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HDCthe cysticercoids (larval cysts) of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta

  • Rat tapewormA helminth with a flat, ribbon-like, segmented body. Only the murine (rat) tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta, is used in helminthic therapy and this generally does not reach adulthood in humans so requires regular dosing of HDC., Hymenolepis diminutaA murine (rat) tapeworm used in helminthic therapy that generally does not mature in humans and is taken as cysticerci (HDC) in a drink every 2 or 3 weeks..
  • Introduced for therapy in 2011. Sold as cysticercoids (HDCthe cysticercoids (larval cysts) of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta) and taken in a drink.
  • HDCthe cysticercoids (larval cysts) of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta do not colonise in the human host so you must repeat the dose every few weeks. HDCthe cysticercoids (larval cysts) of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta are very effective but do not keep as long as TSOthe ova (eggs) of the porcine (pig) whipworm, Trichuris suis.

TSOthe ova (eggs) of the porcine (pig) whipworm, Trichuris suis

  • Pig whipwormA helminth with a tapering whiplike body that lives in the colon. In helminthic therapy, the microscopic eggs of either the human Trichuris trichiura (TTO) or pig Trichuris suis (TSO) are taken in a drink., Trichuris suisThe porcine (pig) whipworm used in helminthic therapy and taken as microscopic eggs (TSO) in a drink every two weeks. (TSthe porcine (pig) whipworm, Trichuris suis)
  • Introduced for therapy in 2004. Sold as ova (TSOthe ova (eggs) of the porcine (pig) whipworm, Trichuris suis) and taken as a drink.
  • TSthe porcine (pig) whipworm, Trichuris suis do not colonise in the human host so you must repeat the dose every few weeks.

TTOthe ova (eggs) of the human whipworm, Trichuris trichiura

  • Human whipwormA helminth with a tapering whiplike body that lives in the colon. In helminthic therapy, the microscopic eggs of either the human Trichuris trichiura (TTO) or pig Trichuris suis (TSO) are taken in a drink., Trichuris trichiuraThe human whipworm used in helminthic therapy and taken periodically as microscopic eggs (TTO) in a drink. (TTthe human whipworm, Trichuris trichiura)
  • Introduced for therapy in 2009. Sold as ova (TTOthe ova (eggs) of the human whipworm, Trichuris trichiura) and taken in a drink.
  • Trichuris trichiuraThe human whipworm used in helminthic therapy and taken periodically as microscopic eggs (TTO) in a drink. colonises the human large intestine.

NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus

  • Human hookwormA helminth that lives in the small intestine. Necator americanus (NA) is the only hookworm species used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin., Necator americanusThe species of human hookworm used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. (NAthe human hookworm, Necator americanus)
  • Introduced for therapy in 2006. Sold as microscopic larvaeThe active immature form of an insect, or an animal such as a helminth, which develops from an egg and eventually transforms again into its adult state. which are applied to the skin.
  • Necator americanusThe species of human hookworm used in helminthic therapy. Its microscopic larvae are applied periodically to the skin. colonises the human small intestine.


Image Credits
Click through on the image for more information.
  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Image source: Thank you William Parker (Duke University School of Medicine). Used with permission
  2. Image source: Thank you Marc Dellerba & Don Donahue (www.biomerestoration.com) - Page ref. Used with permission.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Image source: Thank you Detlev Goj (Tanawisa). Used with permission.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Image source is currently unknown
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