.
  • Chuan Lian Gen Pi (Cortex meliae radicis). Used against roundworms.
  • Da Huang (Radix et rhizoma rhei). Used in combination remedies to treat flukes.
  • Guan Zhong (Rhizoma dryopteris crassirhizomae). Used in combination remedies to treat hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin..
  • Ku Lian Gen Pi (Cortex meliae radicis). Used to treat pinworms, and in combination remedies to treat hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin..
  • Lei Wan (Sclerotium omphaliae). Used specifically to treat hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin..
  • Qian Niu Zi (Semen pharbitidis). Used in combination remedies to treat flukes.
  • Qu Hui Wan (Dispel Roundworms Pill). Used against roundworms.
  • Shi Jun Zi (Fructus quisqualis). Used against pinworms.
  • Tu Jing Jie (Herba chenopodii ambrosioidis). Used in combination remedies to treat hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin..
  • Wu Mei Wan (Mume Pill). Used against roundworms.
  • Zi Su Ye (Folium perillae). Used in combination remedies to treat hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin..

Homeopathic remedies

❌ Antiparasitic homeopathic remedies [167]

  • Cina (a homeopathically potentised form of Eurasian wormwood - Artemisia cina)
  • Cuprum oxidatum nigrum
  • Indigoz
  • Podophyllum
  • Sabadilla
  • Santoninum
  • Spigelia
  • Stanum
  • Teucrium marum

Foods, supplements, spices and herbs

There are lists on the internet claiming that common foods and spices such as pumpkin seeds, turmeric, and even carrots, will kill helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths],

but normal dietary amounts of most unprocessed foods, spices and herbs, will not harm helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths]. 

For example, carrots and sweet potatoes are both claimed to be 'antiparasitic' in some online lists, but one individual who eats 400 g (14 oz) of one or other of these vegetables every day, is still able to maintain a thriving hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. colony, and there are others who have eaten far more than this without harming their worms. There are several further reports confirming the safety of dietary amounts of foods and spices here [168], [169], [170], [171].

The only problem that is likely to arise with foods, spices or herbs is when these, and particularly herbs, are artificially concentrated or processed to create extracts or tinctures. Any herbal medicine that claims to have antiparasitic, or even antibacterial or antifungal properties may present a potential risk to human helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] and should therefore be approached with caution. The ultimate potency of these substances will depend on a number of factors, including, in the case of plants, the part used, the method of extraction, the extent of concentration and/or processing, and dosage.

The effect of such substances also appears to vary between individuals, probably due to differences in the strength of their immune response to helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths], and some people, particularly those who have more difficulty holding on to a viable helminth colony and therefore need more frequent top-ups (especially a subset of patients with IBDInflammatory bowel disease is a group of conditions affecting the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, particularly the colon and small intestine. The major types of IBD are Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis (UC). or coeliac disease, and some with allergies) may find that ingesting certain substances that have no effect on the worms of other hosts may tip the balance in their case and cause a temporary dip in worm benefits, or even a loss of worms. For example, one helminth host has reported taking peppermint oil continuously without any apparent adverse effect on his worms, yet another individual could not keep a worm colony at all while taking peppermint oil.

In the case of some foods and herbs, a single part of the plant, usually a part that is not normally eaten - perhaps the bark or root - may have antiparasitic properties, while other parts of the same plant may be perfectly safe to eat. For example, the seeds of pomegranates are safe to eat, while the bark of the stems of this plant contains an anthelminthic compound, and the bark of the root contains an even more potent form of this alkaloid, which is used to treat roundworms, pinworms and tapewormsA helminth with a flat, ribbon-like, segmented body. Only the murine (rat) tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta, is used in helminthic therapy and this generally does not reach adulthood in humans so requires regular dosing of HDC..

So, while bearing in mind the general principles set out in the Introduction and the last few paragraphs above, and using the details in the list below, helminth hosts need to observe their own responses and learn what they, as individuals, can and cannot safely consume while hosting helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths].

There will often be a warning indication whenever one's worms are not happy. This may be a general loss of wellbeing, or a return of specific symptoms. For example, one person always gets a marked increase in nasal congestion if something compromises the health of his worms.

Foods

✅ Food items are considered safe unless marked otherwise

  • Bitter melon (momordica charantia). This cucumber-shaped vegetable found in Asian markets is also known as karela, ampalaya and bitter gourd. Both fruit and seeds have been and still are used in a number of countries to treat pinwormRefers to Enterobius vermicularis in the US, and to Strongyloides stercoralis in the UK. infections, and for expelling parasites generally. However, the quantities quoted as being necessary in order to eradicate worms are rather large, for example two whole melons each day for seven to ten days, repeated after two months. It is therefore unlikely that normal dietary amounts of bitter melon will adversely affect helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths].
  • Carrot (Daucus carota, subsp. sativus). The taproot of the carrot is rich in beta carotene, a precursor for vitamin A, which has been claimed to increase resistance to penetration by larvaeThe active immature form of an insect, or an animal such as a helminth, which develops from an egg and eventually transforms again into its adult state.. Carrots have also been claimed to be offensive to all parasites and valuable in the elimination of threadworms, but normal dietary amounts are not harmful to therapeutic helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths], and many helminth hosts have regularly eaten significant quantities of this vegetable (e.g., up to 1kg daily [172]) without adversely affecting their worms.
  • Chicory (Cichorium intybus). This is well known for its toxicity to intestinal parasites, and studies have indicated that ingestion of chicory by farm animals results in reduced worm burdens. This plant contains volatile oils similar to those found in plants in the related genus Tanacetum, which includes ❌Tansy, and is said to be similarly effective in eliminating intestinal worms, but eating dietary quantities of chicory has not been reported to adversely affect human helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths].
  • Citron (Citrus medica). Alcoholic extracts of the rind of citron have shown ‘moderate’ anthelmintic activity against the human roundworm, AscarisA species of helminth that is unsuitable for helminthic therapy, e.g., [[Ascaris lumbricoides | Ascaris lumbricoides]]. lumbricoides, in test tube studies. These extracts may therefore also have an adverse effect on other helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths], though there is no evidence that eating normal dietary amounts of the flesh of this fruit might harm human helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths].
  • Coconut. Coconut products contain medium-chain-triglycerides (MCT), some of which have been shown to be effective against many parasites including giardia, other protozoa, and also tapewormsA helminth with a flat, ribbon-like, segmented body. Only the murine (rat) tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta, is used in helminthic therapy and this generally does not reach adulthood in humans so requires regular dosing of HDC.. The fats in coconut oil are 40% lauric acid, the MCT most well-known for its antibacterial, antimicrobial and antiviral properties. [173], although fractionated coconut oil contains primarily caprylic and capric acids. [174]
    In the case of dried or ground coconut flesh, only a very large quantity will harm therapeutic helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths]. For example, eating an entire cake baked with coconut flour brought a return of disease symptoms for one hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. host. [175]
    Most helminth hosts find that they can eat normal dietary amounts of coconut products without adversely affecting their worms, as can be seen here: [176], [177], [178], [179], [180], [181], [182]. Nevertheless, coconut products do have a potential to affect helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] in some individuals, especially coconut oil and coconut milk, and the effect is dose-dependent. For example, one hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. host who checks the egg output of his worms has reported that they twice produced zero eggs for a period after he drank coconut milk. Another hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. host gets increased pain a few hours after ingesting coconut milk or powder. [183]
    Someone else found that, while consuming 200 mg of coconut milk caused a temporary return of mild symptoms of his disease, he regularly eats coconut oil without any obvious problem, but another hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. host has reported a return of symptoms for 3 weeks after eating a cake made with 55g of coconut oil. [184] A hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. grower has found that, while his colony continues to thrive and produce eggs when he takes 3 tablespoons of coconut oil each day [185] about ⅓ of the larvaeThe active immature form of an insect, or an animal such as a helminth, which develops from an egg and eventually transforms again into its adult state. he incubates while consuming this amount will be dead and the rest “less energetic”, so he normally restricts himself to 2 tablespoons per day.
    Coconut water may also adversely affect a hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. colony, as one host found after drinking 1 litre of coconut water, [186]
    One hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. host finds that all coconut products have an adverse effect [187] and another says that, if she eats any amount of coconut, the loss of benefits begins the next day and lasts for around three weeks. [188]
    However, coconut sugar should not carry the same degree of risk because, whereas coconut milk, oil and flour are all obtained from the flesh of mature coconuts, and coconut water is also from inside the fleshy part of the coconut, coconut sugar comes from the sap of coconut palm flower buds and consists largely of sugars.
  • Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon). This is claimed by some sources to contain antiparasitic enzymes, and cranberry powder is sometimes included in proprietary antiparasitic formulations, although evidence for its effectiveness in this context is lacking. Cranberry juice was used traditionally to treat urinary tract infections (UTIs), but it works by changing the bacteria in ways that prevent bacterial adhesion rather than killing them. While drinking 15 fl oz of cranberry juice per day is claimed to help arrest a mild urinary infection, cranberry powder capsules are more effective, and D-mannose, a cranberry derivative, is even more effective than the powder.
  • Dietary fibre (fiber). Some sources claim that eating a lot of fibre may reduce the number of intestinal worms, but fibre consumed as an integral part of a normal diet has not been reported to be a problem for human helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths].
  • Genetically modified foods (GMOs). Some food crops, such as corn and rice, have been genetically modified to produce ❌Cry5B, a protein that can kill intestinal worms, including the human hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin.. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), the bacterium that produces Cry5B, is also applied as a natural insecticide on crops on some organic farms, but there is no indication yet that GM foods are a potential threat to human helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths].
  • Grapefruit (citrus paradisi). The flesh of the common grapefruit is perfectly safe to eat while hosting helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths], although ⚡grapefruit seed extract does have a potential to harm helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] due to the typical addition of synthetic adulterants. Also potentially harmful are some extracts of the rind of ❌Citrus decumana, a close relative of the grapefruit.
  • Honey. Honey can contain antivirals[189] and powerful antimicrobials[190], some of which can have effects comparable with those of antibiotics such as clarithromycin, and certain types of honey have particularly potent antimicrobial activity. Several people have suspected that Manuka honey (which inhibits dental plaque as effectively as chlorhexidine mouthwash[191]) has adversely affected their worms, while others have reported that raw honey reduces the benefits from their worms, for example causing increased pain several hours after ingestion, [192] and research[193] reported in 2014 may explain why raw honey might have this effect. However, one hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. host, who regularly takes a manuka honey/apple cider vinegar combination, has not noticed any loss of benefits, and another two have reported no apparent adverse effect on their worms after consuming raw honey. [194] Regular honey appears to be generally worm-safe. [195]
  • Lime (Citrus acida). While alcoholic extracts of the rind of limes have shown ‘moderate’ anthelmintic activity against the human roundworm, AscarisA species of helminth that is unsuitable for helminthic therapy, e.g., [[Ascaris lumbricoides | Ascaris lumbricoides]]. lumbricoides, in test tube studies[196], and extracts of the rind may have an adverse effect on other helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths], there is no reason to believe that eating the flesh of limes will harm human helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths].
  • Medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) are extracted from ⚡coconut oil, amongst other things, and can be divided into four groups: 1. caproic acid, 2. caprylic acid, 3. capric acid and 4. lauric acid. [197] Of these, lauric acid is the most well-known for its antibacterial, antimicrobial and antiviral properties [198] which may explain why coconut oil (which is 40-50% lauric acid) appears more likely to affect human helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] than products containing a mixture of all four types of MCT, such as the milk of cows, sheep and goats, the fatty acids in which contain 10-20% mixed MCTs.
  • Onion (Allium cepa). This is used as an ingredient in some proprietary deworming formulations and has been claimed to create an 'uninhabitable environment' for intestinal worms and to help eradicate tapewormsA helminth with a flat, ribbon-like, segmented body. Only the murine (rat) tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta, is used in helminthic therapy and this generally does not reach adulthood in humans so requires regular dosing of HDC. in particular. However, if eaten in normal dietary quantities, onion should not harm therapeutic human helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths].
  • Organic foods. While these are less likely to be contaminated with chemicals, some organic farmers apply Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) to their crops as a natural insecticide. This bacterium produces ❌Cry5B, a protein that can kill intestinal worms, including human hookworms. However many hosts of human helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] have eaten organic foods without them affecting their worms.

  • Papaya (Carica papaya, also known as or papaw, pawpaw or paw paw). The fruit and leaves contain both antiseptic and antiparasitic compounds, including one called carpaine, which is claimed to kill and expel intestinal worms. Papaya latex has been shown to be an effective anthelminthic against a variety of nematodeA category of worms with slender, unsegmented, cylindrical bodies that include roundworms and threadworms. parasites. However, it is unlikely that eating normal dietary amounts of the flesh of the fruit will adversely affect human helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] and, when someone who grows his own hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. added a large amount of papaya - comparable to a human eating 2 or 3 pawpaws - to a petri dish full of larvaeThe active immature form of an insect, or an animal such as a helminth, which develops from an egg and eventually transforms again into its adult state., these were unaffected. However, ⚡Papaya seeds are also rich in caricin which is reportedly effective in expelling roundworms, and a randomized, placebo-controlled study[199] concluded that air-dried papaya seeds are effective against various types of human intestinal parasites.
  • Pomegranate (Punica granatum). The flesh and seeds of the pomegranate have not been reported to harm human helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths]. However, the rind of the fruit, and the bark of both the root and stems of the pomegranate tree contain an anthelmintic alkaloid, punicine, which is used to treat roundworms and pinworms and is said to be highly toxic to tapewormsA helminth with a flat, ribbon-like, segmented body. Only the murine (rat) tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta, is used in helminthic therapy and this generally does not reach adulthood in humans so requires regular dosing of HDC.. One hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. host has reported losing benefits after accidentally consuming a small amount of pomegranate extract. [200]Pomegranate extracts should therefore be avoided.
  • Pumpkin (Cucurbita species). This is also referred to as squash or gourd, depending on species, variety and local parlance. Pumpkin seeds contain an antiparasitic compound called curcurbitacin and they were used traditionally as a remedy for tapewormsA helminth with a flat, ribbon-like, segmented body. Only the murine (rat) tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta, is used in helminthic therapy and this generally does not reach adulthood in humans so requires regular dosing of HDC. and roundworms. However, their effect is likely to be dose-dependent, and large amounts are recommend by herbalists for deworming, e,g., up to 25 ounces for adults. One worm host has reported that eating moderate amounts of pumpkin seeds has not adversely affected her hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin., and eating the flesh of the pumpkin/squash/gourd is unlikely to have any adverse effect on any human helminthAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths].
  • Radish (Raphanus sativus). This has been used as an alternative treatment for intestinal parasites, and is included as an ingredient in some proprietary deworming formulations, but it is unlikely to have any adverse effect on human helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] if eaten as part of a normal diet.
  • Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas). Like the carrot, this root vegetable is rich in beta carotene, a precursor for vitamin A, which it has been claimed can increase resistance to penetration by larvaeThe active immature form of an insect, or an animal such as a helminth, which develops from an egg and eventually transforms again into its adult state.. However, numerous hosts of human helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] regularly eat significant amounts of sweet potato (e.g., up to 1kg daily [201]) without any adverse effect on their worms.
  • Walnut, English (Juglans regia). Also known as the Persian, common, California, or Carpathian walnut. This does not appear to have gained a reputation as an anthelminthic, unlike the ⚡black walnut.
  • Xylitol. One hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. host has reported[202] that he takes xylitol daily in place of sugar and has not noticed any effect on his colony.
  • Yam (Dioscorea). Like carrot and sweet potato, the yam is rich in beta carotene, a precursor for vitamin A which is thought to increase resistance to penetration by larvaeThe active immature form of an insect, or an animal such as a helminth, which develops from an egg and eventually transforms again into its adult state.. However, numerous hosts of human helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] regularly eat this vegetable without adversely affecting their worms.

Nutritional supplements

✅ Supplements safe for helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths], unless marked otherwise

  • 5-HTP (5-Hydroxytryptophan, also known as oxitriptan and marketed under trade names such as Cincofarm, Levothym, Levotonine, Oxyfan, Telesol, Tript-OH and Triptum) This is used as an antidepressant, appetite suppressant and sleep aid. One hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. host has reported[203] taking 5-HTP without any adverse effect on her worms.
  • Acetylcysteine (also known as N-acetylcysteine, N-acetyl-L-cysteine and NAC). One hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. host has reported[204] taking this from time to time without causing any problem for his colony.
  • Activated charcoal (also known as activated carbon). There has been one confirmation that charcoal doesn’t harm hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. [205], and another report that taking it didn't cause any return of symptoms in a Crohn’s patient. [206]
  • Alpha lipoic acid (ALA), also known as Lipoic acid (LA), α-lipoic acid and thioctic acid. This organosulphur compound is made naturally in animals, where it is essential for aerobic metabolism. Because of its antioxidant properties, it is also sold as a dietary supplement and is available in some countries as a pharmaceutical drug. One host of both hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. and human whipwormsA helminth with a tapering whiplike body that lives in the colon. In helminthic therapy, the microscopic eggs of either the human Trichuris trichiura (TTO) or pig Trichuris suis (TSO) are taken in a drink. has taken between 300 and 600 mg of alpha lipoic acid per day without any harm befalling their worms.
  • Amine oxidase (also known as diamine oxidase, DAO and histaminase). This enzyme, which is involved in the metabolism of histamine, is produced by the body and found in high concentrations in the digestive tract and placenta. It has therefore been suggested[207] that it is unlikely to be harmful to helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths], although there are not yet any reports to confirm this.
  • Atrantil contains three active botanicals: M. balsamea Willd (peppermint) leaf extract, quebracho extract and conker tree extract. While ⚡peppermint oil has proved to be a problem for some hosts of human helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] (see peppermint reference), it is possible that the leaf extract may be worm-safe. However, quebracho extract has been shown to effectively reduce worm burdens in sheep. [208]
  • Bee pollen. One hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. host has reported[209] that eating small amounts of this has had no obvious adverse effect on this worms.
  • beta-Sitosterol has demonstrated anthelminthic effects [210] and two hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. hosts have reported a return of their disease symptoms after taking beta-Sitosterol. [211], [212]
  • Betaine hydrochloride. One hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. host has reported using betaine HCL without noticing any loss of benefits from her worms. [213], [214]
  • Borax. One hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. host has reported taking 1/2 teaspoon borax per day for 6-7 weeks without harming his colony. [215] [216]
  • Chlorella. One hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. host took ½ teaspoon of this single-cell green algae daily for a year without any obvious effect on her worms. [217]
  • Chlorophyllin. This semi-synthetic derivative of chlorophyll is used as a food colouring agent (e.g., E number E141) and as a treatment aimed at reducing various bodily odours, but its suitability for use by helminth hosts has been questioned because of its apparent ability to kill mosquito larvae and other small animals at low concentrations, although this effect appears to be dependent on the presence of sunlight. (Also see Chlorophyll.)
  • Chondroitin Sulfate. In an animal study, chondroitin sulfate was shown to prevent threadworms from establishing in the digestive system, but one NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus host has taken 900 mg daily for several years without any adverse effect on his worms.
  • Colostrum. A hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. host has taken this without any adverse effect on her colony. [218]
  • D-mannose. This naturally occurring simple sugar is the ingredient in cranberries that makes their juice effective against urinary tract infections. Pure D-mannose is 10-50 times stronger than cranberry juice, making it more suitable for stubborn cases of UTI, and it reportedly resolves more than 90% of all UTIs within 1-2 days. [219], [220]
    Taking steps to make the urine less acidic (e.g., by taking Tums[221]) might make cranberry-based treatments even more effective. D-mannose is non-toxic, produces no adverse effects and, while there have been no reports to confirm it’s lack of adverse effects on human helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths], it is unlikely to do them any harm.
  • Digestive enzymes, such as papain and bromelain, are said to make the intestinal tract inhospitable to parasites by dissolving their outer layers. In particular, papain - the milky juice of the unripe papaya - is claimed to be a powerful agent for destroying roundworms. One subject has reported a return of symptoms after taking a product containing bromelain, protease, papain, lipase and amylase for several weeks, and another individual has reported losing their entire hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. colony after taking Healthy Origins Broad Spectrum Digestive Enzymes[222], which contain amylase, protease, peptidase, alpha-galactosidase, glucoamylase, acid maltase, cellulase, pectinase, protease, lipase, lactase, beta-glucanase, invertase and hemicellulase. [223], [224] However, several other helminth hosts have taken digestive enzymes, including Terranova's quercetin nettle complex which contains bromelain, without any obvious effect on their worms [225] and one of these has regularly taken pancreatin-based products from different manufacturers, mostly from Pure Encapsulations, but also a lipase product by Integrative Therapeutics. [226] Another hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. host who regularly takes digestive enzymes with his meals has never noticed any adverse effect on his colony. He generally avoids papain and bromelain, but regularly takes pancreatin, lipase, Acid Ease, and occasionally Udo's Choice enzymes, selecting them according to the size and contents of each meal. Udo's Choice brand does contain some bromelain, but only a small amount. [227] See also ✅Papaya.
  • Folic Acid has been claimed to help prevent the proliferation of intestinal parasites at a dosage of 400 - 800 mcg (0.4 - 0.8 mg) per day. However, this is not a problem for human helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] because they do not proliferate within their hosts, and there have been no reports of adverse effects from hosts of human worms. One subject has taken a daily vitamin B-complex supplement containing 400 mcg of folic acid without any apparent effect on his hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin., and another has taken 800 mcg of folate (as calcium L-5 methyltetrahydrofolate) every day for over 4 years with no adverse effect on his hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin..
  • FOS (fructooligosaccharide) is said to inhibit parasites from attaching to the intestines but no helminth host has reported any problem with this so far.
  • Fulvic acid. This is a form of humic acid. Two hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. hosts have taken this without any apparent adverse effect on their colonies. [228], [229]
  • Glutathione. One hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. host who takes liposomal glutathione, says he’s confident that this does not harm his worms. [230]
  • Lumbricus Tonic. This Nutricology product, which contains a powdered earthworm extract, also contains ⚡sweet flag root extract. However, this herb is last on the list of ingredients, and there have been no reports by hosts of therapeutic helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] to suggest that the product might be a problem for worms.
  • Melatonin. This hormone, which is commonly used as a sleep aid, has been taken by many helminth hosts, none of whom have reported any adverse effects on their worm colonies.
  • Modified citrus pectin (also known as citrus pectin, Pecta-Sol and MCP) is a complex carbohydrate extracted from citrus fruits using a chemical extraction process that makes it soluble, absorbable and more digestible. This is unlikely to have any effect on helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths].
  • Moringa (Moringa oleifera, also known as drumstick tree, horseradish tree, ben oil tree and benzoil tree) Although described as a “natural anthelmintic”, moringa has been taken by two helminth self-treaters with no apparent adverse effect on their hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin.. The first takes a 500 mg capsule of 10 to 1 extract (from 5000 mg of Moringa olifeira) twice a week, [231] while the second grows and harvests her own moringa. [232] Whatever anthelminthic properties moringa might have may depend on the part of the plant used.
  • MSM (Methylsulfonylmethane) is claimed by one source to be effective against many types of intestinal worm including Enterobius (pinwormRefers to Enterobius vermicularis in the US, and to Strongyloides stercoralis in the UK. [US], threadwormRefers to Strongyloides stercoralis in the US, and to Enterobius vermicularis in the UK. [UK]) and the roundworm, ascaris. It is suggested that MSM blocks the interface between the parasite and the host by competing with the parasite for binding sites at the surface of the mucous membrane, and that the parasites may find the resulting MSM 'film' impenetrable. However, it may be necessary to take 10,000 mg of MSM per day for three or four weeks to achieve this effect and one helminth host has reported that he has occasionally taken up to 1 heaped tablespoon of MSM while hosting helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] to treat eczema flare-ups, and has not noticed any loss of worm benefits.
  • Oryzin (Aspergillus alkaline proteinase, aspergillopeptidase B, API 21, aspergillopepsin B, aspergillopepsin F, Aspergillus candidus alkaline proteinase, Aspergillus flavus alkaline proteinase, Aspergillus melleus semi-alkaline proteinase, Aspergillus oryzae alkaline proteinase, Aspergillus parasiticus alkaline proteinase, Aspergillus serine proteinase, Aspergillus sydowi alkaline proteinase, Aspergillus soya alkaline proteinase, Aspergillus melleus alkaline proteinase, Aspergillus sulphureus alkaline proteinase, prozyme, P 5380, kyorinase, seaprose S, semialkaline protease, sumizyme MP, prozyme 10, onoprose, onoprose SA, protease P, promelase.) There have been no reports as yet about the possible effects on human helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] of taking this mould/mold-derived proteinase.
  • Probiotics. It has been claimed that some probioticsMicroorganisms that are believed to provide health benefits when consumed. can have an adverse effect on certain therapeutic helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths], particularly the rat tapewormA helminth with a flat, ribbon-like, segmented body. Only the murine (rat) tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta, is used in helminthic therapy and this generally does not reach adulthood in humans so requires regular dosing of HDC., Hymenolepis diminutaA murine (rat) tapeworm used in helminthic therapy that generally does not mature in humans and is taken as cysticerci (HDC) in a drink every 2 or 3 weeks. (HDCthe cysticercoids (larval cysts) of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta). It is also known that some bacteria are capable of mobilizing nematodeA category of worms with slender, unsegmented, cylindrical bodies that include roundworms and threadworms.-trapping fungi [233], that a number of probioticsMicroorganisms that are believed to provide health benefits when consumed. - predominantly Lactobacillus species - can have strain-specific effects on certain “parasites”, most of which are not helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] [234], and that Saccharomyces boulardii can have a protective effect against the dog roundworm, Toxocara canis. [235] However, there is no hard evidence at the present time to suggest that probioticsMicroorganisms that are believed to provide health benefits when consumed. are harmful to any of the species of worm that are used in helminthic therapyThe reintroduction of a controlled number of carefully selected benign intestinal worms in the form of larvae or eggs to reconstitute a depleted microbiome in order to treat or prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy.. A leading helminth researcher who is working with HDCthe cysticercoids (larval cysts) of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta said, in 2016, that probioticsMicroorganisms that are believed to provide health benefits when consumed. may produce some tightening up of the communication between the lumen of the gut and the periphery, but that this is probably simply a matter of the probioticsMicroorganisms that are believed to provide health benefits when consumed. reducing the ability of the immune system to respond to, or perhaps to sense, what is taking place in the gut. This scientist added that, firstly, even if this does happen, it may be a temporary phenomenon and, secondly, that this is all mere speculation at the present time and no basis to advise avoidance of probioticsMicroorganisms that are believed to provide health benefits when consumed. while using any helminthAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths]. Additionally, there are many hosts of the human helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths], NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus and TTOthe ova (eggs) of the human whipworm, Trichuris trichiura, who take probioticsMicroorganisms that are believed to provide health benefits when consumed. regularly, yet there have been no reports by any of them that their worms have been adversely affected.
  • Propolis. An apitherapist speaking at the 2010 International BTeR Conference on Biotherapy spoke about the antiparasitic properties of this bee product, and suggested that it might harm helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths]. This may have been a creative extrapolation from the belief that the role of propolis is to prevent diseases and “parasites” from entering the bee hive, and there has been no suggestion yet from helminth hosts that propolis might be a problem for human helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths].
  • Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) This enzyme cofactor has been taken by several hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. hosts without issue. [236] [237]
  • Resveratrol. This may have an adverse effect against some helminths, but this is likely to depend on dose size, and three helminth hosts who regularly take this compound report no adverse effect on their worms. (People with MSMultiple sclerosis (also known as disseminated sclerosis) is a chronic, typically progressive disease involving damage to the sheaths of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord, whose symptoms may include numbness, impairment of speech and of muscular coordination, blurred vision and severe fatigue. might want to avoid resveratrol anyway.)
  • Serrapeptase (also known as serratiopeptidase, Serratia E-15 protease, serralysin, serratiapeptase, serratia peptidase, serratio peptidase, or serrapeptidase). This proteolytic enzyme (protease) has been taken occasionally by one TTOthe ova (eggs) of the human whipworm, Trichuris trichiura host two or three times per day over a 4 year period to treat intestinal spasm, without affecting her worms. [238] [239]
  • Spirulina. This cyanobacterium is an effective anti-inflammatory that is being used by a number of hosts of human helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] without causing any harm to their worms.
  • Taurine is an organic acid that occurs naturally in food, especially seafood and meat (in which form it is no threat to helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths]) but it is also produced synthetically and included in a number of products such as health drinks. In this form, it has been linked to a number of health problems, and has consequently been banned in some countries. It has also been shown to have anthelminthic effects, but only against a non-therapeutic helminth in mice.
  • Zinc is said to inhibit the proliferation of intestinal parasites by stimulating various aspects of the immune system in the digestive tract that counteract parasites. In one animal study[240] the rodent nematodeA category of worms with slender, unsegmented, cylindrical bodies that include roundworms and threadworms. worm, H. polygyrus, was found to be better able to survive in mice which had been deliberately made deficient in zinc. Those who claim that zinc is an effective antiparasitic in humans suggest a dosage of 15-50 mg per day, but several helminth hosts have taken supplements containing this amount of zinc, in some cases continuously, without issue. One hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. host takes 10 mg on alternate days, [241],[242] another has taken 15 mg zinc gluconate or zinc picolinate daily for several years, while yet another has taken 23 mg zinc gluconate/citrate plus 18.75 mg zinc acetate daily, and previously took 30mg zinc picolinate daily[243], all without any adverse effect on their worms. However, ❌zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) have shown strong anthelmintic potential, in vitro, against at least one helminthic parasite encountered in veterinary medicine. Zinc oxide nanoparticles are already in use in sunscreens, cosmetics and some food products (in spite of the fact that they an can cause DNA damage), but the amounts in these applications may be too small to harm helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths].
  • Vitamin A. Supplementation with this vitamin has no adverse effect on helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] [244] but a vitamin A deficiency may reduce colonisation by worms. [245]
  • Xuezikhang, a red yeast rice product, appears to be harmless to hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin.. [246]

Spices and culinary herbs

  • Asafoetida has been used as an anthelminthic in traditional medicine in several parts of the world [247] but there has only been one report to date of its use by someone hosting therapeutic helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths], and this user says that he hasn’t noticed any ill effect on his hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. after occasionally consuming foods that list asafoetida as an ingredient.
  • Black pepper (Piper nigrum). This is often used as an ingredient in proprietary parasite cleanses due to its established antiparasitic effects. It could therefore have an adverse effect on human helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths], though this is likely to be dependent on the dosage and on the form taken. So, while use of the whole spice in small quantities as a condiment is unlikely to present a problem, taking medicinal quantities of black pepper may harm helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths].
  • Cayenne (Capsicum frutescens, Capsicum annuumis). This is claimed to irritate parasites, and often appears as an ingredient in proprietary parasite cleansing products for pets and humans, but there has only been one report so far of an adverse effect on helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths], and this was from someone who says that even a smidgen of cayenne causes her to lose the benefits from her worms. [248]
  • Chili pepper (chile, chilli). While this is used worldwide as a treatment of certain parasites, and has been demonstrated effective against fascioliasis in animals, evidence that chili might be a problem for therapeutic helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] is lacking, and one hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. host has been reported[249] to have eaten a HUGE amount of chile during 4 years as a worm host, without any obvious adverse effect on his colony.
  • Cinnamon is antimicrobial, as well as being claimed to be effective against parasites, including some parasitic worms, and it appears in lists of ingredients in proprietary parasite cleansing products. The main antimicrobial component of cinnamon is ⚡cinnamaldehyde, and this is most concentrated in cinnamon essential oil and cinnamon oleoresins (solid resin extracts produced using solvents) which can be very high in cinnamaldehyde. Forms containing somewhat less cinnamaldehyde are raw cinnamon, and cinnamon tinctures which are dissolved in alcohol and about half the strength of raw cinnamon. As cinnamaldehyde is steam-volatile and not water soluble, aqueous extracts of cinnamon should contain less of this substance, and dehydrated/powdered extracts (the form most likely to be encountered in dietary supplements) may contain little, if any at all, so should be less of a threat to helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths]. Generally, the stronger the taste, the more cinnamaldehyde is likely to be present. Whilst there has been one report of someone with helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] relapsing after taking an unspecified supplement containing cinnamon, the raw spice should be safe for use in cooking.
  • Clove (Syzygium aromaticum/Eugenia caryophyllus). Clove oil, which was used traditionally to kill intestinal worms and is claimed to anesthetize fish, contains several powerful antimicrobial agents. While one of these, eugenol, is claimed to be anthelminthic, its use didn't produce any loss of benefit in one helminth host who applied it liberally to a dry socket following a difficult tooth extraction, and this was in spite of swallowing and breathing eugenol and a related compound called guaiacol.
  • Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare). Fennel seed has a long history of use against pinworms and other parasites, with some authorities suggesting that the herb digests parasite eggs and intoxicates parasites. The leaves and oil are both used as dewormers, but one subject reports no adverse effect from repeated consumption of dietary amounts of fennel seeds and another has reported no loss of worm benefits after consuming significant quantities of fennel.
  • Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum). Both the leaves and seeds of fenugreek have been reported to have anthelminthic properties, and alcoholic extracts of the seeds have shown a dose-dependant inhibition of motility (paralysis) in earthworms. [250] However, one hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. host has eaten about 150 grams of fenugreek leaves in a 2 week period without affecting his worms. [251]
  • ✅ Garlic (Allium sativum). Garlic compounds have demonstrated anthelminthic activity against flatworms in mice, [252] garlic oil extract has shown anthelminthic effects against Schistosoma mansoni in mice [253] and allicin, the active principle of garlic extract, has also been shown to have anthelminthic properties, although one hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. host has reported that taking a stabilized allicin extract for several weeks did not kill her worms. [254] Alcoholic extracts of garlic have also shown ‘moderate’ anthelmintic activity against the human roundworm, AscarisA species of helminth that is unsuitable for helminthic therapy, e.g., [[Ascaris lumbricoides | Ascaris lumbricoides]]. lumbricoides, in test tube studies[255]. However, the exact amount of garlic needed to kill intestinal parasites in humans has not been established. Some sources suggest 1,000 - 4,000 mg per day, using concentrated garlic capsules or tablets, and fresh garlic is said to be more effective than capsules. While chewing three cloves of garlic each day is recommended by some online sources as a treatment for ‘parasites’ in humans, hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. may in fact be able to withstand up to 21 grams (approximately 10 cloves) of garlic per day. So garlic may actually not be very effective as a killer of mature worms, and its main anthelminthic effect may be to reduce the viability of ova. Cooking may reduce its effect against parasite eggs and larvaeThe active immature form of an insect, or an animal such as a helminth, which develops from an egg and eventually transforms again into its adult state., and neither cooked or raw garlic appears to have any adverse effect on the efficacy of a therapeutic hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. colony.

  • Ginger (Zingiber officinale) contains a chemical called zingibain (aka. zingipain, or ginger protease) that has been claimed to dissolve some parasites and their eggs. One subject has reported that fresh ginger drinks depress the egg production of his worms and increase his symptoms, and another has reported that eating a LOT of ginger 6 weeks post-inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation] caused her side effects to disappear for a few days, but that these eventually returned. [256] Someone else, who said that his favorite brand of ginger beer was “pretty spicy”, so was probably made from raw, or only very briefly pasteurized, ginger juice, reported that, after going on a fairly significant binge of the stuff, his worms stopped producing eggs and their benefits diminished. Yet another worm host, who was putting at least a thumb-sized piece of fresh ginger in a smoothie every day, believes this was responsible for actually killing her hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin.. However, one subject has reported eating lots of fresh ginger (mostly cooked) without any problems [257], two others have reported that eating cooked ginger appears to have had no adverse effect on their worms [258], [259] and one hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. host says that she regularly takes dried ginger in 1g doses to help with migraines and has not noticed any problems with her worms. [260]
  • Holy basil (Ocimum tenuiflorum, also known as Ocimum sanctum, tulsi and tulasi/thulasi) is claimed online to be antiparasitic. There is also evidence showing that its essential oil has potent anthelmintic activity against the research worm, C. elegans, [261] and it has shown some activity against the malaria parasite, [262] but this does not necessarily mean that it would harm therapeutic helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths]. Eating the raw plant, or drinking tea made from it, may be harmless to human helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths], and one host of both hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. and human whipwormsA helminth with a tapering whiplike body that lives in the colon. In helminthic therapy, the microscopic eggs of either the human Trichuris trichiura (TTO) or pig Trichuris suis (TSO) are taken in a drink. has reported that she used to drink the tea and eat fresh leaves without issue. [263] However, extracts, tinctures and concentrates of holy basil should be treated with caution.
  • Horseradish (Amoracia rusticana) has been claimed to be antiparasitic, and it does contain volatile oils, notably mustard oil, which has antibacterial properties and is used as an antiparasitic by some farmers, but evidence about the effects of its use by helminth hosts is lacking.
  • Mustard. This condiment is claimed to be effective against intestinal worms, including roundworms and threadworms and, in India, mustard oil is used as an antiparasitic by some farmers. However, its action is probably more as a laxative that helps to flush out worms rather than to kill them, and hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. spend much of their time firmly attached to the gut mucosa. Reports about the use of mustard by helminth hosts are lacking.

  • Oregano leaf (Origanum vulgare). One host of both hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. and whipwormsA helminth with a tapering whiplike body that lives in the colon. In helminthic therapy, the microscopic eggs of either the human Trichuris trichiura (TTO) or pig Trichuris suis (TSO) are taken in a drink. has reported that there was no immediate effect on his worms when he applied a heavy sprinkling of oregano leaf powder to his food a couple of times in a day. But then he was plunged into such a self-critical and depressed mood that he struggled to do any work for several days, before eventually regaining his usual mental balance. ❌Oregano oil, which contains isomeric phenols (primarily carvacrol but also including thymol and limonene), can destroy a number of bacteria, fungi and viruses in dilutions as low as 1/50,000, and is also antiparasitic. It is reported to be effective against protozoan parasites in particular as well as roundworm larvaeThe active immature form of an insect, or an animal such as a helminth, which develops from an egg and eventually transforms again into its adult state., and somewhat effective against tapewormsA helminth with a flat, ribbon-like, segmented body. Only the murine (rat) tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta, is used in helminthic therapy and this generally does not reach adulthood in humans so requires regular dosing of HDC.. In one study[264], 57 per cent of adults with intestinal parasites who were treated with 600 mg of oregano oil daily for six weeks experienced total eradication of their parasites. Several hosts of therapeutic helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] have reported adverse effects on their worms after ingesting oregano oil and, in at least two cases, it resulted in a total loss of worms. However, one subject, who took oil of wild oregano sublingually twice each day for 2 weeks had a stool test sometime after this that was positive for hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin., so perhaps the sublingual route helped reduce the effect on the worms in this case. Some foods, particularly soft cheeses, may be coated with an antimicrobial film incorporating oregano oil to increase their lifespan, but the amount of oregano involved in this application is unlikely to be a serious threat to helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths].
  • Thyme (Thymus vulgaris). This is also known as Common Thyme, Garden Thyme. Extracts of the leaves, flowering tops and stems are used to kill hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin., roundworms, threadworms and skin parasites. However, these are unlikely to harm helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] when eaten in reasonable amounts as part of a normal diet. One helminth host has eaten significant quantities of thyme without noticing any adverse effect on her hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. or whipwormA helminth with a tapering whiplike body that lives in the colon. In helminthic therapy, the microscopic eggs of either the human Trichuris trichiura (TTO) or pig Trichuris suis (TSO) are taken in a drink. populations.
  • Turmeric (Curcuma longa), also known as tumeric or ⚡curcumin. Turmeric generally does not harm human helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] when eaten occasionally in normal dietary quantities in its natural, whole form, which only contains 3% of the active ingredient, curcumin. [265], [266] There has only been one report of food quantities of turmeric affecting hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. [267] and the more usual response is exemplified by another hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. host who was able to take 350 mg in a supplement daily for many months, as well as eating a reasonable amount in her diet, without any problems. There is much more chance of helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] being harmed when curcumin is taken medicinally as a standardised extract, and it has been reported that 300 mg of the extract has killed some types of parasites in test tube and animal studies, and that it may temporarily reduce the number of helminth eggs produced. One hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. host believes[268] that she may have lost her colony as a result of taking a curcumin supplement, although another hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. host has reported[269] experiencing a very enjoyable “bounce” after inoculating with only 5 larvaeThe active immature form of an insect, or an animal such as a helminth, which develops from an egg and eventually transforms again into its adult state., in spite of taking 250 mg of curcumin daily. Yet another subject has reported[270] taking 500 mg of curcumin daily for the first 5 days after inoculationThe introduction of an infectious agent into an organism. [http://helminthictherapywiki.org/wiki/index.php/Helminth_inoculation Helminth inoculation] without doing any apparent harm to her new colony of 30 NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus larvaeThe active immature form of an insect, or an animal such as a helminth, which develops from an egg and eventually transforms again into its adult state., although they may have been protected at this stage in their development because they would not yet have been feeding from their host’s blood. The effect of curcumin may depend to some extent on the strength of the individual host’s immune response, as well as on the form of curcumin used. Nano-emulsified curcumin appears to be more effective, therapeutically, so may also have an increased impact on helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths]. Another high-potency form of curcumin is BCM-95, which has been shown[271] to be 6.93 times more bioavailable than normal curcumin, and this product may have been responsible for a sudden return of disease symptoms for one hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. host. The beneficial effect of curcumin can be increased 5- to 10-fold by adding ascorbic acid (vitamin C) so taking this vitamin along with curcumin might increase its adverse effect on helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths], but may also make it possible to use curcumin therapeutically in much smaller doses.
  • Turmeric, Wild (Curcuma aromatica). While alcoholic extracts of the rhizomes of wild turmeric have shown ‘moderate’ anthelmintic activity against the human roundworm, AscarisA species of helminth that is unsuitable for helminthic therapy, e.g., [[Ascaris lumbricoides | Ascaris lumbricoides]]. lumbricoides, in test tube studies and extracts of the rhizomes may therefore also have an adverse effect on other helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths], it is likely that consuming dietary amounts of this spice will do no harm to human helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths], though this has not yet been confirmed.

Herbs

The majority of the herbs listed below have been reported, or claimed, to be antiparasitic, although clinical evidence for this effect is lacking in many cases. Furthermore, where they are indeed antiparasitic, herbs may be more effective against types of parasite other than helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths], although this is not to say that they may not also have some detrimental effect on helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths].

Where a herb is effective against helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths], quite large quantities may be required to dislodge or kill the worms, but consuming some of these herbs on a regular basis, or in the form of concentrates, extracts, tinctures and oils that are directed at the gastrointestinal tract may weaken therapeutic helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths], making them less effective.

Many of the herbs listed below are used to treat a number of conditions in addition to parasite infections, so might be encountered in a range of herbal remedies. It may therefore be advisable for any helminth host who contemplates taking any herbal remedy to check its ingredients against the list below and, where an ingredient appears to have antiparasitic properties, to seek an alternative, if possible.

When taking herbs, an additional risk arises from the fact that the majority of herbal products contain unlisted ingredients, in view of which it would seem wise to employ a cautious approach with all herbal products.

List of herbs

  • Acacia. Also known as thorntree, whistling thorn, or wattle. One example of this genus of shrubs and trees, (Acacia mearnsii, previously known as Acacia molissima) contains tannin extracts that have been found to have an anthelmintic effect on Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis in lambs. For a more detailed consideration of the possible effects of tannins on nematodesA category of worms with slender, unsegmented, cylindrical bodies that include roundworms and threadworms., see this paper: Abstract Full text.
  • Albizia lebbeck. Alcoholic extracts of the bark of Albizia lebbeck have shown ‘moderate’ anthelmintic activity against the human roundworm, AscarisA species of helminth that is unsuitable for helminthic therapy, e.g., [[Ascaris lumbricoides | Ascaris lumbricoides]]. lumbricoides, in test tube studies[272], so extracts of the bark may also have an adverse effect on other helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths].
  • Aloe vera. This contains an antimicrobial agent, saponin, and the laxative chemical, aloin. Aloe is perhaps the best known laxative in history, and it may be this, rather than any actual anthelminthic property, that is the source of its reputation for expelling parasites. While extracts have been reported as showing inhibitory effects on two roundworm species, these only affected the hatching of eggs and the development of larval stages. One aloedrinking helminth host has reported that his habit has had no obvious detrimental effect on his worms, and another hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. host failed to notice any adverse effects after drinking pure aloe juice or gel daily for a week or two, or after drinking one of the 16oz sweetened/flavored drinks. [273]
  • Alpinia calcaratta. Alcoholic extracts of the rhizomes of Alpinia calcaratta have shown ‘moderate’ anthelmintic activity against the human roundworm, AscarisA species of helminth that is unsuitable for helminthic therapy, e.g., [[Ascaris lumbricoides | Ascaris lumbricoides]]. lumbricoides, in test tube studies[274] so extracts of the rhizomes may also have an adverse effect on other helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths].
  • Alpinia galanga. Alcoholic extracts of the rhizomes of Alpinia galanga have shown ‘good’ anthelmintic activity against the human roundworm, AscarisA species of helminth that is unsuitable for helminthic therapy, e.g., [[Ascaris lumbricoides | Ascaris lumbricoides]]. lumbricoides, in test tube studies[275] so extracts of these rhizomes may also have an adverse effect on other helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths].
  • Andrographis paniculata. Alcoholic extracts of Andrographis paniculata have shown ‘good’ anthelmintic activity against the human roundworm, AscarisA species of helminth that is unsuitable for helminthic therapy, e.g., [[Ascaris lumbricoides | Ascaris lumbricoides]]. lumbricoides, on test tube studies[276] so these extracts may also have an adverse effect on other helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths].
  • Anise (Pimpinella anisum). Also known as aniseed. Anise oil may have modest antiparasitic effects and has been recommended by some practitioners as a treatment for mild intestinal parasite infections, but there have not been any reports about this from helminth hosts.
  • Arecoline. This odourless oily liquid derived from the areca nut, fruit of the areca palm (Areca catechu), has long been used medicinally as an anthelminthic.
  • Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera). Also known as Indian ginseng, poison gooseberry, and winter cherry. A user of Applied Kinesiology has reported a negative response when testing ashwagandha in an HThelminthic therapy user, but no other adverse reports have come to light so far.
  • Balmony (Chelone glabra) A decoction or tincture prepared with all parts of the plant is said to be a highly effective remedy for parasites, including intestinal worms. It was used traditionally by Native Americans to expel worms and is used today in proprietary parasite cleansing preparations.
  • Barberry (Berberis vulgaris) contains ⚡berberine.
  • Beleric (Terminalia bellirica/Terminalia bellerica). Also known as bastard myrobalan or Bahera. This herb is said to be anthelmintic, but this reputation may be due more to its laxative properties than any actual worm-killing potential.
  • Berberine is an amebicide which, in concentrated form, has been shown to kill various parasites such as tapewormsA helminth with a flat, ribbon-like, segmented body. Only the murine (rat) tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta, is used in helminthic therapy and this generally does not reach adulthood in humans so requires regular dosing of HDC. and giardia and to have anti adhesive effects which prevent pathogens from adhering to intestinal mucosal cells.
  • Bidens alba has been reported as not being a problem for helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths].
  • Bitter cumin (Centratherum anthelminticum). As its Latin name suggests, the seeds of this member of the daisy family are considered anthelminthic.
  • Bitter melon (Momordica charantia) is used as a folk medicine to treat gastrointestinal diseases, and extracts have shown activity against the nematodeA category of worms with slender, unsegmented, cylindrical bodies that include roundworms and threadworms. worm C. elegans in test tube studies[277].
  • Black walnut (Juglans nigra). Also known as eastern black walnut. This nut has been claimed to be one of the best overall dewormers for humans, killing both the adult and developmental stages of at least 100 parasites. However, according to the American Cancer Society, available scientific evidence does not support claims that the hulls of the black walnut remove intestinal parasites. Although this nut has a strong flavour, it is actually quite rare, as its shell is hard and difficult to remove. It is therefore only likely to be encountered in expensive baked goods. Most commercially available walnuts are hybrids of the ✅English walnut.
  • Boswellia is a fragrant resin, extracts of which are used in pharmacology, particularly as anti-inflammatories. There have been no suggestions that boswellia might be a problem for helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths], and its anti-inflammatory action could be supportive of the beneficial effects that helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] produce, as demonstrated in Crohn’s disease in this study[278].
  • Calamus/Sweet Flag (Acorus calamus) The bitter element in sweetflag, acorin, is claimed to have anthelminthic properties, and the standardised rhizome extract of A. calamus has been shown to have significant dose-dependent effects against the rat tapewormA helminth with a flat, ribbon-like, segmented body. Only the murine (rat) tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta, is used in helminthic therapy and this generally does not reach adulthood in humans so requires regular dosing of HDC., Hymenolepis diminutaA murine (rat) tapeworm used in helminthic therapy that generally does not mature in humans and is taken as cysticerci (HDC) in a drink every 2 or 3 weeks., so may also harm other helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths]. [279]
  • Castor oil. This will not kill helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths], though it may help to expel worms after eradication, and this is probably the reason for its antiparasitic reputation and it's use in para-cleanse products.
  • Cat’s Claw is a common name for several plants but it appears to be applied particularly to two species - Uncaria tomentosa (samento), most commonly used in the US, and Uncaria guianensis, typically used in Europe. Medicines made from the root and bark of these species have been claimed online to facilitate the elimination of intestinal parasites, but WebMD states that there is insufficient evidence for its effectiveness against parasites, and there have been no reports so far from helminth hosts about these species causing problems for their worms.
  • Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus). This fungus is claimed, in several places online, to be effective against intestinal parasites, and it has been used for this purpose in the traditional folk medicine of Russia and Eastern Europe. One hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. host thinks this may have caused the failure of several inoculations.
  • Chaparral (Larrea tridentata). Some cultures customarily bathe with chaparral annually to eliminate skin parasites, but use of the leaves of Larrea species is not advised, due to the possibility of damage to the liver and kidneys.
  • Cinnamomum verum. This was previously known as ⚡C. zeylanicum and also referred to as ⚡"true cinnamon", ⚡Ceylon cinnamon or ⚡Sri Lanka cinnamon. Alcoholic extracts of the bark of ⚡C. verum have shown ‘good’ anthelmintic activity against the human roundworm, AscarisA species of helminth that is unsuitable for helminthic therapy, e.g., [[Ascaris lumbricoides | Ascaris lumbricoides]]. lumbricoides, in test tube studies[280] so extracts of the bark may also have an adverse effect on other helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths]. The spice, ⚡cinnamon is typically derived from related species within the genus, Cinnamomum.
  • Citrus decumana. Alcoholic extracts of the rind of Citrus decumana have shown ‘good’ anthelmintic activity against the human roundworm, AscarisA species of helminth that is unsuitable for helminthic therapy, e.g., [[Ascaris lumbricoides | Ascaris lumbricoides]]. lumbricoides, in test tube studies[281], so extracts of the rind may also have an adverse effect on other helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths]. Citrus decumana is a relative of the common ✅grapefruit (citrus paradisi) and, while commercially available forms of ⚡grapefruit seed extract have a potential to harm human helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] (due to the typical addition of synthetic adulterants), there is no evidence that the flesh of the grapefruit has any adverse effect on helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths].
  • Crocus sativus. Also known as autumn crocus and saffron crocus, this plant is best known for the spice saffron, which is produced from parts of the plant's flowers. Two important bioactive compounds of Crocus sativus (crocin and safranal), and some semi-synthetic derivatives of safranal, have been found to be effective against some types of parasite (Helicobacter pylori, the malaria parasite, plasmodium, and Leishmania). However, there have been no reports about their possible effects on therapeutic helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths].
  • Curled/Curly Mint (Mentha spicata variety crispii/Mentha crispa/Mentha crispata). This cultivar of Spearmint (Mentha spicata), and close relative of Peppermint (Mentha piperita) (see Peppermint reference), may be effective against giardia and amoeba infections, and may have anthelminthic properties. It is listed[282] on one website under, “herbs that your health care provider might consider using to treat intestinal parasites.”
  • Desmodium triflorum. Alcoholic extracts of Desmodium triflorum have shown ‘good’ anthelmintic activity against the human roundworm, AscarisA species of helminth that is unsuitable for helminthic therapy, e.g., [[Ascaris lumbricoides | Ascaris lumbricoides]]. lumbricoides, in test tube studies[283], so it’s extracts may also have an adverse effect on other helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths], possibly due to it containing a significant amount of a powerful psychedelic substance which might cause hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. to lose their grip and be expelled.
  • Echinacea. This is not a single plant but a genus containing several different species. In the case of medicinal products labelled as echinacea, these are likely to have been obtained from one or more of the following sources: E. purpurea, E. angustifolia or E. pallida. Such products may also be either extracts, or the expressed juice of, different plant organs (e.g., roots and leaves) resulting in different products having very different chemical compositions. However, there have been no reports of human helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] being harmed by taking any echinacea products. As the polysaccharides found in Echinacea purpurea roots have been shown to have anti-inflammatory effects, water extracts of these roots may be of benefit to helminth hosts who require a supplementary anti-inflammatory.
  • Erba ruggine (Ceterach officinarum) is listed[284] on one website under, “Herbals that may kill and expel worms.”
  • Frankincense (olibanum). This aromatic resin is used in incense and perfumes, and is obtained from trees in the Boswellia genus. There have been no reports about it having any effect on helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths].
  • Gentian root. The root and underground stem of Gentiana lutea (yellow gentian) are said to assist in expelling 'harmful organisms'. One subject has reported that taking a form of gentian in large quantity on a daily basis for sinus inflammation was responsible for the loss of his whipworms, although possibly not his hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin..
  • Ginkgo biloba. There has been one hint that ginkgo may have caused a mild reduction in hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. benefits, but this was by no means certain, and two other helminth hosts have reported taking ginkgo regularly with no apparent adverse effect on their worms. (Also see Anticoagulants.)
  • Goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis). This contains berberine.
  • Goosefoot (Chenopodium ambrosioides) is widely used to deworm animals, and the Japanese make a dewormer tea with the leaves. Goosefoot oil is a highly efficient anthelminthic, and extremely toxic. Human consumption of this herb has often produced strong side effects such as nausea and headaches, and even death in some cases.
  • Hagenia (Hagenia abyssinica). Also known as African redwood, brayera, cusso, hagenia, and kousso, hagenia has been used as a treatment for the pork tapewormA helminth with a flat, ribbon-like, segmented body. Only the murine (rat) tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta, is used in helminthic therapy and this generally does not reach adulthood in humans so requires regular dosing of HDC. (Taenia solium), but is often only partially effective in this case.
  • Haritaki (Terminalia chebula). Also known as Yellow Myrobalan, Chebulic Myrobalan, Kadukkai, Silikha, Himmej, Karakkaya and A-ru-ra. The fruits are reportedly anthelmintic, but this reputation may be due more to its laxative properties than any actual worm-killing potential.
  • Hydnocarpus wightiana. Alcoholic extracts of the seeds have shown ‘good’ anthelmintic activity against the human roundworm, AscarisA species of helminth that is unsuitable for helminthic therapy, e.g., [[Ascaris lumbricoides | Ascaris lumbricoides]]. lumbricoides, in test tube studies[285], so extracts of the seeds may also have an adverse effect on other helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths].
  • Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis). The leaf contains an essential oil with antiseptic properties that has been claimed to have anthelminthic effects, but, if eaten as a herb, hyssop is unlikely to harm helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths].
  • Ipecac, syrup of. Alkaloids in ipecac, including emetine, are reported to kill several types of parasite, particularly amoebae, but also pinworms and tapewormsA helminth with a flat, ribbon-like, segmented body. Only the murine (rat) tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta, is used in helminthic therapy and this generally does not reach adulthood in humans so requires regular dosing of HDC., although the amounts needed to produce these effects in humans are generally high and can lead to severe side effects. Emetine and the somewhat safer form, Dehydroemetine, are usually reserved for rare cases of people infected with amoebae who are not cured by using anti-amoeba drugs.
  • Juniper (Juniperus communis) is a very effective natural antibiotic which is also said to have deworming properties, notably against liver fluke, and is used to treat worm infestations in animals. Juniper is also used as the primary flavouring in gin, but there have been no reports of any harm coming to helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] as a result of drinking gin.
  • Kaempferia galanga. Alcoholic extracts of the rhizomes have shown ‘good’ anthelmintic activity against the human roundworm, AscarisA species of helminth that is unsuitable for helminthic therapy, e.g., [[Ascaris lumbricoides | Ascaris lumbricoides]]. lumbricoides, in test tube studies[286], so extracts of the rhizomes may also have an adverse effect on other helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths].
  • Kava/kava-kava (Piper methysticum). According to this report[287], the active ingredients in Kava tea (kavalactones) can create mild sedation without disrupting cognitive function, and can act as a muscle relaxant, with higher doses having an effect similar to that of a local anaesthetic. If Kava tea were to “relax” hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin., this might conceivably affect their ability to keep their grip on their host’s mucosa, which might lead to them being expelled, especially if the drink is taken in quantity or at higher strength.
  • Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) essential oil has shown anthelminthic activity against earthworms. However, one individual has consumed lemongrass tea without adverse effect on her hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. or whipwormA helminth with a tapering whiplike body that lives in the colon. In helminthic therapy, the microscopic eggs of either the human Trichuris trichiura (TTO) or pig Trichuris suis (TSO) are taken in a drink. colonies.
  • Liquorice/licorice, the root of Glycyrrhiza glabra. One hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. host has reported[288] taking “lots” of deglycyrrhizinated licorice (DGL) with no ill effect on his worms. Liquorice extracts may be useful as an adjunctive therapy for psoriasis, for colitis and possibly other autoimmune diseases, but excessive consumption of liquorice containing glycyrrhizin/glycyrrhizic acid may not be wise. The World Health Organization's recommended daily maximum for liquorice is 2 mg/kg.
  • Lippia nodiflora. Alcoholic extracts of this have shown ‘good’ anthelmintic activity against the human roundworm, AscarisA species of helminth that is unsuitable for helminthic therapy, e.g., [[Ascaris lumbricoides | Ascaris lumbricoides]]. lumbricoides, in test tube studies[289], so these extracts may also have an adverse effect on other worms.
  • Male fern (Dryopteris filix mas). Also once known as worm fern! The rhizomes and young shoots (fiddleheads) of the male fern have antiparasitic properties and the root has been used to treat tapewormsA helminth with a flat, ribbon-like, segmented body. Only the murine (rat) tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta, is used in helminthic therapy and this generally does not reach adulthood in humans so requires regular dosing of HDC.. However, this herb is seldom used today due to its side effects (e.g. headaches and nausea) and because large doses are extremely poisonous and may induce liver damage. The North American equivalent of the male fern is the evergreen marginal shield-fern (Dryopteris marginalis).
  • Milk Thistle (Silybum marianum). Also known as cardus marianus, blessed milk thistle, Marian Thistle, Mary Thistle, Saint Mary's Thistle, Mediterranean milk thistle, variegated thistle and Scotch thistle. There have been no adverse reports about this herb from worm hosts, and there are no reasons to believe that it might harm human helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths].
  • Morinda citrifolia. Alcoholic extracts of the tender leaves of ⚡M. citrifolia have shown ‘good’ anthelmintic activity against the human roundworm, AscarisA species of helminth that is unsuitable for helminthic therapy, e.g., [[Ascaris lumbricoides | Ascaris lumbricoides]]. lumbricoides, in test tube studies[290], so the same extracts may also have an adverse effect on other helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths].
  • Mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris). Also known as Moxa, Common Wormwood, Traveler's Herb and Felon Herb, and a relative of wormwood (Artemisia Absinthium), mugwort is said to make short work of roundworms, pinworms and tapewormsA helminth with a flat, ribbon-like, segmented body. Only the murine (rat) tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta, is used in helminthic therapy and this generally does not reach adulthood in humans so requires regular dosing of HDC..
  • Myrrh. This has antiparasitic effects against various schistosome species and the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica.
  • Neem (Azadirachta indica). Ayurvedic medicine holds that Neem is the best herb for treating worms and other parasites and that a simple decoction of Neem leaves can kill all parasites present in the intestines. Neem extract has also been shown to be more effective against rodent helminths than standard chemotherapy with albendazole or mebendazole.
  • Nettle, stinging (Urtica dioica) Stinging nettle was found to have anthelminthic effects in one study [291] but this was carried out in vitro, using a nettle extract, and in a non-therapeutic worm (the Indian earthworm) so these findings are not directly applicable to humans using human-adapted helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths]. There have been no reports of any adverse effect on human helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] after their hosts have drunk nettle tea, and one hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. host has reported regularly eating nettles without issue. [292]
  • Noni (Morinda citrifolia, also known as great morinda, Indian mulberry, beach mulberry and cheese fruit). A test tube study[293] found that noni helps to eliminate the roundworm, AscarisA species of helminth that is unsuitable for helminthic therapy, e.g., [[Ascaris lumbricoides | Ascaris lumbricoides]]. lumbricoides, but, so far, no helminth hosts have reported using this.
  • Olive leaf extract (Olea europaea). Known as 'nature's antibiotic', this extract contains a component called oleuropein that is able to degrade pathological microorganisms of all kinds, and inhibit or kill many types of intestinal parasites including flatworms, hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin., roundworms and tapewormsA helminth with a flat, ribbon-like, segmented body. Only the murine (rat) tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta, is used in helminthic therapy and this generally does not reach adulthood in humans so requires regular dosing of HDC.. Two subjects have reported losing their helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] after taking this.
  • Oregon grape (Berberis aquifolium/mahonia aquifolium) contains berberine.
  • Palmarosa (Cymbopogon martinii). Also known as Indian geranium, gingergrass and rosha or rosha grass. This may kill helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths].
  • Passion flower (Passiflora). This will not harm helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths].
  • Pau D’arco (Handroanthus). Also known as poui and ipê. The root bark has antiparasitic effects.

  • Peppermint (Mentha piperita, aka M. balsamea Willd) is used as an ingredient in some antiparasitic preparations. Several helminth hosts have strongly suspected that peppermint oil killed their worms, and one found he could not establish a worm colony at all while taking peppermint oil. Even eating a lot of peppermints caused a return of disease symptoms for one hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. host. However, a number of others, who have used peppermint oil as a treatment for IBSIrritable bowel syndrome is a widespread condition involving recurrent abdominal pain and diarrhoea or constipation. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Irritable_Bowel_Syndrome Wikipedia:Irritable_Bowel_Syndrome], have noticed nothing untoward, and one subject has reported taking peppermint oil continuously without issue. Only the oil has been implicated. Eating ✅peppermint leaves, or drinking tea made from them, should not be a problem.
  • Pollia serzogonian. Alcoholic extracts of the rhizomes of ⚡P. serzogonian have shown ‘good’ anthelmintic activity against the human roundworm, AscarisA species of helminth that is unsuitable for helminthic therapy, e.g., [[Ascaris lumbricoides | Ascaris lumbricoides]]. lumbricoides, in test tube studies[294] so extracts of the rhizomes may also have an adverse effect on other helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths].
  • Pomegranate (Punica granatum). The rind of the pomegranate fruit is a traditional remedy for intestinal parasites, and alcoholic extracts of the rind have shown ‘moderate’ anthelmintic activity against the human roundworm, AscarisA species of helminth that is unsuitable for helminthic therapy, e.g., [[Ascaris lumbricoides | Ascaris lumbricoides]]. lumbricoides, in test tube studies[295], so these same extracts may have an adverse effect on other helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths]. However, ✅pomegranate seeds eaten in normal dietary amounts should not harm human helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths].
  • Quassia (Picrasma excelsa) has, anecdotally, been used successfully to treat threadworms and roundworms, as well as giardiasis, especially when used as an enema. It is a favoured botanical anthelminthic because of its low toxicity.
  • Rhodiola rosea. A hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. host has reported[296] regularly taking rhodiola without any adverse effect on his colony.
  • Rosemary has been reported not to be a problem for helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths].
  • Sage (Salvia officinalis) was used traditionally as a treatment for intestinal worms and some forms of sage are still often included as an ingredient in modern proprietary antiparasitic remedies. However, the use of sage leaves as a culinary herb may not pose a problem for helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths], but there has not yet been sufficient feedback to be certain about this. ⚡Sage oil is likely to be much more of a problem for helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths], and one helminth provider cautions against the use of any concentrated form of sage.
  • Santonin is extracted from the dry buds of the desert plant Eurasian wormwood (Artemisia cina). It acts against most parasites except Echinococcus, and is used to treat roundworms.
  • Saw palmetto (Serenoa repens). Also known simply as Serenoa, or Sabal serrulatum. One individual has reported an inability to maintain a hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. colony while taking this herb, but had success once the herb was discontinued.
  • Shilajit. One hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. host has taken this without any apparent adverse effect on his colony. [297]
  • Slippery elm (ulmus rubra). This is listed on at least one website[298] as a herb that may be helpful in treating various types of parasitic worms, including hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin., but the only report[299] so far was from a hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. host who said that she used a small amount of slippery elm powder on a few occasions without noticeably affecting her worms.
  • Southernwood (Artemisia abrotanum) This European flowering plant has demonstrated effects against some helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths]. It is also known as old man, boy's love, oldman wormwood, lover's plant, appleringie, garderobe, Our Lord's wood, maid's ruin, garden sagebrush, European sage, sitherwood and lemon plant. Spondias (Spondias mombin or Spondias purpurea var. lutea) This tropical fruit, which is also known as hog plums, Spanish plums, libas in Bikol, golden apples and mombins, may have anthelminthic effects.
  • St. John’s Wort (Hypericum perforatum). Some of the chemical constituents of hypericum might conceivably have an adverse effect on helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] if taken in isolation (e.g., hyperforin has demonstrated some antibacterial properties, and hypericin has shown both antibacterial and antiviral activity), but the whole, powdered herb is unlikely to present a serious risk to human helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths].
  • Sweet Annie (Artemisia annua). Also known as sweet wormwood, sweet sagewort and annual wormwood. Both the herb and the pure form of its active ingredient, the sesquiterpene lactone, artemisinin, have been used traditionally to treat malaria and intestinal parasites. Artemisinin is a potent anthelminthic and has been shown to be effective against schistosomes.
  • Tansy (Tanacetum vulgare) is highly toxic to internal parasites and, for centuries, tansy tea has been prescribed by herbalists to expel worms.
  • Tea tree oil (Melaleuca alternifolia) has been claimed to kill intestinal worms, including roundworms, tapewormsA helminth with a flat, ribbon-like, segmented body. Only the murine (rat) tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta, is used in helminthic therapy and this generally does not reach adulthood in humans so requires regular dosing of HDC. and hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin., though evidence for this is lacking. There are, however, hints that the use of tea tree products might have effects on those who are hosting helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths].
  • Tephrosia purpurea. Alcoholic extracts of ⚡T. purpurea have shown ‘good’ anthelmintic activity against the human roundworm, AscarisA species of helminth that is unsuitable for helminthic therapy, e.g., [[Ascaris lumbricoides | Ascaris lumbricoides]]. lumbricoides, in test tube studies[300], so these extracts may also have an adverse effect on other helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths].
  • Thymol, a monoterpene phenol found in oil of thyme and oregano oil, has antimicrobial and antifungal properties and is said to be highly effective against hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin.. It can also be toxic and has caused fatalities in children.
  • Usnea are lichen species with powerful antibiotic and antifungal properties. Usnea florida extract has been found to have a dose-dependent antihelminthic effect against the nematodeA category of worms with slender, unsegmented, cylindrical bodies that include roundworms and threadworms. worm, Trichinella spiralis.
  • Uva-ursi. (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi). One of several related species referred to as bearberry, uva-ursi contains the glycoside arbutin, which has antimicrobial properties. There are claims online that uva-ursi is also anthelminthic, but, so far, there have been no reports of its effect on therapeutic helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths].
  • Valerian (Valeriana officinalis). One hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. host has reported taking valerian tincture without noticing any interaction with her worms. [301]
  • Vasaka (Justicia adhatoda). Also known as Malabar Nut, Adulsa, Adhatoda and Vasa. From the same family as Adhatoda zeylanica. The leaves (which contain vasicine, an alkaloid with significant antimicrobial activity), root, bark, fruit, and flowers are all said to help in removing intestinal parasites.
  • Vitaxyn This alcoholic herbal concoction is unlikely to be a problem at the recommended dosage. An almost identical, but now discontinued, product, Tancosan, was taken by one hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. host for over 2 years without any obvious adverse effect on her worms.
  • Vitex agnus-castus. Also known as vitex, chaste tree, chasteberry, Abraham's balm, lilac chastetree and monk's pepper. One hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. host has taken 1000 mg of dried vitex agnus castus each day for many months without any noticeable ill effect on her worms. [302]
  • White walnut (Juglans cinerea). Also known as Butternut. This nut has been used to expel rather than kill worms, although both root bark and leaves have been used in combination with an equal amount of ❌Mugwort to treat worms in children.
  • Wild rue (Peganum harmala). Also known as Esfand, Syrian rue, African rue and harmal. Its powdered seeds were used traditionally to expel tapewormsA helminth with a flat, ribbon-like, segmented body. Only the murine (rat) tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta, is used in helminthic therapy and this generally does not reach adulthood in humans so requires regular dosing of HDC..
  • Wood betony (Stachys officinalis). Also known as betony, purple betony, bishopwort, or bishop's wort. A tea made from this may kill helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths].
  • Woodsorrel (Oxalis) has been reported[303] as not being a problem for worm hosts when eaten as a food.

  • Wormseed (Dysphania ambrosioides, formerly Chenopodium ambrosioides). Also known as epazote, goosefoot, Jesuit's Tea, Mexican Tea, Herba Sancti Mariae and paico. Wormseed is a traditional herbal remedy used in the tropics for expelling roundworms, hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. and tapewormsA helminth with a flat, ribbon-like, segmented body. Only the murine (rat) tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta, is used in helminthic therapy and this generally does not reach adulthood in humans so requires regular dosing of HDC.. The oil, leaves or whole plants can be used, but one study[304] found that the powdered herb did not effectively eradicate hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin., roundworms, or whipwormsA helminth with a tapering whiplike body that lives in the colon. In helminthic therapy, the microscopic eggs of either the human Trichuris trichiura (TTO) or pig Trichuris suis (TSO) are taken in a drink..
  • Wormwood (Artemisia Absinthium). Also known as common wormwood, green ginger or grand wormwood, this herb was used traditionally as an anthelminthic. Other members of the genus, artemisia, that were traditionally used as anthelminthics include white wormwood (Artemisia herba-alba) and Eurasian wormwood (Artemisia cina) - commonly known as santonica, Levant wormseed, and wormseed.
  • Yerba mate (also known as erva-mate). No adverse reports have appeared so far about the effect of this herb on human helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths], or of the beverage made from it, known as mate, maté, Chimarrão, cimarrón, Tererê or Tereré.
  • Zingiber zerumbet. Alcoholic extracts of the rhizomes of Z. zerumbet have shown ‘good’ anthelmintic activity against the human roundworm, AscarisA species of helminth that is unsuitable for helminthic therapy, e.g., [[Ascaris lumbricoides | Ascaris lumbricoides]]. lumbricoides, in test tube studies[305], so these extracts may also have an adverse effect on other helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths].


Miscellaneous

  • Diatomaceous earth. This is made from the fossilized remains of tiny, aquatic organisms called diatoms which are mined from ancient sea beds and ground into a fine powder to produce food grade or medical grade diatomite. The finer grade diatomites are used as an insecticide and are also employed to deworm pets and humans. They are believed to work by dehydrating the organism, although the sharp edges of the particles may also be damaging to tiny creatures. A daily dose of one heaped teaspoon of diatomaceous earth has been claimed to be effective for human worm control, and one helminth provider has cautioned against its use while hosting worms.
  • Clay (e.g., bentonite, kaolin) is claimed by some sources to be a natural parasite preventive that inhibits the reproduction of organisms, and one helminth provider at one time advised against its use while hosting worms. However, it is now thought much less likely to harm the human hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. and whipwormA helminth with a tapering whiplike body that lives in the colon. In helminthic therapy, the microscopic eggs of either the human Trichuris trichiura (TTO) or pig Trichuris suis (TSO) are taken in a drink. than it is tapewormsA helminth with a flat, ribbon-like, segmented body. Only the murine (rat) tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta, is used in helminthic therapy and this generally does not reach adulthood in humans so requires regular dosing of HDC., and it may in fact not have any adverse effect at all on human hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. and whipwormsA helminth with a tapering whiplike body that lives in the colon. In helminthic therapy, the microscopic eggs of either the human Trichuris trichiura (TTO) or pig Trichuris suis (TSO) are taken in a drink..
  • Fasting. This will not harm human helminths because they feed from their host’s blood (hookwormsA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin.), or from their tissue (whipwormsA helminth with a tapering whiplike body that lives in the colon. In helminthic therapy, the microscopic eggs of either the human Trichuris trichiura (TTO) or pig Trichuris suis (TSO) are taken in a drink.), rather than sharing what their host eats. This is in contrast to the rat tapewormA helminth with a flat, ribbon-like, segmented body. Only the murine (rat) tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta, is used in helminthic therapy and this generally does not reach adulthood in humans so requires regular dosing of HDC., Hymenolepis diminutaA murine (rat) tapeworm used in helminthic therapy that generally does not mature in humans and is taken as cysticerci (HDC) in a drink every 2 or 3 weeks. (HDCthe cysticercoids (larval cysts) of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta) which shares its host’s food as this passes along the intestine, and requires dietary carbohydrates to survive, so may be harmed by a prolonged fast.
  • Fever. Running a fever for several days will not harm helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths].
  • Hyperbaric oxygen. This is safe for use alongside helminthic therapyThe reintroduction of a controlled number of carefully selected benign intestinal worms in the form of larvae or eggs to reconstitute a depleted microbiome in order to treat or prevent chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease and other immunological disorders including allergy.. [307]
  • Ketosis is a metabolic state in which most of the body's energy supply comes from ketone bodies in the blood. This state is often induced deliberately by fasting or the adoption of a low-carbohydrate diet as a intervention in various medical conditions. One commenter has suggested that ketosis should not be harmful to helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] because, like fungi, they have mitochondria so can metabolise fat and therefore utilise ketones as a food source, unlike bacteria and viruses which require carbohydrates to survive. [308] For more on keptogenic diets, see here[309].
  • Rife machines. These devices are claimed to be capable of killing or "devitalizing" worms when set to 2,400 Hz. Therefore, assuming that they are able to do what is claimed (and this is a contentious issue) it would seem sensible to avoid this particular frequency if using these machines.
  • Steam. Saunas, hot tubs and hot baths do not harm helminthsAn intestinal worm which grows large enough to be seen with the naked eye when mature but which is microscopic when administered in helminthic therapy. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths Wikipedia:Helminths] because the body's core temperature remains relatively constant while the skin sweats.


SimpleHTLogo(18x18).gif Helminthic Therapy Wiki: documenting the science, management, experience and results of helminth replacement therapy.